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PDHonline Course M226 (5 PDH) Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals and its application to HVAC Troubleshooting Instructor:

PDHonline Course M226 (5 PDH)

Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals and its application to HVAC Troubleshooting

Instructor: Timothy D. Blackburn, MBA, PE

2012

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5272 Meadow Estates Drive Fairfax, VA 22030-6658 Phone & Fax: 703-988-0088 www.PDHonline.org www.PDHcenter.com

An Approved Continuing Education Provider

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PDH Course M226

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Psychrometric Chart Fundamentals and its application to HVAC Troubleshooting

By: Timothy D. Blackburn, PE, MBA

Course Content

Introduction

If HVAC problems and challenges are to be properly diagnosed and designed, it is essential that

the Psychrometric chart and psychrometrics in general be clearly understood. This course will review the

essential elements of psychrometrics (the behavior of mixtures of air and water vapor under varying

conditions of heat) and the chart that represents it. With this knowledge, you will be able to understand

many of the HVAC challenges that are certain to arise, as well as anticipate problems before they occur

and incorporate in your design.

Like many self-study courses, you will only get as much from it as you put into it. Plot each step

on your own psychrometric chart. Be certain you understand the basics before studying the examples. Try

to solve the examples for yourself. This is not the type of course you can just read through and take the

Quiz – it will take effort. But if you do your best, you should be able to pass the Quiz with ease – whether

beginner or advanced.

Disclaimer – Nothing in this course should be considered consulting engineering for your specific

application – each situation requires individual analysis.

Definitions and Concepts

It is important to understand the primary concepts and definitions before we begin our study. For some

of you, this will be a refresher, and for others an introduction. There are other courses that cover the

fundamentals in more detail, but the following are the minimum essentials.

Page 1 of 38

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PDH Course M226

HVAC – Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning

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Psychrometrics –The behavior of mixtures of air and water vapor under varying conditions of heat

Enthalpy = Total heat in the air = Sensible plus Latent heat

Sensible Heat – Changes in temperature that do not alter the moisture content of air

Latent Heat – Related to level of moisture in the air

BTU (British Thermal Unit) – The amount of heat that must be added to or subtracted from a pound of

water at 60 o F to affect a temperature change of 1 o F

BTUH or BH – BTU’s per hour

MBH – 1000 BTUH

Ton

1 Ton equals the amount of heat needed to melt 1 ton of ice in one day

12,000 BTUH’s

Drybulb Temperature – The temperature reading given by a dry thermometer that gives a direct

indication as to the sensible heat content of air

Wetbulb Temperature – The temperature reading from a wetted bulb that gives a direct indication as to

the total heat content of air

Dew Point Temperature – Temperature at which air will begin to release moisture.

Relative Humidity (RH)

The actual amount of moisture in the air expressed as a percentage of the amount of moisture the air

is capable of holding.

More technically:

The amount of water vapor in the air divided by the amount of water vapor the air can hold (at

the same temperature and pressure.)

Page 2 of 38

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PDH Course M226

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The ratio of the air's vapor pressure to its saturation vapor pressure.

Example: An air sample that is at 50% RH is holding half the moisture it is capable of holding at the

same temperature (at dew point or saturated.)

RH is inversely relational to temperature for the same moisture level (grains of moisture per pound

of dry air) – warm air can hold more moisture

RH is what we sense

High RH: Sticking, mold

Low RH

Affects electronics, promotes static

Low RH air is seeking saturation, absorbing moisture wherever it can

Specific Humidity or Humidity Ratio

The weight of the water vapor in each pound of dry air

Typically grains of moisture/pound of dry air

Grain = 1/7000 pound

Density – Unit weight of dry air at a given temperature and moisture content, #/ft 3

Specific Volume – Space occupied by dry air at a given temperature and moisture content (the

reciprocal of density), ft 3 /#

The Psychrometric Chart Template

Pause and print off the next page. Make multiple copies, as you will need them in the course. As noted

previously, if you are to benefit from the course, you must plot each step for yourself. There are no

shortcuts in learning this material. The smaller example charts are not intended for you to plot on, but

rather instruction – use a clean larger copy to plot each example.

