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SRM UNIVERSITY

RAMAPURAM CAMPUS

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINNEERING

SUBJECT : MICROPROCESSORS AND MICROCONTROLLERS

SUBJECT CODE : 15CS205J SEMESTER : VI

CLASS : III CSE HOURS/WEEK : 2 HOURS

EX. NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENTS

Sl. No. Description of experiments

Assembly Language Programs Using TASM/TASM

Program involving Arithmetic Instructions on 16 bit data


1 i. Addition & Subtraction
ii. Multiplication & Division
iii. Factorial of a given number
Program involving Data Transfer Instructions on 16 bit data
2
i. Byte and Word data transfer in different addressing modes
ii. Block Data Transfer
Program involving Bit Manipulation Instructions on 16 bit data -Given data is
3 positive or negative

Implementation of Bubble Sort Algorithm


4

5 Program involving String Instructions on 16 bit data

i. Reverse a given string and check whether it is a palindrome


ii. String Display using Display Interrupt (Read your name from the
keyboard and displays it at a specified location on the screen after the

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message What is your name? You must clear the entire screen before
display)

Time display using Interrupt (Read the current time from the system and
6. display it in the standard format on the screen)

. Basic 8051 programming using C


Port Programming
7

Timer-Counter Programming
8

Serial Programming
9

Interrupt Programming
10

PREPARED BY: APPROVED BY,

V.PRAVEENA (HOD / CSE)

INTRODUCTION TO TASM
Introduction:

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The aim of this experiment is to introduce the student to assembly language
programming and the use of the tools that he will need throughout the lab
experiments. This first experiment let the student use the Dos Debugger and the
Microsoft Turbo Assembler (TASM). Editing, Assembling, Linking, Execute up can be
done using TASM software
Overview:
In general, programming of microprocessor usually takes several iterations before
the right sequence of machine code instruction is written. The process, however is
facilitated using a special program called an Assembler. The Assembler allows the
user to write alphanumeric instructions. The Assembler, in turn, generates the desired
machine instructions from the assembly language instructions.
Assembly language programming consists of following steps:
Assembling the program:
The assembler is used to convert the assembly language instructions to machine code.
It is used immediately after writing the Assembly language program. The assembler
starts by checking the syntax or validity of the structure of each instruction in the
source file .if any errors are found, the assemblers displays a report on these errors
along with brief explanation of their nature. However If the program does contain any
errors ,the assembler produces an object file that has the same name as the original
file but with the obj extension
Linking the program:
The Linker is used convert the object file to an executable file. The executable file is the
final set of machine code instructions that can directly be executed by the
microprocessor. It is the different than the object file in the sense that it is self-
contained and re-locatable. An object file may represent one segment of a long
program. This segment can not operate by itself, and must be integrated with other
object files representing the rest of the program ,in order to produce the final self-
contained executable file

STEPS PROCEDURE

1 Editing Source file

2 Assembling Object file

3 Linking Executable file

4 Execution Results

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Executing the program
The executable contains the machine language code .it can be loaded in the RAM and
executed by the microprocessor simply by typing, from the DOS prompt ,the name of
the file followed by the carriage Return Key (Enter Key). If the program produces an
output on the screen or sequence of control signals to control a piece of hard ware, the
effect should be noticed almost immediately. However, if the program manipulates data
in memory, nothing would seem to have happened as a result of executing the
program.
Procedure to enter a program using TASM software
Start

Run

Type CMD

Ok Display shows
C :\> D: (Change to D driven because TASM is in D drive)

Press ENTER

D :\> CD TASM

Press ENTER

D: \TASM> EDIT FILENAME.ASM Example edit sarada.asm

Press ENTER

Then the display shows editor

Type the asm program

Then the save the program (Use Alt+F keys to appear the option window)

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Exit from editor Using Alt+F keys

Then Display shows D: \TASM>

Enter the name TASM FILENAME.ASM Example

D: \TASM> TASM sarada.asm Then Display shows Errors,(0)Warnings(0) If there is errors
correct them

Enter the name Tlink FILENAME.OBJ Example

D: \TASM> TLINK sarada.obj

Then the display shows Turbo Link Version 3.0

Enter the name TD FILENAME.EXE Example

D: \TASM> TD sarada.exe

Then the display shows Program has no symbol table Choose OK

RUN the Program using F9 Key or Select the RUN Option

See the data in Registers

See the data in Data segment Using Alt+F -View-Dump
Steps to use TASM
TASM:

1. TYPE IN NOTEPAD AND SAVE IT AS FILENAME.ASM(CLICK ALL FILES).


2. EDIT : EDIT FN.ASM
3. TASM FN.ASM
4. LINK FN.OBJ
5. DEBUG FN.EXE

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8086 PROGRAM:

ExNo:1 i) Program involving Arithmetic Instructions on 16 bit data-

Addition

AIM: To implement assembly language program for addition of two 16-bit numbers.

