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# Fatigue

## Announcements of product delays

decreases average shareholder
value by approx. 12%
Cost of
Failure
In-service:
Launch delays
Warranty claims
Recalls
Legal liability

Prototype

## Design Time Scale

Ref: Simulia Introduction to FE-Safe webinar
1950s de Havilland DH 106
Comet Disasters

airline industry
to USA for next
50 years

## Three lost aircraft

with many lost
lives
Jaguar Land Rover Virtual
Design Validation Process

## Identified a low cost alternative

material with improved castability
leading to multi million GBP per
annum cost benefit

## Provided a near optimal design

at early stage in design process

## Confirmed that Jaguars target of

reducing the number of engine
tests from 5 to 1 was realistic and
achieveable

Ref: High temperature fatigue of engine components Virtual design validation of exhaust manifold, fe-safe
UGM 2010, FESI 2009
Fatigue of Materials

## Many materials when subjected to fluctuating stresses, fail

The stresses that cause failure are far below those needed to
cause fracture on single application of load

Fatigue is the cause for more than 90% of all in service failures
in structural materials

## Fatigue failure generally occurs with little or no warning (with

catastrophic results)
Fatigue Fracture

## Fatigue crack initiation, generally at the surface

Fatigue crack propagation region showing beach markings
Fast fracture region where the crack length exceeds a critical length
Parameters of Stress Cycles

=

## Cyclic stress amplitude

= ( )/2

Mean stress
= ( + )/2

Stress ratio
= /
STRESS STRAIN
Fatigue CYCLING
Initial Straining

## Material strained monotonically

to a given point A
Initially, the strain is elastic
After the yield strength, plastic
strain occurs
We assume that plasticity follows
a power-law relation to stress
Total strain by Ramberg-Osgood
Equation

## n = Strain hardening exponent Single amplitude template curve

K = Strength coefficient relating plastic strain to stress
Constant Amplitude Cycling
for Stable Materials

Time-independent stress-strain
material behaviour
Initial straining follows the
ordinary monotonic stress-
strain curve
If we now reverse the
direction of straining, starting
at A, the path followed is AB
Not the same as OA
Reversing again at B to the
original strain amplitude,
Constant Amplitude Cycling
for Stable Materials

## Return path AB is identical to

BA for cyclically stable
materials
This loop, designated the
hysteresis loop
Equation for paths AB and BA
is obtained by doubling both
the stress and the strain of the
monotonic stress strain path
Constant Amplitude Cycling
for Stable Materials
Can be written in a more
general form in terms of cyclic
range of stress range and total
strain range

## represents the range of variable

If is equal to and = 21 ,
cyclic loop eq. is the same as the
initial stress-strain curve but with
both stress and strain values
doubled
Monotonic properties can be
used to approximate the cyclic
values
Cyclic Hardening / Softening Materials

## Metals can soften or harden during fatigue depending on their initial

state
Conventional Material Model

## Force P of 4000 lbf is applied in increments

Between increments, response is linear and only end points are
considered
C
B
N D
M
A E

L F

K
G
J
H
I
Fatigue APPROACHES
Analysis of Fatigue - Approaches

## Stress Life Approach

Oldest and most common way to treat fatigue data
Useful when stresses and strains are mostly elastic
Unable to distinguish between initiation and propagation phases of
fatigue
Strain Life Approach
Useful when there is significant amount of plastic strain
Fatigue life is typically quite short in these conditions
Fracture Mechanics Approach
Use cyclic stress intensity factor as crack driver
Fatigue Results: S-N Curves

## Engineering fatigue data is

generally presented on S-N
curves

Stress or Strain
is a stress level below which
material does not fail and can be
cycled indefinitely
Such endurance limit does not
exist for non-ferrous metals
For non-ferrous metals, fatigue
strength is generally defined as
the stress that will cause fracture Number of cycles to failure (N)
at the end of a specified number Fatigue / Endurance Limit
of cycles (usually 107) S applied stress
N number of cycles to failure
Categories of Fatigue
Stress or Strain Life?
Stress or Strain Life?

## Typical of stress life method which is most suitable for high-cycle

fatigue regime

Stress life method is the least accurate approach especially for low
cycle applications

## Strain life method is more applicable where there is measureable

plastic deformation i.e. low cycle fatigue regime

## Necessary to compound several idealisations and thus uncertainties

exist in results
Strain Life Method

## Total strain is combination of

elastic and plastic strain

= +

Strain Life Method

## Elastic Strain is determined from a combination of number of cycles

to failure, , and Hooks law
2 is known as number of reversals

Known as Basquin relationship = 2

= = Thus = = 2
2 2 2
Where

## elastic strain amplitude Fatigue strength coefficient

2
True stress amplitude Fatigue strength exponent
Strain Life Method

the -N curve

## On a log-log plot it gives a

straight line of slope b

## Basquin equation describes

fatigue in high cycle fatigue
regime
Strain Life Method

## Plastic Strain is described by the Manson-Coffin equation

= = 2
2

Where

plastic strain amplitude Ductility coefficient
2
True stress amplitude Ductility exponent
Strain Life Method

## On a log-log plot it gives a

straight line of slope c

Manson-Coffin equation
describes fatigue in low cycle
fatigue regime
Strain Life Method

= +

= + = 2 + 2
2 2 2

## Fatigue strength can be

determined by superposition
of the elastic and plastic
strain components
Tend to plastic curve at
large total strain
Tend to elastic curve at small
total strain
Cyclic Strain Controlled Fatigue

## Often occurs during thermal cycling when a component expands

and contracts due to fluctuations in temperature

## Dangerous when a component is made from materials exhibiting

different coefficients of thermal expansion

## Local plastic strains at notches subjected to cyclic loading can also

result in strain-controlled conditions near the root of the notch

This is due to constraint placed on the material near the root by the
surrounding mass of the material
Trends for Engineering Metals

Constant strain
amplitude cycling

High strength materials are desirable for High Cycle Fatigue. Have
low value of and low ductility
High ductility materials are desirable for Low Cycle Fatigue. Have low
values of and low strength
Effect of Mean Stress
& Stress Ratio

Variation of and R

## Will cause the

endurance limit to
change

Mean stress
= ( + )/2

Stress ratio
= /
Effect of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio

## As increases, the fatigue life decreases

As R increases, the fatigue life increases
Effect of Mean Stress

Ref: Mean stress effect on component life, Dana Corp, Fe-Safe User Group Meeting, 2005
Effect of Mean Stress and Stress Ratio

## There are several empirical relations to relate the alternating stress to

the mean stress

Goodman
Gerber
= 1
Goodman
Gerber
2
= 1
Soderberg
Soderberg

= 1

Most experimental data lies between the Goodman and Gerber values. The
Goodman relationship is more conservative and is safer for design purposes
Goodman Relation
Other Factors Affecting Fatigue Life

## Manufacturing method may affect the fatigue life

Crack initiation site may depend