Page 3 of 38

95

90

85

ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

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PDH Course M226

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90 85 17.0 80 75 100 70 16.0 65 95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
90
85
17.0
80
75
100
70
16.0
65
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
90
55
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
85
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
50
45
280
1.8
270
45
1.7
80
95
260
40
35
95
250
1.6
240
40
75
230
1.5
90
220
90
14.0
70
35
1.4
210
30
200
1.3
65
190
30
85
85
1.2
180
60
25
170
1.1
25
55
160
80
80
150
1
50
20
13.0
45
20
15
140
75
.9
75
130
40
120
.8
15
70
110
70
35
.7
100
30
10
65
65
90
10
.6
25
60
80
20
60
.5
70
15
55
55
5
12.0
10
60
.4
50
5
50
50
45
0
45
.3
40
40
0
40
35
30
35
.2
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
-5
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-15
-25
-20
0
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
60%
70%
80%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
90%
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY

Page 4 of 38

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PDH Course M226

The Psychrometric Chart – an Overview

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Before we proceed further in our study, let’s learn or refresh regarding the Psychrometric chart. The

following is a summary of the major elements on the chart. Do not continue to the next section until you

can find the following on the chart.

Constant Drybulb Temperature: Vertical Lines

Constant Dew Point and Humidity Ratio: Horizontal Lines

Constant Wetbulb temperature: Upward left sloping lines

Relative humidity: Curving lines (100% line is the saturation curve or correlates with Dew Point)

Constant specific volume, ft 3 /# of dry air: Nearly-vertical sloping lines

Enthalpy or total heat, BTU/pound of air: Staggered scale left of saturation curve and left sloping

lines

Humidity Ratio: Right hand scale, grains of moisture/pound of dry air

Saturation Curve: 100% RH Curve (or the point at which an air mixture can hold no additional

moisture at a given temperature); temperature on the curve is the Dew Point

The following is a chart with the above noted (note: this is a standard curve is at Sea Level).

Page 5 of 38

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M226 www.PDHonline.org 75 100
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
www.PDHcenter.com
PDH Course M226
www.PDHonline.org
75
100
70
70
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
60
1.8
270
1.7
95
260
55
90
95
55
1. Constant dry bulb temperature
250
1.6
2. Constant Dew Point and
Humidity Ratio
240
50
50
230
1.5
85
3. Constant wet bulb temperature
90
220
90
4. Relative humidity (100% line is
the saturation curve or Dew
Point)
1.4
210
45
45
17.0
80
200
1.3
190
85
40
5. Constant specific volume, ft 3 /#
of dry air
75
35
6. Enthalpy or total heat,
BTU/pound of air
40
35
85
1.2
180
170
1.1
160
80
70
80
7. Humidity ratio or grains of
moisture per pound of dry air
150
1
4
6
8
140
30
16.0
65
30
75
.9
75
130
60
120
.8
25
25
8. Saturation curve – 100%
humidity line or the point at
which an air mixture can hold
no additional moisture at a
given temperature;
temperature on the curve is
70
110
70
55
6
.7
100
65
20
50
5
7
65
90
.6
the dewpoint
3
45
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
40
15
20
15
60
80
60
.5
70
55
55
2
60
35
.4
30
50
50
50
25
45
10
45
.3
10
40
20
40
40
35
15
1
30
35
.2
30
10
30
25
5
20
25
5
20
15
20
.1
10
0
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-15
0
-25
-20
14.0
-40
0
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
13.0
20%
12.0
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 6 of 38

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Latent versus Sensible Changes

PDH Course M226

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In the next graph, let’s look at changes in Latent versus Sensible changes. Latent changes move in

the “Y” axis (associated with moisture content changes), and Sensible changes move in the “X” axis

(associated with temperature but not moisture content changes.)

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 17.0
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
65
65
17.0
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
300
Sea Level
90
1.9
55
55
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
50
270
50
85
1.7
95
260
16.0
95
250
45
1.6
45
240
80
230
1.5
40
75
35
40
35
90
220
90
1.4
210
Latent
200
1.3
70
190
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
85
85
1.2
180
30
65
Sensible versus
Latent: Sensible
changes are
horizontal, and
Latent changes are
vertical
30
170
1.1
160
60
80
80
25
25
150
1
55
140
75
.9
75
130
50
20
14.0
45
40
15
20
15
120
.8
Sensible
70
110
70
.7
100
35
65
65
90
.6
30
10
10
60
80
25
60
.5
70
20
55
55
15
60
.4
5
50
10
13.0
50
50
5
45
45
.3
0
40
40
40
0
35
30
35
.2
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
-5
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
12.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 7 of 38

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PDH Course M226

Relationship of Dewpoint, RH, Wetbulb, and Drybulb

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The following chart provides an example to determine Dewpoint, RH, Wetbulb, or Drybulb if only

two of the criteria are known. Drybulb is read with a typical thermometer. When I was in engineering

school, we determined Wetbulb by using a sling psychrometer. In it was a Drybulb, plus another

thermometer with a wet gauze. The Wetbulb reading was affected by the moisture content in the air; the

lower the air moisture content, the faster the gauze evaporated and the cooler the temperature reading.

