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..
2002
681.31(075.8)
32.97
82

:


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(. - . , . .. )

..
82 : . . 2-
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ISBN 5-7038-2090-1

(1- . 2000 .)
,
.

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,
CALS-,
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The textbook is devoted to basic problems and aspects of CAE/CAD/CAM systems. Main
approaches to design procedures including methods and algorithms for modeling, simulation and
synthesis are considered. The information about workstations, networks, design frameworks
and CALS components are given too.
The book is intended to students of technological universities, it may be recommended to
postgraduates and industry specialists using CAE/CAD/CAM in their activity.

681.31(075.8)
32.97

.. , 2002
ISBN 5-7038-2090-1 . .. , 2002

9

1. 12
1.1. 12
(12). (13). -
(15).
1.2. 17
-
(17). (19). -
(20). , -
(20). (22).
1.3.
25
(25). (27). -
(28). CALS- (30).
1.4. 31
(31). (34).
36

2. -
37
2.1. 37
, (37). (38).
(41).
2.2. -
43
(43). (45).
(46).
2.3. 47
(47).
(48).
2.4. Ethernet 48
(48). (49). Ethernet (50).
2.5. 52
Token Ring (52). FDDI(55).

2.6. ,.... 56
(56). (58).
(60). (61). (64).
2.7. 64
TCP (64). IP (67). TCP/IP (68).
(71). SPX/IPX (73). .25 Frame Relay (74). ATM
(75). (78). (80).
83

3. 85
3.1. 85
(85).
(86).
(87).
3.2. 88
(88). -
(89). (93). -
(95).
(96). (97).
3.3. 100
(100). -
(104). -
(105). (106). -
(108). (108).
(111).
3.4. 114
(114).
(114). (117).
3.5. --
118
(118). -
(120). (124).
3.6. 125
(125). -
(128). (130).
(131). (133). GPSS (134).
(140). (143).
3.7.
144
(144). (146). -
( ) (149).
151

4. 153
4.1. 153
(153). (154). -
(157).
4.2. 157
(157).
(159). (160).
(165). (166).
4.3. 171
(171). (172).
(174). (175).
(176). (177).
(178).
4.4.
179
(179). (180).
(182). (182).
(183). (184). -

(185). (186). -
(188). (190). -
(190).
198

5.
200
5.1. 200
(200). -
(202). -
(205). (214).
5.2. ... 217
, (217). -
(220).
5.3. .. 223
(223). ECAD (230).
5.4. 234
(234). (237). -
(240).
(243).
5.5. -
245

CASE- (245). (248). -


IDEFO IDEF3 (250). IDEFIX (256). -
UML (258). CASE-
(260). (261). -
(263). --
(268).
5.6. 271
(271).
(272). (274). -
(276).
(278). (278). PDM (281).
(286).
289

6.
CALS- 291
6.1. CALS- 291
STEP (291). Parts Library, Parametrics, Mandate, IIDEAS (292).
, CALS- (293).
6.2. 295
SGML (295). XML (296).
6.3. STEP- 299
STEP (299). (300). (301).
, (302).
(306). STEP (306).
6.4. Express 307
Express (307). (308).
(308). (310). (311). -
, , (311). (312). -
(313). (314). (316). (316). -
(317). STEP (ISO 10303-21) (319).
Express (319).
6.5. 320
323
324
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PDM (Product Data Management).

25
1

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29
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.

802/3, /,
( , ,
):
< (7) (1) (2 6) -
(2 6) (2) ( 512 12144 ,
. . 64 1518 ) (4) >.
-
.
, 01111110. -
, -
49
2.

-
. .
,
.
Ethernet
Ethernet
. Ethernet,
, ,
.
1. Thick Ethernet ( ); -
10Base-5, 10
10 /, 5
( ), . . 500 . :
5; 100; -
2,5 .
,
() -
.
2. Thin Ethernet ( ); 10Base-2:
5; 185 ; -
30;
0,5 ; 10 /.
3. TwistedPair Ethernet; 10Base-T;
,
(hubs).
. 2.4. () -
() (active and passive hubs),
.