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

PROGRAM:

DATA SEGMENT
N1 DW 1234H
N2 DW 2134H
RES DW ?
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS: CODE, DS: DATA
START: MOV AX, DATA
MOV DS, AX
MOV AX, N1
MOV BX, N2
ADD AX, BX
MOV RES, AX
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

RESULT:
AX = 3368h

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ExNo:1 i) Program involving Arithmetic Instructions on 16 bit data -

Subtraction

AIM: To implement assembly language program for subtraction of two 16-bit numbers.

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

PROGRAM:
DATA SEGMENT
N1 DW 4444H
N2 DW 2121H
RES DW ?
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE, DS:DATA
START: MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
MOV AX,N1
MOV BX,N2
SUB AX,BX
MOV RES,AX
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

RESULT:
AX = 2323h

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ExNo:1 ii) Program involving Arithmetic Instructions on 16 bit data

Multiplication

AIM: To implement assembly language program for Multiplication of two 16-bit numbers.

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

PROGRAM:
ASSUME CS : CODE, DS : DATA
CODE SEGMENT
MOV AX, DATA
MOV DS, AX
MOV AX, OPR1
MUL OPR2
MOV RESLW, AX
MOV RESHW, DX
HLT
CODE ENDS
DATA SEGMENT
OPR1 DW 2000H
OPR2 DW 4000H
RESLW DW ?
RESHW DW ?
DATA ENDS
END
(DX)

Input:

OPR1 = 2000H
OPR2 = 4000H

Output:

RESLW = 0000H (AX)


RESHW = 0800H (DX)

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ExNo:1 ii) Program involving Arithmetic Instructions on 16 bit data

Division

AIM: To implement assembly language program for Division of two 16-bit numbers.

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

ASSUME CS : CODE, DS : DATA

CODE SEGMENT

MOV AX, DATA

MOV DS, AX

MOV AX, OPR1

DIV OPR2

MOV RESQ, AL

MOV RESR, AH

HLT

CODE ENDS

DATA SEGMENT

OPR1 DW 2C58H

OPR2 DB 56H

RESQ DB ?

RESR DB ?

DATA ENDS

END

Input:
OPR1 = 2C58H (DIVIDEND)
OPR2 = 56H (DIVISOR) Output: RESQ = 84H (AL) RESR = 00H (AH)

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ExNo:1 iii) Factorial of a given number

AIM: To implement assembly language program to find factorial of a given number

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
A DB 5
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME DS:DATA,CS:CODE
START:
MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
MOV AH,00
MOV AL,A
L1: DEC A
MUL A
MOV CL,A
CMP CL,01
JNZ L1
MOV AH,4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

Input: 5

Output: 0078H

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ExNo:2 i) Byte and Word data transfer in different addressing modes

AIM: To implement assembly language program for Byte and Word data transfer in different
addressing modes

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
DATA1 DB 23H
DATA2 DW 1234H
DATA3 DB 0H
DATA4 DW 0H
DATA5 DW 2345H,6789H
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA
START: MOV AX,DATA ; //Initialize DS to point to start of the memory
MOV DS,AX ; //set aside for storing of data
MOV AL,25H ; //copy 25H into 8 bit AL register
MOV AX,2345H ;// copy 2345H into 16 bit AX register
MOV BX,AX ;// copy the content of AX into BX register(16 bit)
MOV CL,AL ;// copy the content of AL into CL register
MOV AL,DATA1 ;// copies the byte contents of data segment memory
location DATA1 into 8 bit AL
MOV AX,DATA2 ;// copies the word contents of data segment memory
location DATA2 into 16 bit AX
MOV DATA3,AL ;// copies the AL content into the byte contents of data
;// segment memory location DATA3
MOV DATA4,AX ;//copies the AX content into the word contents of
;// data segment memory location DATA4
MOV BX,OFFSET DATA5 ;// The 16 bit offset address of DS memeory location
;// DATA5 is copied into BX
MOV AX,[BX] ; //copies the word content of data segment
;// memory location addressed by BX into
;// AX(register indirect addressing)
MOV DI,02H ;address element