Today, electronic instrumentation is generally used.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 17.0 65 65
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
17.0
65
65
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
90
55
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
55
16.0
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
50
85
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
50
280
1.8
270
1.7
45
95
260
45
95
80
250
1.6
240
40
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
75
Relationship of
Dewpoint, RH,
Wetbulb, and
Drybulb: Example:
1.5
220
1.4
35
40
35
230
90
90
210
70
200
What is the Wet
bulb temperature of
70 o F air at 50% RH?
1.3
65
190
30
30
85
85
1.2
180
60
170
14.0
1.1
25
25
160
80
55
80
150
1
Answer: 58.43 o F
50
20
140
75
.9
45
75
130
40
15
35
What is the Dew
Point? (DP)
20
15
120
.8
70
110
70
.7
100
13.0
30
65
10
10
65
90
25
.6
Answer: 50.53 o F
20
WB
60
80
60
15
.5
5
70
55
10
55
60
5
DP
RH
.4
50
0
50
50
0
45
45
.3
40
40
40
35
30
12.0
35
.2
30
-5
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-15
-25
-20
0
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DB
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 8 of 38

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PDH Course M226

Impact to Relative Humidity from Sensible Changes

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The following chart illustrates the impact to Relative Humidity from changes in temperature (when

moisture content remains constant.) You will note that Temperature and Relative Humidity are inversely

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 relational – the higher the
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
relational – the higher the temperature, the lower the RH. The lower the temperature, the higher the RH.
70
70
65
65
17.0
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
90
300
55
Sea Level
55
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
50
50
16.0
85
270
1.7
95
260
95
45
250
45
1.6
80
Sensible Changes:
240
230
1.5
40
Example: If we heat
70 o F at 50% RH to
90 o F without adding
moisture, what is the
new RH?
40
35
90
220
75
90
1.4
210
35
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
200
70
1.3
190
85
85
1.2
180
30
65
30
170
1.1
60
160
80
80
25
25
150
1
55
Answer: 25.98%
140
75
.9
14.0
50
20
75
45
What if we cool to
55 o F instead?
20
15
130
120
.8
70
110
70
40
15
.7
100
35
65
65
90
30
Answer: 84.85%
.6
10
10
25
60
80
60
.5
20
70
55
13.0
15
55
5
60
.4
10
50
50
5
50
45
0
45
.3
40
40
0
40
35
30
35
.2
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
-5
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
12.0
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 9 of 38

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Dehumidification

PDH Course M226

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As we saw in the previous section, when the temperature cools the RH increases. What happens

when the RH is 100%? It rains. As cools, it eventually reaches its dewpoint and moisture begins to

appear. That is what happens when you have a glass of iced tea, and there is moisture on the outside – the

air in the immediate vicinity of the glass cools to the point it is fully saturated, and out comes moisture. In

the following example, we continue on with the previous example to examine what happens when we

continue to cool.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 17.0 70 65 65
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
17.0
70
65
65
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
90
16.0
55
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
55
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
50
85
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
50
280
1.8
270
1.7
45
45
95
260
80
95
250
1.6
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
Dehumidification:
240
40
75
35
In the previous
example, what
happens when I cool
below 50.53 o F?
40
35
230
1.5
90
220
90
1.4
70
210
200
1.3
65
30
30
190
85
85
1.2
180
60
14.0
170
25
25
1.1
160
55
Answer: 50.53 o F is
the Dew Point.
Cooling below that
point removes water
80
80
150
1
50
20
20
15
140
75
.9
45
75
130
40
15
120
.8
70
35
110
70
13.0
.7
30
100
10
10
65
65
25
90
.6
20
60
80
60
15
.5
5
70
10
55
55
5
60
.4
50
0
50
50
0
45
45
.3
40
40
12.0
40
35
30
35
.2
30
-5
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 10 of 38