. 2.4.

50
2.4. Ethernet

8 ... 24. -
10Base-T -
600 30 ,
100. 10Base-T .
/,
( )
, , ,
, , . -
10Base-T Ethernet.
10Base-T , . .
-
.
4. Fiber Optic Ethernet ( ), -
10Base-F; , -
. -
2 ... 4 .
, , , -
. ()
- ()
, , .
, -
,
. -
.
5. RadioEthernet ( 802/11). -
, .
-
,
. /,
.
: , ,
,
,
. -
. ,
1 .
,
.
/ . t -
,
, -
(
- ), &t<T.
51
2.

11 /
2,4 , 54 /
5 .
6. Fast Ethernet, 100Base-X 100Base-T (
IEEE 802/3). 100 /.
/. (-
), -
10Base-T
200 . -
100 / ,
, 100/10. -
10 /,
. 250 ,
1024. Fast Ethernet,
Ethernet 10 /, .
: 100Base-TX,
3 5,
100Base-T4 5, 100Base-
FX - .
7. Gigabit Ethernet (1000Base-X).
. 802.3z
830 1270 ( 1000Base-SX
1000Base-LX) 550 5000 , 5
(1000Base-CX) 25 . 1 /.
.
. (
) 10 / (switches)
10/100, 100 /, ,
100/1000. , 1000 /,
, -,
, -,
(, +2, +1,0, -1, -2 ), -, 8b/10b ( .
-). 250 /
125 ,
-.
Ethernet 10 /.

2.5.
Token Ring

: 1) Token Ring ( -
IBM IEEE 802/5); 2)

52
2.5.

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) .


802/5 :
< (7) (7) ()
(6) (>=0) (4) -
(1) (7) >.
-
, , , . . , 802/5
( ), , -
. 0,
, = 1, (. . -
). -
, -
.
Token Ring . 2.5, .
,
. . 2.5,
.
(. . 2.5,6) ,
( ).
Token Ring -
: 96;
12; 120 ;

45 ; 4 16 /.
.
,
, .
,
,
. ,
, .

. 2.5. Token Ring:


;

53
2.


. , , .

, .
.
. -
,
. -
, ,

. () -
, -
, . -
,
. ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
. , , ,
, .
:
< R > .
= , . , -
, , -
, :
= 1 R ,
. -
, :
1) , , -
R, R ; 2) --
, ,
( ) .
, -,
. ,
, ,
- 0. :

R .
-,
(
).
54
2.5.

Token Ring
, Ethernet, .
FDDI
FDDI , -
, .
. -
100 /. -
200 , 2 . -
500. 1300 .
.
( . 2.6, ).

200 /.
,
. 2.6, .
FDDI . -
THnaNRZ ( ),
1, -
0. ,
.
4b/5b. 4b/5b
,
,
,
, FDDI.

, ,

.

. 2.6. FDDI:
;

55
2.

FDDI ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, , .
, , -, -
,
.
FDDI
. , -
Ethernet Token
Ring , -
FDDI.

2.6.

-
. -, -
-
. -,
( ), ( , -
-), ( ). -,

(TDM) (FDM) .
-
( , . . ), -

.
, .
() , -
, . . .
. -
, -
. , -
( ) N ,
N
2 . , 16 1200
4 /
4800 /. ,
, .
-
F (,
56
2.6.

Iog2 k , k
)

V = Iog2k/t ( k < 1 + , ;
t , ,

-
.
: 12,5 -
6,25 . , -
,
, ,
, .
(STP Shielded Twist Pair) -
(UTP Unshielded Twist Pair) .
, , -
(). -
1 . 2 -
4 /. , .
Ethernet (, 10Base-T) 3,
Token Ring 4. -
5 6.
5 1 00 ,
0,5 1 , -
. UTP
100 . 5 100
1 00 24 , 1 0 1 00 1 .
6 7 , PIC,
,
. 6 5 ,
0,5 , 100 22 .
7
, 8 , 100
20 , 600 - 50 .
,
( -
), .
, .
.
, -
, .
(-
) ,
.

