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Cecos University

Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar


Lecture # 05
ME 434 Renewable Energy
Resources

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Furnace
A furnace is an equipment used to melt metals for casting or
to heat materials to change their shape (e.g. rolling, forging)
or properties (heat treatment).
Since flue gases from the fuel come in direct contact with the
materials, the type of fuel chosen is important. For example,
some materials will not tolerate sulphur in the fuel, in which
case you can use light diesel oil. Solid fuels generate
particulate matter, which will interfere the materials placed
inside the furnace, therefore coal is not often used as fuel.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Furnace

Furnace ideally should heat as much of material as possible to


a uniform temperature with the least possible fuel and labor.
The key to efficient furnace operation lies in complete
combustion of fuel with minimum excess air. Furnaces operate
with relatively low efficiencies (as low as 7 percent) compared
to other combustion equipment such as the boiler (with
efficiencies higher than 90 percent. This is caused by the high
operating temperatures in the furnace. For example, a furnace
heating materials to 1200 oC will emit exhaust gases at 1200
oC or more, which results in significant heat losses through
the chimney.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Furnace Chimney:
Components remove
combustion
gases
Furnace chamber:
constructed of
insulating
materials

Hearth: support
or carry the steel.
Consists of
refractory
materials

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Charging & discharging doors for
loading & unloading stock
Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

What are Refractories?


Materials that
Withstand high temperatures and sudden changes
Withstand action of molten slag, glass, hot gases
etc
Withstand load at service conditions
Withstand abrasive forces
Conserve heat
Have low coefficient of thermal expansion
Will not contaminate the load

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Refractory

Refractory lining of a
furnace arc

Refractory walls of a
furnace interior with
burner blocks
(BEE India, 2005)

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Properties of Refractories
Pure substances melt instantly at a specific
Melting point:
temperature. Most refractory materials consist of particles
bonded together that have high melting temperatures. At
high temperatures, these particles melt and form slag. The
melting point of the refractory is the temperature at which
a test pyramid (cone) fails to support its own weight.

Size:The size and shape of the refractories is a part of the


design of the furnace, since it affects the stability of the
furnace structure. Accurate size is extremely important to
properly fit the refractory shape inside the furnace and to
minimize space between construction joint
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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Properties of Refractories
Bulk density: The bulk density is useful property of
refractories, which is the amount of refractory material
within a volume (kg/m3). An increase in bulk density of a
given refractory increases its volume stability, heat capacity
and resistance to slag penetration.
.
Porosity: The apparent porosity is the volume of the open
pores, into which a liquid can penetrate, as a percentage of
the total volume of the refractory. This property is important
when the refractory is in contact with molten charge and
slag. A low apparent porosity prevents molten material from
penetrating into the refractory. A large number of small pores
is generally preferred to a small number of large pores
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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Properties of Refractories
Cold crushing strength: The cold crushing strength is the
resistance of the refractory to crushing, which mostly
happens during transport. It only has an indirect relevance
to refractory performance, and is used as one of the
indicators of abrasion resistance. Other indicators used are
bulk density and porosity..
.
Creep at high temperature: Creep is a time dependent property,
which determines the deformation in a given time and at a
given temperature by a refractory material under stress.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

What is Boiler
Steam generators
Closed vessels

made of steel and

used for generation of steam

vaporizing water

combustion of fuels

eg. coal,coke,oil,wood,saw dust and begesse etc.

Steam used for producing power,for industrial

process work or for heating proposes.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Requirement of Perfect steam


Boiler Boiler
Should be absolutely reliable,capable of producing
maximum steam at required pressure for minimum of
fuel consumption,with minimum attention and minimum
initial cost and operating cost.
Simple constructions
Quick starting from cold
Strong enough against temp. stress & strains
Well design combustion chamber
Less floor area, space & light weight
Best gauges,safety valves and other mountings
Easily accessible for inspection,cleaning and repairs
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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Classification of Boiler
According to flows in the TUBE
1. Water tube.
2. Fire tube.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Fire Tube Boiler

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Water Tube Boiler

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Cecos University

Advantages of water tube


Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Boiler

1. Generation of steam is much quicker due to small


ratio of water content to steam content. This also helps
in reaching the steaming temperature in short time.

2. Its evaporative capacity is considerably larger and


the steam pressure range is also high-200 bar.

3. Heating surfaces are more effective as the hot gases


travel at right angles to the direction of water flow.
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Cecos University

Advantages of water tube


Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Boiler
4. The combustion efficiency is higher because complete
combustion of fuel is possible as the combustion space is
much larger.

5. The thermal stresses in the boiler parts are less as


different parts of the boiler remain at uniform
temperature due to quick circulation of water.

6. The boiler can be easily transported and erected as its


different parts can be separated.
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Cecos University

Advantages of water tube


Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Boiler

7. Damage due to the bursting of water tube is less


serious. Therefore, water tube boilers are sometimes
called safety boilers.

8. All parts of the water tube boilers are easily


accessible for cleaning, inspecting and repairing.

9. The water tube boiler's furnace area can be easily


altered to meet the fuel requirements.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar
Disadvantages of water tube
Boiler
1. It is less suitable for impure and sedimentary water,
as a small deposit of scale may cause the overheating
and bursting of tube. Therefore, use of pure feed water
is essential.
2. They require careful attention. The maintenance
costs are higher.
3. Failure in feed water supply even for short period is
liable to make the boiler over-heated.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Cochran Boiler /Fire Tube


It is well design of a Vertical multitubular fire tube boiler
Improvement over the simple vertical boiler as it
provides greater heating surface.
Total heating surface area is about 10-25 times the
grate area
Efficiency 70-75%
Ranges from 1m dia.X2m high,evaporation 20kg/hr to
3m dia X6m high,evaporation 3000kg/hr.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Cochran Boiler

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Features of Cochran Boiler

It is very compact and requires


minimum floor area
Any type of fuel can be used with this
boiler
Well suited for small capacity
requirements
It gives about 70% thermal efficiency
with coal firing and about 75% with oil
firing
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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Fusible Plug.

If the water level in the boiler


falls below a predetermined level,
the boiler shell and tubes will be
overheated.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Water Level
Indicator.

This indicates the water


level in the boiler

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Pressure Gauge.

This indicates the pressure of the steam in the


boiler.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Steam Stop Valve.


It regulates the flow of steam supply
outside. The steam from the boiler first
enters into an ant-priming pipe where most
of the water particles associated with steam
are removed

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Safety Valve.
The function of the safety valve
is to prevent the increase of
steam pressure in the holler
above its design pressure.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Feed Check Valve.

The high pressure feed water is


supplied to the boiler through this
valve. This valve opens towards the
boiler only and feeds the water to the
boiler.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

Main parts of Cochran Boiler

Blow-off Cock.

The water supplied to the boiler always


contains impurities like mud, sand and,
salt due to heating, these are deposited at
the bottom of the boiler, they have to be
removed using blow off cock.

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Cecos University
Faculty of Engineering, phase 6,Hayat Abad Peshawar

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