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# PERAK STATE

MATHEMATICS
PROJECT WORK

2017

## PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Worksheet 1 : Lets coordinate!

PART 1.1

A simple equation like y = f(x) can be expressed beautifully as a graph on the Cartesian plane. This
awesome representation was made possible by a French mathematician.
Write an anecdote on the contributions and achievements of this famous mathematician.

PART 1.2

Games can be powerful tools that significantly boost personal development, learning
achievement and pupils success if the games are specially designed
to develop specific skills or concepts.

## Use simple materials to design a game based on coordinates.

Your design should include the following:
1. A suitable name for the game.
2. The mathematical concepts involved.
3. Rules of the game.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Worksheet 2 : Lets get into shape!

Quartz crystal has a beautiful geometrical shape. Follow the instructions below to build a model of
this beautiful crystal.
(a) Table 1 shows the coordinates of the vertices of two sets of triangles. Observe the pattern
shown and complete the table.

SET 1 SET 2
Triangle Coordinates of vertices Triangle Coordinates of vertices
A (0,1) (2,0) (2,2) P (5,0) (5,2) (7,1)

## C (0,5) (2,4) (2,6) R (5,4) (5,6) (7,5)

D S

E T

F U

TABLE 1
(b) Six rectangles, drawn on a Cartesian plane, are shown on page 3. On the Cartesian plane,
draw all the twelve triangles shown in Table 1 to complete the layout for the model of a
quartz crystal.
(c) Use the exact layout creatively to build the model.
[ The model built must be handed over to your teacher at the end of this project work. ]
(d) Calculate the total surface area, in cm2, of the model that you have built.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017
y
12

11

10

x
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Derive The Formula

A straight line joins point P ( x1 , y1 ) and point Q ( x2 , y2 ).
Derive the formula for the length of PQ.

## Use The Formula

Diagram 1 shows the only roads that connect Town A, Town B and Town C.

y ( km )

Town B

(5, 8)

J( 2 , 4 )

O x ( km )

(7,8) ( 11 , 8 )
Town A Town C

Diagram 1

Ali drives from Town A to visit his friends who stay in Town B and Town C. After the visit, he returns
to Town A.

## 2. A new straight road is to be built connecting Town C to either Town A or Town B.

Which new road should Ali prefer for the above journey? Explain.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Derive The Formula

A straight line joins point P ( x1 , y1 ) and point Q ( x2 , y2 ). Point X divides internally the line PQ in
the ratio m : n.
Derive the formula for the coordinates of X.
Hence, state the formula for the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ.

## Use The Formula

Diagram 2 shows three coconut trees planted on a piece of land drawn on a Cartesian plane.

y (m)

C(35 , 40)
B(5 , 30)

A( 10 , 10)
x (m)
o

Diagram 2

1. Salleh, the owner of the land, would like to plant another coconut tree in such a way the four
coconut trees are at the vertices of a parallelogram.
Where should Salleh plant the fourth coconut tree? Show your calculation.

2. Puteri, Sallehs wife, would like to plant two more coconut trees.

(a) One tree is to be planted between the coconut trees at locations B and C such that
the three coconut trees form a straight line. Further, the location of the tree is such
that its distance from C is three times its distance from B.
Where should Puteri plant the coconut tree?

(b) The other tree is to be planted 10 m away from the coconut tree at location A such
that this coconut tree and the two coconut trees at locations A and B form a straight
line.
Where should Puteri plant the coconut tree?

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Derive The Formula

A( x1 , y1 ) . B( x2 , y2 ) , C( x3 , y3 ) and D( x4 , y4 ) are the vertices of quadrilateral ABCD.
Derive the formula for the area of triangle ABC.
Hence, deduce the formula for the area of quadrilateral ABCD and state the condition required.

## Use The Formula

Diagram 3 shows a piece of land drawn on a Cartesian plane. This piece of land is owned by four
brothers.
y (km)

( 2 , 10 )

(8,6)

X

(0,2)

O x (km)
( 10 , 0 )
Diagram 3
The four brothers agreed to share this piece of land equally amongst themselves. They decide to
divide it into four triangular plots of equal areas as shown in Diagram 3.

## 2. Determine the coordinates of point X.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## State The Formula

1. A straight line passes through point A( x1 , y1 ) and point B( x2 , y2 ).
State the formula for the gradient of the straight line.

## 2. The gradients of two straight lines are m1 and m2 respectively.

State the condition for the two straight lines to be
(a) parallel,
(b) perpendicular.

## Use The Formula

Diagram 4 shows the map of a town drawn on a Cartesian plane.

y (km)
( 12 , 18 )

Police Station

(4,5 )

(3,2 )

Petrol Station x (km)
O (4,1 )

Fire Station

Diagram 4

Rita begins from location ( 12 , 18 ) and drives along a straight road which allows her to be always
equidistant from the police station and the fire station at any time.

By considering gradients only, determine the location on the road when Rita is nearest the petrol
station.

If Rita drives with an average speed of 80 km h 1, calculate the time, in minutes, she takes to reach
this nearest location.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## State The Formula

State the formula for finding the equation of a straight line given the following:
2. Gradient and one point on the line.
3. Two points on the line.
4. The x-intercept and the y-intercept.

## Use The Formula

Diagram 5 shows a nursery bed in the shape of an irregular pentagon drawn on a Cartesian plane.

y (m)

A( 0 , 5 )

C( 7 , 4 )

D (6 , 2 )

O x (m)
E( 3 , 0 )
Diagram 5

1
The gradients of boundaries AB and BC are and 1 respectively.
2
1. Find the equations of all the five boundaries of the nursery bed.
2. Calculate the area of the nursery bed by using two methods, one of which must be
integration.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

Worksheet 8 : Money-minded!