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Humidification

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

In the previous example, we learned that we can de-humidify the air by over cooling it. But to add

humidity we must have an external source of moisture. The following example illustrates that we can plot

the results of adding moisture on the Psychrometric chart.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 17.0
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
65
65
17.0
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
300
Sea Level
1.9
90
55
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
55
290
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
270
50
50
Note: Steam
85
1.7
95
260
95
increases enthalpy
250
16.0
1.6
45
45
80
40
75
35
70
Humidification: At
70 o F and 50% RH,
what is the new RH
when we add 12
gr/lb of moisture?
240
maintaining
230
1.5
90
temperature;
40
35
220
90
1.4
210
evaporation
200
1.3
maintains enthalpy
190
85
85
1.2
180
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
and lowers
30
65
30
170
1.1
Answer: 60.81%
temperature
160
80
60
80
150
1
25
25
55
What is the new
DP?
140
75
.9
75
130
50
20
120
.8
45
70
14.0
110
70
Answer: 55.86 o F
.7
40
15
20
15
100
65
35
65
90
.6
30
60
80
10
10
60
25
.5
70
20
55
Steam
55
60
15
.4
50
Evap.
5
50
10
50
45
5
13.0
45
.3
40
0
40
40
35
30
0
35
.2
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-5
-10
-25
-20
-15
0
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
12.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 11 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

Enthalpy Changes

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

Enthalpy represents the total heat in the air, a summation of Sensible and Latent. Enthalpy is

measured in BTU/# dry air, and can be determined if you know at least two primary chart parameters. As

well, when you condition the air, there is a change in enthalpy that can be calculated. The following

example illustrates how Enthalpy changes can be calculated, as well as changes to enthalpy.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 17.0
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
65
65
17.0
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
60
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
90
300
Sea Level
55
55
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
50
50
85
270
16.0
1.7
95
260
95
250
45
45
1.6
80
Enthalpy Changes:
240
230
1.5
40
Example: What is
the change in
enthalpy when you
go from 70F/50%
RH to 80F/60% RH?
40
35
90
220
75
90
1.4
210
35
200
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
70
1.3
190
85
85
1.2
180
65
30
30
170
1.1
60
160
80
80
25
25
150
1
55
50
Answer: 33.68-
25.33 = 8.35
BTU/Lb Dry Air
140
75
.9
14.0
20
20
15
75
130
45
120
.8
70
110
70
40
15
.7
100
35
65
65
90
30
.6
10
10
25
60
80
60
.5
20
70
55
13.0
15
55
60
5
.4
10
50
50
5
50
45
0
45
.3
40
40
0
40
35
30
35
.2
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
-5
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
12.0
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 12 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

Heating Cycles

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

Heating cycles can be graphically illustrated on the chart. The following illustrates a typical

heating cycle of an HVAC system.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 PSYCHROMETRIC
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
65
65
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
17.0
90
55
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
55
280
1.8
270
1.7
95
260
50
50
95
85
250
1.6
Heating Cycle
240
45
45
230
1.5
80
90
220
16.0
90
1.4
40
210
75
200
1.3
190
35
40
35
85
85
70
1.2
180
170
1.1
30
65
30
160
80
80
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
150
1
60
25
140
25
75
.9
55
75
130
120
.8
50
20
Outside Air (1) is mixed with
room Return Air (2) and
results in Mixed Air (3).
Mixed Air is heated up
to (4). Humidity may be
added to (5), the Supply
Air or via space
humidifiers. The room
absorbs heat (and
moisture with ventilation
or special process, etc.)
resulting in Return Air
70
(2).
45
20
15
110
70
.7
100
65
5 (SA)
40
15
65
90
.6
14.0
35
2 (RA)
60
80
30
60
.5
70
10
25
10
55
55
60
20
.4
50
50
15
3 (MA)
50
45
5
10
45
.3
40
40
5
4 (SA)
40
35
0
30
35
.2
30
30
0
25
20
25
20
13.0
15
20
.1
10
1 (OA)
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
-5
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 13 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

Cooling Cycle

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 Similar to the previous example, the
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
Similar to the previous example, the Cooling Cycle can also be plotted on the Chart as follows.
100
70
70
65
65
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
17.0
90
55
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
55
1.8
270
1.7
95
260
50
95
50
85
250
1.6
Cooling Cycle
240
45
45
230
1.5
80
90
220
90
16.0
1.4
210
40
75
40
35
200
1.3
190
85
35
85
1.2
70
180
170
1.1
30
65
Outside Air (1) is mixed with
room Return Air (2) and
results in Mixed Air (3).
Mixed Air is cooled and
dehumidified to
saturation to (4). The
room heat and moisture
is transferred to to the
Return Air (2).
30
160
80
80
150
1
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
60
140
25
25
75
.9
75
130
55
120
.8
50
20
20
15
70
110
70
.7
45
100
65
1 (OA)
40
65
15
90
.6
35
60
80
14.0
60
30
.5
70
10
55
25
10
3 (MA)
55
60
.4
20
50
50
15
50
45
4 (SA)
45
.3
5
10
40
40
2 (RA)
5
40
35
30
0
35
.2
30
30
25
20
0
25
20
15
20
.1
10
13.0
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-15
0
-25
-20
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
-5
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 14 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

