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For their own continuous quality improvement (quality system requirements, QS-9000, 4.14.1)
activities at all levels of engineering and manufacturing, in early 1990's Ford Motor Company
introduced a standardized set of steps to be followed in solving problems by quality improvement
teams within the company. These eight step process of problem solving is known as 8D (Eight
disciplines)* and is by far the common disciplines used and accepted by most industries today. It
is the basis for all subsequent problem solving technique developments such as 6D, 7D, 9D and

The 8D Problem Solving Process to identify, correct and eliminate the recurrence of quality
problems. The 8D is a methodology for product and process improvement. It is structured into 8-
disciplines, emphasizing team synergy.

The team as a whole is better and smarter than the quality sum of the individuals. Each discipline
is supported by a checklist of assessment questions, such as what is wrong with what, when,
where and how much

This program will present detailed discussions of the basic disciplines involved in problem solving
for all situations. This course will provide the participants the information required to complete an
8D problem solving process for manufacturers. In this session, the participant will learn the 8D
process and be ready to begin to use the discipline on actual problems in their own workplace.
They will learn how to effectively use a team approach to problem solving. The disciplines
prescribed offer the attendees a framework to utilize the experience and expertise in their own
activity and implement permanent solutions to the problems encounter.

x Use structured problem solving and corrective action methodology based on the Ford 8D
At the conclusion of the program participants will be able to:

x Understand the importance of finding the root cause to effectively solve problems
process model.

x Understand waste and process control

x Utilise various statistical tools for problem solving
x Effectively implement these disciplines in their organization
Develop action plans to perform problem solving activities using the 8D methodology.
Course Content
1. The 8-D Methodology

x Typical Investigation Time Line

The 8-D System

x Analysis vs. Action

o Analysis Steps
o Action Steps

x Problem Solving
Process Tools

x Decision Making
x Planning and Problem Prevention
x Concerns Analysis

x Universe, Populations & Samples

Statistical Tools

x Interpreting Statistics
x Histogram
x Normal Distribution (Bell Curve)
x Standard Deviation
x Mean

2. D0 - Problem Identified

x Early Process Flow Diagram

Process Flow

x Where Was The Problem Discovered?

x Where Did The Problem Escape?
x Asking Why. How Far? Where Do I Look?
x Design Block Diagram Example
x Cause and Effects
Failure Modes In Measurement Systems

x Distributions From Variation

Process Variation

x Process Variation
x Causes of Variation
x Facts About Causes of Variation
x Special Causes of Variation
x Tampering - Process Variation
x Structural Variation
Problem vs. Symptom

x Investigative Questions
When An 8-D Is Necessary

3. D1 - Use Team Approach

x Model for Effective Teamwork:

Team Approach

x Structure
x Goals
x Roles
x Procedures
x Interpersonal Relationships
x Establishing A Team (Flow)
x What is a Team?
The Team - Basics

x Maintaining Focus
x Brainstorm

x How To Brainstorm

x Individual vs. Group Brainstorming

x Natural Work Group vs. Team

Define Scope Of Team

x Size
Team Structure

x Support Needed
x Environment

x Cross-functional
Team Organization

x Decision Making Criteria / Model

x Roles In A Team
x Inputs To Team
x Team Goals
x Basic Team Rules
x Team Meeting Responsibility
x Team-to-Team Communication
x Successful Teams
x Team Check List

4. D2 - Describe The Problem

x Customer Complaints
Describe the Problem

x Operational Definition of the Problem

x Symptoms vs. Causes

x Systematic approaches to problem solving:

Problem Solving

x Problem analysis methodologies:

x In-Depth Analysis
x 5W - 2H Analysis
x Stratification Analysis

x Describe the Problem Flow

Describe the Problem

x Root Cause Analysis

x Investigative / Tracking Charts
x Is / Is Not Questions
x Timing Plan
x Basis for status reporting
x Describe the Problem Phases
o Phase I

x Describe the Problem Questions

o Phase II

o Customer Terms / Symptoms

o Use a Process Flow Chart!

x Describe The Problem Check List

o Cause and Effects Diagram
5. D3 - Containment

x Interim (Containment) Actions

Implement and Verify

x Contain Symptom Flow

x Containment Actions Objective

x Containment Actions Flow

Containment Actions

x Verifying Containment Actions - Pilot Runs

x Monitor Results
x Containment Actions Verification Questions
x Contain Symptom Check List

6. D4 - Define Root Cause(s)

x Two Root Causes

Define and Verify Root Cause(s)

o Initial Data Evaluation

x Control Chart Analysis Reaction

o Interpreting Control Charts

x Hypothesis Generation
x Six Steps Of Investigation
x Identify Alternate Solutions
x Identify Potential Causes - Cause & Effects Diagram
Analyze Potential Causes

x Potential Causes - Some Questions

Validate Root Causes

x Analyze What Has Changed

x Data and Root Causes
x Product - Process Assumptions
x Process Failure Causes
x Process Control Examples
x The Poka-Yoke System

x 5 Elements of Production

x Defining The 5 Elements

x 4 Process Phenomena's
x Separating Error From Defect
x Causes of Defects
x Levels of Defects

x Inspection Philosophies

x 3 Methods of Inspection
x Judgment Inspection
x SPC Inspection
x Source & Sequential Inspection

x Production Efficiency & Waste

Efficiency & Waste

x Flow Production
o Melody

x Tack Time (Level Production)

o Rhythm

x Standard Operation Man, Machine, Material, Method, Measurement

o Harmony
x Stock Inefficiency
Types of Waste

x Excess Stock Parts & Materials

x Transportation Inefficiencies
x Inefficient worker movement
x Inefficient results from looking for things
x Selection inefficient
x Defective production
Shingos Method

x Control Systems
Poka Yoke Devices, Systems & Inspection

x Warning Systems

x Source Inspection (ZQC)

o Floppy Disk Poke-Yokes Example

x Built into process

x Self Check Informative Inspections (SQC)
x Successive Check Informative Inspection (SQC)
Tools For Assessment
Organizing Systems for Zero Defects

7. D5 - Choose, Implement & Verify Corrective Actions

x Run Pilot Tests

Choose, Implement & Verify Corrective Actions

x Monitor Results
x Confirmation Questions
x Verification Questions
x Corrective Actions Check List

8. D6 - Implement Permanent Corrective Actions

x Validation Evidence
Implement Permanent Corrective Actions

x Corrective Action Questions

x Ongoing Controls - Questions
x Forecast Outcome
x Implement CA and Verify Over Time Check List

9. D7 - Prevent Recurrence

x Prevent Recurrence Flow

Prevent Recurrence

x Prevent Recurrence Questions

x Prevent System Problems Check List

10. D8 - Congratulate Your Team

x Congratulate Your Team Flow

Congratulate the Team

x Congratulate Your Team Objective & Questions

x Congratulate Your Team Check List