Diagram 6 is a map showing village P, village Q and a highway drawn on a Cartesian plane.

y (km)

Village Q

(8,7)

x (km)
O (4, 1 )

Village P

Diagram 6

1. A road junction is to be built along the highway connecting Village P and Village Q to the
highway. The equation of the highway is y = 2x + 1.
Determine the location of the road junction so as to minimize the construction cost.
Use two methods. [Drawing is not allowed but the use of EXCEL is recommended.]

2. A school is to be built as far away from the highway as possible and it must be 5 km from
each of the two villages P and Q.
Determine the location of the school by solving simultaneously
(a) two non-linear equations,
(b) one non-linear equation and one linear equation.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Worksheet 9.1 : Hello! Nice meeting you!

Define Concept
Point P ( x , y ) lies on a Cartesian plane.
Define the position vector of point P relative to the origin.

Guna Konsep
Three students, Johan, Kassim and Latif are jogging in a recreational park. Diagram 7 shows their
initial positions on a Cartesian plane.
y (m)
Student A

x (m)
O
Student C

Student B

Diagram 7

The position vectors of Johan, Kassim and Latif relative to the origin O are
,
and
respectively. It
4 t 9 2t 2 4t
is given that
= , = and
= where t is the time in seconds.
6 3t 4 t 4t 12

## (a) Identify the names of student A, student B and student C.

(b) Find the equation of the path taken by each of the three students.

(c) Determine whether Johan, Kassim and Latif will meet one another at a common location by using a
vector method.
If they meet, determine that location by using two methods, one of which must a vector method.
[ Drawing is not allowed.]

(d) If Vx and Vy are the horizontal and vertical velocities of a student respectively, express, for each
student, Vx and Vy in terms of i and j by using differentiation.
Hence, find the resultant velocity V of each student in the form x i + y j to determine who jogs the
fastest.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## Worksheet 9.2 : The grand line-up!

Three men, Sam, Paul and Martin, dressed in Spiderman outfit, are at a shopping complex to promote the
movie The Return of Spiderman III . Diagram 8 is a Cartesian plane showing their positions at a particular
time.
y

Sam
3

x
O
Paul

Martin

Diagram 8

The position vectors of Sam, Paul and Martin relative to the origin O are
,
and
respectively. It
2t 2 t 5 7 2t
is given that
= , = and
= 2 where t is the time in minutes.
6 t 9 t 2 t 5
3

(a) Find the coordinates of Paul and Martin when they are at the locations shown in Diagram 8.

(b) On the same axes, draw the loci of the three men.

(c) At a certain time, the positions of Sam, Paul and Martin lie on a straight line.
(i) Determine the time this situation happens.
Use two methods.
(ii) Find the equation of the straight line.
(iii) Find the ratio of the distance between Sam and Paul to the distance between Sam and
Martin at that time.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## 1. Diagram 9 shows a scale drawing of two parallelograms, A and B.

5 units

A B

5 units
13 units 13 units

Diagram 9

## (a) Copy the two parallelograms.

(b) On each parallelogram, draw suitable coordinate axes that will enable you to state the
coordinates of each vertex of the parallelogram easily.
(c) Hence, by considering integer coordinates only, calculate a possible area for each
parallelogram.

2. (a) Diagram 10 shows two straight lines, PQ and RS, intersecting at the origin O, and the line x =
2 drawn on a Cartesian plane.
x=2
y
P

R
x
O

S
Q
Diagram 10

## The gradients of PQ and RS are m1 and m2 respectively.

Show that m1 m2 = 1.

(b) Show that it is possible for the two lines 2x ( m + 1 )y = 5 and 3my = x 1 to be parallel
but impossible to be perpendicular.

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

## 3. Find the perpendicular distance of the point ( 8 , 3 ) from the line y = 2x 3.

4. A ( 1 , 7 ) and B ( 7 , 13 ) are two points on the Cartesian plane. Point P moves such that the product
of the gradients of PA and PB is always 1.
(a) Find the equation of locus P.
(b) The x-coordinate of point Q is 2 and it lies on the locus of P.
Calculate the area of triangle AQB in two ways.

5. Point P moves on a Cartesian plane such that it is always at a constant distance from point
C ( 0 , 12 ). Diagram 11 shows part of the locus of point P which passes through point A ( 8 , 8 ) and
point B ( 4 , 4 ).
y

C( 0 , 12 )
Locus of P
A( 8 , 8 )

B( 4 , 4 )

x
O
Diagram 11
(a) Find the equation of locus P.
(b) Calculate the area of the shaded region.

6. During the cold season, the thickness of a sheet of ice in a lake is 1.5 m. When the weather gets
warmer, the sheet of ice melts at a constant rate. After 2 weeks, the thickness of the sheet of ice is
1.2 m.
(a) If y is the thickness, in m, of the sheet of ice after x weeks, express y in terms of x.
(b) Sketch the graph of y against x.
(c) How many weeks are needed for the sheet of ice to melt completely?

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PERAK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT Additional Mathematics Project Work YEAR 2017

Worksheet 11 : Reflection

There are many more topics in the Additional Mathematics syllabus that involve the use of coordinates.
Coordinates are just amazingly useful in many branches of mathematics! In this project work, you have the
experience of using coordinates to solve just a few problems. But as John Dewey, the renowned educationist,
said:

## We do not learn from experience. We learn from reflecting on experience.

So, reflect creatively on this awesome aspect of coordinate geometry. Poems, songs, doodle art .. are
just some suggestions of creativities for you to consider.

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