Try it yourself! (A Pop Quiz)

PDH Course M226

(This isn’t the official course Quiz)

www.PDHonline.org

Now that you have reviewed (or learned) the basics of psychrometrics and the chart, give a try to

answer the following (Print off this page and the Chart at the beginning of the course; circle the best

answer):

For an air mixture of 74F and 45% RH, determine the following:

1.What is the dewpoint ?

a)51

b)41

c)65

2.What is the enthalpy?

a)11 BTU/# Dry Air

b)27 BTU/# Dry Air

c)31 BTU/# Dry Air

3.How many grains of moisture/# dry air?

a)33

b)40

c)56

4. What is the specific volume in cf/# dry air?

Page 15 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

a. 13.6

b. 11.2

c. 12.1

PDH Course M226

5.What is the wetbulb temperature?

a.50

b.60

c.74

Page 16 of 38

www.PDHonline.org

www.PDHcenter.com

Pop Quiz Answers

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

The following are the correct answers: 1-a; 2-b; 3-c; 4-a; 5-b. How well did you do? If you

struggled with this, the following are the Charts that give a step-by-step illustration – compare it to your

chart.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 60
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
100
70
70
65
65
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
17.0
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
300
Sea Level
1.9
90
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
55
55
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
270
50
50
1.7
85
95
260
95
250
1.6
45
16.0
Step 1: Plot the
conditions – pick a
point at 74 o F DB
and 45% RH
45
240
80
230
1.5
90
220
40
90
1.4
75
210
200
1.3
35
40
35
190
70
85
85
1.2
180
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
30
65
170
30
1.1
160
80
80
60
150
1
25
25
140
55
75
.9
75
130
50
20
120
.8
70
45
110
70
.7
14.0
40
20
15
100
15
65
65
35
90
.6
30
60
80
60
10
10
25
.5
70
55
20
55
60
.4
15
50
50
5
10
50
45
5
45
.3
40
40
13.0
0
40
35
30
35
.2
0
30
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-5
-25
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
12.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 17 of 38

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M226 www.PDHonline.org 75 100
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
www.PDHcenter.com
PDH Course M226
www.PDHonline.org
75
100
70
70
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
60
280
1.8
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
270
1.7
95
260
55
90
95
55
250
1.6
Step 2: Draw a
horizontal line.
240
50
50
230
1.5
85
90
220
90
1.4
210
45
45
17.0
80
200
1.3
190
85
40
85
1.2
75
•Read Dewpoint on
the left at the 100%
saturation curve,
180
170
1.1
35
51.34
40
35
o F
160
80
70
80
150
1
140
30
30
16.0
65
75
.9
75
130
120
60
.8
25
25
•Read Humidity
Ratio on the right,
56.37 grains/pound
of dry air
70
110
70
55
.7
100
65
50
65
20
20
15
90
.6
60
80
45
60
.5
70
15
40
55
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
55
60
.4
35
30
50
50
50
25
45
10
45
.3
10
40
40
20
40
35
15
30
35
.2
30
10
30
25
20
5
25
20
5
15
20
.1
10
0
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
14.0
-40
0
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
13.0
20%
12.0
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 18 of 38

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M226 www.PDHonline.org 100
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
www.PDHcenter.com
PDH Course M226
www.PDHonline.org
100
70
70
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
60
280
1.8
270
1.7
95
260
55
90
55
95
250
1.6
Step 3: Draw
diagonal lines and
read
240
50
50
230
1.5
85
90
220
90
1.4
17.0
45
45
210
80
200
1.3
40
Enthalpy = 26.57
BTU/# dry air
190
85
40
35
85
1.2
180
75
170
1.1
35
160
80
70
80
150
1
16.0
30
65
At the saturation
curve Wet Bulb =
140
30
75
.9
75
130
60
o F
60
120
.8
25
25
70
110
70
55
.7
100
65
50
20
65
45
20
15
90
.6
60
80
60
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
.5
40
70
15
55
55
35
60
.4
30
50
50
50
25
45
10
10
45
.3
20
40
40
40
15
35
30
35
.2
30
10
30
5
25
20
5
25
20
15
20
.1
0
10
5
10
0
10
14.0
-5
-10
-25
-20
-15
0
-40
0
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
13.0
20%
12.0
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 19 of 38

