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Fatigue

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decreases average shareholder

value by approx. 12%

Cost of

Failure

In-service:

Launch delays

Warranty claims

Recalls

Legal liability

Prototype

Ref: Simulia Introduction to FE-Safe webinar

1950s de Havilland DH 106

Comet Disasters

lead in jet

airline industry

to USA for next

50 years

with many lost

lives

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8CfIkskWxn4

Jaguar Land Rover Virtual

Design Validation Process

material with improved castability

leading to multi million GBP per

annum cost benefit

at early stage in design process

reducing the number of engine

tests from 5 to 1 was realistic and

achieveable

Ref: High temperature fatigue of engine components Virtual design validation of exhaust manifold, fe-safe

UGM 2010, FESI 2009

Fatigue of Materials

The stresses that cause failure are far below those needed to

cause fracture on single application of load

Fatigue is the cause for more than 90% of all in service failures

in structural materials

catastrophic results)

Fatigue Fracture

Fatigue crack propagation region showing beach markings

Fast fracture region where the crack length exceeds a critical length

Parameters of Stress Cycles

=

= ( )/2

Mean stress

= ( + )/2

Stress ratio

= /

STRESS STRAIN

Fatigue CYCLING

Initial Straining

to a given point A

Initially, the strain is elastic

After the yield strength, plastic

strain occurs

We assume that plasticity follows

a power-law relation to stress

Total strain by Ramberg-Osgood

Equation

K = Strength coefficient relating plastic strain to stress

Constant Amplitude Cycling

for Stable Materials

Time-independent stress-strain

material behaviour

Initial straining follows the

ordinary monotonic stress-

strain curve

If we now reverse the

direction of straining, starting

at A, the path followed is AB

Not the same as OA

Reversing again at B to the

original strain amplitude,

material follow path BA

Constant Amplitude Cycling

for Stable Materials

BA for cyclically stable

materials

This loop, designated the

hysteresis loop

Equation for paths AB and BA

is obtained by doubling both

the stress and the strain of the

monotonic stress strain path

Constant Amplitude Cycling

for Stable Materials

Can be written in a more

general form in terms of cyclic

range of stress range and total

strain range

If is equal to and = 21 ,

cyclic loop eq. is the same as the

initial stress-strain curve but with

both stress and strain values

doubled

Monotonic properties can be

used to approximate the cyclic

values

Cyclic Hardening / Softening Materials

state

Conventional Material Model

Between increments, response is linear and only end points are

considered

C

B

N D

M

A E

L F

K

G

J

H

I

Fatigue APPROACHES

Analysis of Fatigue - Approaches

Oldest and most common way to treat fatigue data

Useful when stresses and strains are mostly elastic

Unable to distinguish between initiation and propagation phases of

fatigue

Strain Life Approach

Useful when there is significant amount of plastic strain

Fatigue life is typically quite short in these conditions

Fracture Mechanics Approach

Use cyclic stress intensity factor as crack driver

Fatigue Results: S-N Curves

generally presented on S-N

curves

Stress or Strain

is a stress level below which

material does not fail and can be

cycled indefinitely

Such endurance limit does not

exist for non-ferrous metals

For non-ferrous metals, fatigue

strength is generally defined as

the stress that will cause fracture Number of cycles to failure (N)

at the end of a specified number Fatigue / Endurance Limit

of cycles (usually 107) S applied stress

N number of cycles to failure

Categories of Fatigue

Stress or Strain Life?

Stress or Strain Life?

fatigue regime

Stress life method is the least accurate approach especially for low

cycle applications

represents high cycle applications adequately

plastic deformation i.e. low cycle fatigue regime

exist in results

Strain Life Method

plastically loaded material

elastic and plastic strain

= +

Strain Life Method

to failure, , and Hooks law

2 is known as number of reversals

Known as Basquin relationship = 2

= = Thus = = 2

2 2 2

Where

2

True stress amplitude Fatigue strength exponent

Strain Life Method

the -N curve

straight line of slope b

fatigue in high cycle fatigue

regime

Strain Life Method

= = 2

2

Where

plastic strain amplitude Ductility coefficient

2

True stress amplitude Ductility exponent

Strain Life Method

straight line of slope c

Manson-Coffin equation

describes fatigue in low cycle

fatigue regime

Strain Life Method

= +

= + = 2 + 2

2 2 2

determined by superposition

of the elastic and plastic

strain components

Tend to plastic curve at

large total strain

Tend to elastic curve at small

total strain

Cyclic Strain Controlled Fatigue

and contracts due to fluctuations in temperature

different coefficients of thermal expansion

result in strain-controlled conditions near the root of the notch

This is due to constraint placed on the material near the root by the

surrounding mass of the material

Trends for Engineering Metals

Constant strain

amplitude cycling

High strength materials are desirable for High Cycle Fatigue. Have

low value of and low ductility

High ductility materials are desirable for Low Cycle Fatigue. Have low

values of and low strength

Effect of Mean Stress

& Stress Ratio

Variation of and R

endurance limit to

change

Mean stress

= ( + )/2

Stress ratio

= /

Effect of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio

As R increases, the fatigue life increases

Effect of Mean Stress

Ref: Mean stress effect on component life, Dana Corp, Fe-Safe User Group Meeting, 2005

Effect of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio

the mean stress

Goodman

Gerber

= 1

Goodman

Gerber

2

= 1

Soderberg

Soderberg

= 1

Most experimental data lies between the Goodman and Gerber values. The

Goodman relationship is more conservative and is safer for design purposes

Goodman Relation

Other Factors Affecting Fatigue Life

Crack initiation site may depend

on the loading sequence

Ref: Effect of overload on fatigue life, Hundai Kai Motors R&D Centre, Fe-Safe user group meeting 2011

Simulating Forming Processes in

an Oil Pan

factor of 30 i.e. from 15 years to 6 months

Ref: Fatigue assessment of an oil pan incorporating manufacturing effects, The J. Engg. Integrity Society, 2002

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