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MOV AX,[BX+DI} ; copies the word content of data segment
;memory location addressed by BX+DI into
;AX(base plus indirect addressing)
MOV AX,[BX+0002H] ;copies the word content of data segment
;(16 bit)
MOV AL,[DI+2] ;register relative addressing
MOV AX,[BX+DI+0002H] ;copies the word content of data segment
;memory location addressed by BX+DI+0002H
;into AX(16 bit)
MOV AH,4CH ;Exit to DOS with function call 4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS ;Assembler stop reading
END START

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ExNo:2 ii) Block Data Transfer

AIM: To implement assembly language program for Block Data Transfer

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Block move (with and with out overlapping)

Without overlapping
Program:

DATA SEGMENT
X DB 01H,02H,03H,04H,05H ; Initialize Data Segments Memory Locations
Y DB 05 DUP(0)
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA
START:MOV AX,DATA ; Initialize DS to point to start of the memory
MOV DS,AX ; set aside for storing of data
MOV CX,05H ; Load counter
LEA SI,X+04 ; SI pointer pointed to top of the memory block
LEA DI,X+04+03 ; 03 is displacement of over lapping, DI pointed to
;the top of the destination block
Before execution
00
00
00
00
00
05
04
03
02
01

After execution
05
04

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03
02
01
05
04
03
02
01
Y,DI
X, SI

With Overlapping
Program:

DATA SEGMENT
X DB 01H,02H,03H,04H,05H ; Initialize Data Segments Memory Locations
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA
START:MOV AX,DATA ; Initialize DS to point to start of the memory
MOV DS,AX ; set aside for storing of data
MOV CX,05H ; Load counter
LEA SI,X+04 ; SI pointer pointed to top of the memory block
LEA DI,X+04+03 ; 03 is displacement of over lapping, DI pointed to
;the top of the destination block
UP: MOV BL,[SI] ; Move the SI content to BL register
MOV [DI],BL ; Move the BL register to content of DI
DEC SI ; Update SI and DI
DEC DI
DEC CX ; Decrement the counter till it becomes zero
JNZ UP
MOV AH,4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

DS Before execution
xx
xx

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xx
xx
xx
05
04
03
02
01
DI
SI
X
DS After execution
xx
xx
05
04
03
- 02
01
03
02
01
-

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ExNo:3 Program involving bit manipulation instruction

AIM: To implement assembly language program involving bit manipulation instruction If given data
is positive or negative

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
NUM DB 12H
MES1 DB 10,13,'DATA IS POSITIVE $'
MES2 DB 10,13,'DATA IS NEGATIVE $'
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA
START: MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
MOV AL,NUM;Move the Number to AL.
ROL AL,1;Perform the rotate left side for 1 bit position.
JC NEGA;Check for the negative number.
MOV DX,OFFSET MES1 ;Declare it positive.
JMP EXIT ;Exit program.
NEGA: MOV DX,OFFSET MES2;Declare it negative.
EXIT: MOV AH,09H
INT 21H
MOV AH,4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

Output: Data is positive


Positive Numbers: 00-7F
Negative numbers: 80-FF

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ExNo:4 Bubble sort using TASM

AIM: To implement assembly language program for Bubble Sort

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

Ascending Order:

DATA SEGMENT
arr db 5h,7h,6h,4h,10h,09h
len db $-arr
DATA ENDS
ASSUME CS:CODE , DS:DATA

CODE SEGMENT
start: mov ax,@data
mov ds,ax
mov cl,len
lp1: mov bx,cx
lea si,arr
lp2: mov al,[si]
inc si
cmp [si],al
jb lp3
xchg [si],al
mov [si-1],al
lp3: dec bx
jnz lp2
loop lp1
mov ah,4ch
int 21h

code ends
end start

Descending Order:

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DATA SEGMENT

STRING1 DB 99H,12H,56H,45H,36H

DATA ENDS

CODE SEGMENT

ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA

START: MOV AX,DATA

MOV DS,AX

MOV CH,04H

UP2: MOV CL,04H

LEA SI,STRING1

UP1:MOV AL,[SI]

MOV BL,[SI+1]

CMP AL,BL

JNC DOWN

MOV DL,[SI+1]

XCHG [SI],DL

MOV [SI+1],DL

DOWN: INC SI

DEC CL

JNZ UP1

DEC CH

JNZ UP2

INT 3

CODE ENDS

END START

ExNo:5 i) Reverse a given string and check whether it is a palindrome

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AIM: To implement assembly language program to check whether the string is a palindrome.

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
STR1 DB 'LIRIL'
LEN EQU $-STR1
STR2 DB 20 DUP(0)
;start of data segment
MES1 DB 10,13,'WORD IS PALINDROME$'
MES2 DB 10,13,'WORD IS NOT PALINDROME$'
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE,DS:DATA,ES:DATA
START: MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
MOV ES,AX
LEA SI,STR1
LEA DI,STR2+LEN-1
MOV CX,LEN
UP: CLD
LODSB
STD
STOSB
LOOP UP
LEA SI,STR1
LEA DI,STR2
CLD
MOV CX,LEN
REPE CMPSB
CMP CX,0H
JNZ NOTPALIN
LEA DX,MES1
MOV AH,09H
INT 21H
JMP EXIT
NOTPALIN: LEA DX,MES2
MOV AH,09H
INT 21H

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EXIT: MOV AH,4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

OUTPUT: WORD IS PALINDROME

ExNo:5 ii) Program to use DOS interrupt INT 21H function called for reading a
character from
keyboard, buffered keyboard input, display of character and string on console.

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AIM: To implement assembly language program to display a String

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
INKEY DB ?
BUF DB 20 DUP(0)
MES DB 10,13, ' SRM UNIVERSITY $'
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE , DS:DATA
START: MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
MOV AH,01H
INT 21H
;DOS function to read a character from keyboard ;with
echo. [AL = 8bit character]
MOV INKEY,AL ;Returns ASCII value of the pressed key.
MOV BUF,10
MOV AH,0AH
LEA DX,BUF
INT 21H
MOV AH,06H
MOV DL,'A'
INT 21H
MOV AH,09H
LEA DX,MES
INT 21H
MOV AH,4CH
INT 21H
CODE ENDS
END START

ExNo:6 Time display using Interrupt (Read the current time from the system and display it in
the standard format on the screen)

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AIM: To implement assembly language program to display a system time

APPARTUS: TASM Software, P.C.

Program:

DATA SEGMENT
HOUR DB ?
MIN DB ?
DATA ENDS
CODE SEGMENT
ASSUME CS:CODE, DS:DATA
DISCHAR MACRO CHAR
PUSH AX
PUSH DX
MOV DL,CHAR
MOV AH,02
INT 21H
POP DX
POP AX
ENDM
START: MOV AX,DATA
MOV DS,AX
CALL TIME
MOV AH,4CH
INT21H
TIME PROC NEAR
MOV AH,2CH ;function to read system time
INT21H
MOV HOUR,CH
MOV MIN,CL
CMP CH,12
JB DOWN
SUB CH,12
DOWN: MOV AL,CH
MOV AH,00H
AAM
MOV AX,3030H
DISCHAR AH

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DISCHAR AL
DISCHAR:
MOV AL,CL
MOV AH,00H
AAM
- 56 -
ADD AX,3030H
DISCHAR AH
DISCHAR AL
DISCHAR
CMP HOUR,12
JB AM
DISCHAR P
JMP DOWN1
AM: DISCHARA
DOWN1: DISCHARM
RET
TIME ENDP
CODE ENDS
END START

ExNo:7 Port Programming

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i)Write an 8051 C program to send values of 4 to +4 to port P1.

//Signed numbers
#include <reg51.h>
void main(void)
{
char mynum[]={+1,-1,+2,-2,+3,-3,+4,-4};
unsigned char z;
for (z=0;z<=8;z++)
P1=mynum[z];
}

ii)Write an 8051 C program to toggle bit D0 of the port P1 (P1.0)


50,000 times.
Solution:
#include <reg51.h>
sbit MYBIT=P1^0;
void main(void)
{
unsigned int z;
for (z=0;z<=50000;z++)
{
MYBIT=0;
MYBIT=1;
}
}

iii)Write an 8051 C program to toggle bits of P1 ports continuously with a 250 ms.