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 www.PDHcenter.com PDH Course M226 www.PDHonline.org 100
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
75
www.PDHcenter.com
PDH Course M226
www.PDHonline.org
100
70
70
PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
270
55
1.7
90
95
260
55
95
250
1.6
240
50
50
85
Step 4: Draw a line
parallel to the
specific volume =
13.6 ft 3 /# dry air
230
1.5
17.0
90
220
90
45
1.4
45
210
80
200
1.3
190
40
85
85
75
40
35
1.2
180
170
1.1
35
70
160
80
80
16.0
150
1
30
65
30
140
75
.9
75
130
60
120
25
.8
25
70
55
110
70
.7
100
50
65
20
20
15
65
90
.6
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
60
80
60
.5
40
70
15
55
55
35
60
30
.4
50
50
25
50
10
45
10
45
.3
20
40
40
40
15
35
30
35
.2
10
30
30
5
25
5
20
25
14.0
20
0
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-15
0
-25
-20
-40
0
-30
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-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
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95
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105
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115
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125
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135
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145
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155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 20 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Examples

www.PDHonline.org

Now lets consider some specific HVAC troubleshooting examples. Before looking at the charts

provided with the answers, try to plot the information yourself. If you don’t do this, you will not be able

to follow the examples. Some of the examples will be more challenging than others – if you don’t have a

HVAC background, you likely will struggle at some points. Don’t be overly alarmed. If you have a

strong grasp to this point, you are well on your way and passing the Quiz should be no problem. The goal

for the student is to be able to use the Psychrometric chart to solve virtually any HVAC problem/challenge

that involves air temperature/moisture issues.

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #1

You have a complaint of moisture condensing in a cooling chamber in a packaging line. You find you

need to cool the chamber to 40 o F. The desired room temperature is 70 o F.

A. What relative humidity in the space is needed?

Answer: To keep the condensation from occurring, keep the RH below 100% (say 90%) at the

cooling chamber temperature (40 o F). Plot this condition, and draw a horizontal line that

intersects 70 o F and read the RH, which is 30.15% (Note: This is very low and uncomfortable for

occupants – consider a local environment)

B. Answer: The lowest discharge temperature of the airhandler is 52 o F. Can you satisfy the

conditions needed above?

No. Plot from 52 o F and 90% RH horizontally to 70 o F, and the minimum RH expected is 47.51%

>> 30.15% - condensation will occur. (To lower further would require more expensive systems.)

Page 21 of 38

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PDH Course M226
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PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
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55
1.7
90
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1.6
Example #1
240
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1.5
17.0
90
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90
45
1.4
45
210
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1.3
40
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190
85
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1.2
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170
1.1
35
70
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16.0
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1
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75
.9
75
130
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120
25
.8
25
70
55
110
70
.7
100
50
20
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
40
20
15
65
65
90
.6
60
80
60
.5
70
15
55
55
35
60
30
.4
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50
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10
45
10
45
.3
20
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40
15
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.2
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30
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25
5
20
25
14.0
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15
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.1
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5
10
0
10
-5
-10
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0
-25
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0
5
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100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 22 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #2

www.PDHonline.org

You would like to humidify a space that has a 100% outside air unit to 50% RH in the winter, and

would like to keep the discharge RH from exceeding 80% (ignoring any latent gains in the space).

However, you get frequent low humidity alarms in the winter. Why?

First, check to see if the Psychrometrics are possible.

Plot the conditions off the coil, 52 o F discharge at 80%, and draw a horizontal line to 70 o F. The

maximum RH possible is 42.23% << 50% - system will not reach conditions under some winter

outside air possibilities.

Note: It may be possible to raise the discharge temperature to absorb more moisture and/or raise

permitted RH after the coil.

Page 23 of 38

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PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
65
65
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
60
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
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1.6
Example #2
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1.4
45
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1.3
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190
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1.2
180
170
1.1
35
70
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16.0
150
1
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.9
75
130
60
120
25
.8
25
70
55
110
70
.7
100
50
65
20
65
90
.6
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
60
80
60
.5
40
20
15
70
15
55
55
35
60
30
.4
50
50
25
50
10
45
10
45
.3
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40
15
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35
.2
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14.0
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.1
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155
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165
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180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 24 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #3

www.PDHonline.org

On a day when outside air reached 80F/60RH, we noticed we were not maintaining space conditions.

Assume we need 52F discharge (saturated at 90% RH) to maintain space conditions with 10,000 cfm

supply air. We did not maintain space conditions that day. We installed a 25T chiller for the 100%

outside air unit. Why is the system not working?

To diagnose the problem, first check the loads. Enthalpy needing to be removed is 33.68-20.52 =

13.16 BTU/lb dry air

Calculate BTUH = cfm * 4.5 * (h1 – h2) = (10000)(4.5)(13.16) = 592,200 BTUH

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 17.0 75 75 100 70 70 65 65
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To convert to Tons of cooling, = 592,200/12,000 = 49.35 Tons >25 – chiller was undersized.
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
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PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
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50
300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
45
280
80
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
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Example #3
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13.0
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160
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150
1
140
75
.9
35
75
130
120
30
.8
10
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110
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.7
20
100
65
5
15
65
90
.6
10
12.0
5
60
80
60
0
.5
0
70
55
55
60
.4
50
50
50
-5
45
45
.3
40
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35
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.2
30
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.1
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115
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180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
70%
80%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
90%
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 25 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #4

www.PDHonline.org

You have an airhandler supplying 25,000 cfm. You bring in 5,000 cfm outside air (OA) and relieve the

same. You know you need to return 74F/50%RH air and have the supply 52F/80% RH to maintain

space conditions. However, you are getting space temperature alarms. The contractor provided a 800

MBH coil. What is the problem? What are possible solutions?

First, plot the conditions for the OA and RA to get the differences in enthalpy for both. Use outside

design day conditions of 95F DB/76F WB.

Calculate the load = (5000)(4.5)(39.37-19.62) + (20000)(4.5)(27.56-19.62) = 1158975 BTUH/1000

= 1159 MBH

The coil can only provide 800 MBH, which is under 1159 MBH on a design day

To solve this, increase coil capacity or decrease outside air if possible

Page 26 of 38

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300
Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
60
290
60
95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
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1.7
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1.6
50
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Example #4
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17.0
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90
1.4
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210
200
1.3
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1.2
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1.1
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1
16.0
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.9
OA
75
60
130
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120
.8
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.7
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100
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RA
.6
60
80
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
40
60
15
.5
70
35
55
30
55
60
.4
25
50
50
10
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50
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.3
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.2
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10
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DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 27 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #5

www.PDHonline.org

For some reason, when outside conditions dropped to 30F/30%RH for the first time, an area fed by a

20,000 cfm 100% outside air unit went into alarm. The wintertime setpoint for RH in the space was

30% at 72F. The humidifier was designed to deliver 300 pounds of moisture per hour. What could the

problem be?

Plot the conditions and determine the grains of moisture/# dry air for both conditions. Then,

calculate the required amount of moisture.

Moisture needed = (g 1 -g 2 )*cfm*4.5/7000

Moisture needed = (34.96-7.23) g/# DA * 20000 cfm * 4.5

7000 G/#

=356 #/hour

Therefore, the humidifier is undersized (or slow down the fan/cfm if possible)

Page 28 of 38

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BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
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95 WET BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
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1.6
Example #5
240
50
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1.5
17.0
90
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90
45
1.4
45
210
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1.3
40
190
40
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1.2
180
170
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1.1
70
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16.0
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.9
75
130
60
120
25
.8
25
70
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.7
100
50
20
65
65
90
.6
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
20
15
60
80
60
40
.5
15
70
55
55
35
60
30
.4
50
50
25
50
10
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45
45
.3
20
Humidity Ratio =
40
40
40
15
35
34.96
30
35
.2
10
30
5
30
25
5
20
14.0
25
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.1
10
Humidity Ratio =
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
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7.23
0
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
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30
35
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180
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
OA
Space Setpoint
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 29 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #6

www.PDHonline.org

You have a “floating” discharge temperature from 52 to 60 o F. Your design space conditions are

70/50%RH. Do you need to override the “floating” discharge to control upper humidity?

First, plot the conditions of the highest discharge temperature and space conditions.

Note that the moisture content at saturation for the discharge when at 60F is higher than the room

conditions. It must be lower to absorb moisture. Try It Yourself: Plot for yourself (not shown) the

Humidity Ratios. You will find that a lower Humidity Ratio is needed than the supply discharge

conditions can supply. Obviously, that means the RH will not be maintained as desired since there

will be too much moisture in the air coming into the room.

Therefore, an overriding dehumidification cycle is needed if space conditions are to be maintained.

(Note: In good practice, “floating” is typically based on outside air dew point and the above is

usually not a problem.)