Solution:

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#include <reg51.h>
void MSDelay(unsigned int);
void main(void)
{
while (1) //repeat forever
{
p1=0x55;
MSDelay(250);
p1=0xAA;
MSDelay(250);
}
}
void MSDelay(unsigned int itime)
{
unsigned int i,j;
for (i=0;i<itime;i++)
for (j=0;j<1275;j++);
}

ExNo:8 Timer-Counter Programming

i) Write an 8051 C program to toggle only pin P1.5 continuously every


250 ms. Use Timer 0, mode 2 (8-bit auto-reload) to create the

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delay.

Solution:
#include <reg51.h>
void T0M2Delay(void);
sbit mybit=P1^5;
void main(void){
unsigned char x,y;
while (1) {
mybit=~mybit;
for (x=0;x<250;x++)
for (y=0;y<36;y++) //we put 36, not 40
T0M2Delay();
}
}
void T0M2Delay(void){
TMOD=0x02;
TH0=-23;
TR0=1;
while (TF0==0);
TR0=0;
TF0=0;
}

ii) Write an 8051 C program to create a frequency of 2500 Hz on pin


P2.7. Use Timer 1, mode 2 to create delay.

Solution:

#include <reg51.h>
void T1M2Delay(void);
sbit mybit=P2^7;
void main(void){
unsigned char x;
while (1) {
mybit=~mybit;
T1M2Delay();
}
}
void T1M2Delay(void){

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TMOD=0x20;
TH1=-184;
TR1=1;
while (TF1==0);
TR1=0;
TF1=0;
}

ExNo:9 Serial Programming

Write a program for the 8051 to transfer letter A serially at 4800

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baud, continuously.

Solution:

MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer 1,mode 2(auto reload)


MOV TH1,#-6 ;4800 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit, 1 stop, REN enabled
SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
AGAIN: MOV SBUF,#A ;letter A to transfer
HERE: JNB TI,HERE ;wait for the last bit
CLR TI ;clear TI for next char
SJMP AGAIN ;keep sending A

Write a program for the 8051 to transfer YES serially at 9600


baud, 8-bit data, 1 stop bit, do this continuously
Solution:

MOV TMOD,#20H ;timer 1,mode 2(auto reload)


MOV TH1,#-3 ;9600 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H ;8-bit, 1 stop, REN enabled
SETB TR1 ;start timer 1
AGAIN: MOV A,#Y ;transfer Y
ACALL TRANS
MOV A,#E ;transfer E
ACALL TRANS
MOV A,#S ;transfer S
ACALL TRANS
SJMP AGAIN ;keep doing it
;serial data transfer subroutine
TRANS: MOV SBUF,A ;load SBUF
HERE: JNB TI,HERE ;wait for the last bit
CLR TI ;get ready for next byte
RET
ExNo:10 Interrupt Programming

Write a program in which the 8051 reads data from P1 and writes it to
P2 continuously while giving a copy of it to the serial COM port to be

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transferred serially. Assume that XTAL=11.0592. Set the baud rate at
9600.

Solution:
ORG 0000H

LJMP MAIN

ORG 23H

LJMP SERIAL ;jump to serial int ISR

ORG 30H

MAIN: MOV P1,#0FFH ; make P1 an input port


MOV TMOD,#20H ; timer 1, auto reload
MOV TH1,#0FDH ; 9600 baud rate
MOV SCON,#50H ; 8-bit,1 stop, ren enabled
MOV IE,10010000B ; enable serial int.
SETB TR1 ; start timer 1
BACK: MOV A,P1 ; read data from port 1
MOV SBUF,A ; give a copy to SBUF
MOV P2,A ; send it to P2
SJMP BACK ; stay in loop indefinitely

;-----------------SERIAL PORT ISR


ORG 100H
SERIAL: JB TI,TRANS; jump if TI is high
MOV A,SBUF ; otherwise due to receive
CLR RI ; clear RI since CPU doesnt
RETI ; return from ISR
TRANS: CLR TI ; clear TI since CPU doesnt
RETI ; return from ISR
END

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