Page 30 of 38

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Sea Level
1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
290
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60
Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
280
1.8
270
55
1.7
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1.6
Example #6
240
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1.5
17.0
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45
1.4
45
210
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1.3
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1.2
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1.1
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1
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.9
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60
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25
.8
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.7
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90
.6
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
45
60
80
60
.5
40
70
15
55
55
35
60
30
.4
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50
25
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10
45
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45
.3
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15
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30
35
.2
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DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
-5
13.0
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
12.0
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 31 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #7

www.PDHonline.org

You design a production space to 72F/50%RH. After moving in, the operators wish to lower the

setpoint to 68F while maintaining the 50% RH in the summer. Is this a problem? What must be done?

First, plot the conditions of the original and desired conditions. Then draw a line to the 90%

saturation line and drop down to see what the new discharge temperature will be .

Clearly, the discharge temperature must be lowered if the RH is to be maintained. Can the system

handle this? Is the chilled water temperature low enough?

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1.9
BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 29.921 inches of Mercury
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Heavy Text Bullet Slide Sample
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250
1.6
40
Example #7
75
15.0 SPECIFIC VOLUME ft³/lb OF DRY AIR
40
35
240
230
1.5
90
220
35
90
70
1.4
210
200
1.3
65
30
30
190
85
85
1.2
180
60
25
25
170
1.1
55
14.0
160
80
80
150
1
50
20
140
45
75
.9
75
130
40
15
20
15
120
.8
35
70
110
70
30
.7
10
100
10
13.0
65
25
65
90
.6
20
60
80
15
60
5
.5
10
70
55
5
55
60
0
.4
50
50
0
50
45
45
.3
40
40
40
35
30
35
-5
.2
30
12.0
30
25
20
25
20
15
20
.1
10
5
10
0
10
-5
-10
-20
-15
0
-25
-40
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
150
155
160
165
170
175
180
DRY BULB TEMPERATURE - °F
Linric Company Psychrometric Chart, www.linric.com
10% RELATIVE HUMIDITY
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR
80%
90%
SATURATION TEMPERATURE - °F
HUMIDITY RATIO - GRAINS OF MOISTURE PER POUND OF DRY AIR
DEW POINT - °F
VAPOR PRESSURE - INCHES OF MERCURY
ENTHALPY - BTU PER POUND OF DRY AIR

Page 32 of 38

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PDH Course M226

HVAC Troubleshooting Example #8

www.PDHonline.org

You construct a room 20’ x 30’ at design conditions 70 o F/50%RH and 2800 cfm supply air. After

washing the room with 100 o F water, the operators do not dry it and there are humidity alarms. Assume

the evaporation rate is 0.075#/ft 2 /hr (this can be determined by tables not included herein). Are there

problems with the HVAC system?

First plot the conditions at 70 o F/50%RH (Humidity Ratio = 54.68 gr/#).

Then calculate the new conditions by determining the new Humidity Ratio after evaporation (you

can consider it like the humidifier example earlier, where #/hr of moisture = (g 1 -g 2 )*cfm*4.5/7000)

Solve for the unknown “g.”

((g 1 – 54.68)*2800*4.5)/(7000) = 0.075*30’*20’; solving for g 1 = 79.7 gr/#

Plot the new condition from 79.7 gr/# to 70 o F and determine the new RH which is 72.47%

resulting from the evaporation.

How long before the water evaporates away?

Based on evaporation rates alone, you can solve for the amount of evaporation per inch/hr, or

Time/inch = 62.4 #/ft 3 /(0.075 * 12) > 69 hours per inch, or over 4 hours for 1/16”

Actually much longer as water cools

What can we do to keep from having alarms/RH above 50%?

Quickly dry/squeegee the space as soon as possible.

Lower the discharge temperature. To determine how much is required, determine the required

moisture holding capacity of the discharge air. First, calculate the maximum Humidity Ratio

allowed, or

Humidity Ratio Allowed = (Max. HR allowed) – (amount to be absorbed) = 54.68-(79.7-54.68)

= 29.7gr/#

Page 33 of 38

www.PDHcenter.com

PDH Course M226

www.PDHonline.org

Plot a line to the 90% saturation curve and draw line down to the DB temperature, which is

37.48 o F, or the required discharge temperature. Note the line now slopes up to the new 70/50

setpoint that takes into account absorbing the evaporation. Likely, this will not be possible

without changing coils and/or the chilled water system.

95 90 90 85 85 80 80 75 75 100 70 70 65 65 60
95
90
90
85
85
80
80
75
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