.
57
2.

10 ,
125 ... 200 . -
: 0,83 ... 1,55 ;
0,7 /; 2 ; 4... 5 . 1 . -
D ( )
X: , = 850 D = 5 , X, = 1300
D = 50 , .
, ,
Fiber Channel , -
133 1062 / 10 ( -
SCSI
160 / ). -
SDH (SONET) 155 622 /, -
.

SDH (Synchronous
Digital Hierachy). SDH -
. , -
. .
STM-1.
270 , 1 .
. ,
( -
, ).
.
.

, . ,
. -
1,5; 6; 45 140 / ( ) 2; 6; 34
140 / ( ). STM-1
155,52 /.
STM-1 STM-0, STM-4
STM-16 51, 622 2488 / .


.
.

(902 ... 928 2,4 ... 2,5 ) . -
5,725 ... 5,85 .
, , -
( ) , ,
-
58
2.6.

. -
.

-
. -
, -
, .
, -
. -
-
.
(
),
/,
, -
.
-
-
. -
.
, (
15...20 ). -
: ,
.

RadioEthernet, -
. . -
.
.
802/11
,
.
(DSSS
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum).
11
(). ,
, .
-
( DSSS 802/11
11 /, 22 2,4 ).
, . ,
, 22 ,
, ,
.
, , , --
59
2.

, , -, -
, .
(FHSS Frequency Hopping
Spread Spectrum). 802/11
79 . ( 20... 400 )
, -
, -
.
-
,
,
. , -
.

. ( 36 .
) .
( 500 ) . -
. -

. ,
, , , ,
, , , -
. ( ).
; -
, Lucent Technologies,
Aironet, Multipoint Network.

,
. , -
, , . -
.
-
. , -
,
.

-
0,3 ... 3,4 ( -
), .
-
,
. -

60
2 6

,
.
,
, ,
.
/ , -
:

Um ; ; v|/ .
Um, (AM),
() vy ().
--
(QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation,
-),
, = 4 ... 8 (. .
16 ... 256 ). ,
,
( 12 4).

2 3
.
-
V.32, V.34, V.90 V.92. , V.34 -
2,4 28,8 / 2,4 /.

1600 ... 2000 , -
.
V34.bis 33,6 /. -
56 / , 2 V.90-92.

-
- (), PCM (Pulse Code Modulation).

, dt, -
. , dt -
:
,
. -
,
4 ( ) . ,
( ) 8 , . .
64 ( 56 ).

61
2.

1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1

..
. 2.7.

-
.
. 2.7.
-
. -
, -
.
, .
-
1 ( DS-1). -
24 , DS-0 (Digital Signal-0).
8
28 = 256 , 64 /
1554 / 1. -
1 32 64 /, . . 2048
/. ( DS-3), 28 1
(45 /); 4, 6 , 4 -
. -
.
1 (TDM). 24
, 192-
. 24 .
.
1
. DS-0 ( ) -
, . . . -
, -
, 1, 1
.

(, DS-0).
- , -
, .
, , ,
-
. DS-1
.
62
2.6.

, -
, (,
).
-
. -
,
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network).
ISDN .
ISDN 56 / 1,54 /
ISDN (Broadband ISDN, B-ISDN) 155 ... 2048 /.
ISDN .
64 / (
5-) 16 / (D-).
23 64 / D
16 /.
( ), . -
, -
.
, 1, , ISDN
.
ISDN . 2.8. ^-
.
ISDN, S-
. NT2 S- -, -
. NT1 -
(. 2.9) -
U.

RS-232/V.35

. 2.8. ISDN

63
2.


,
4

i "
<

. 2.9. -


-
xDSL ( ISDN-). xDSL
HDSL (High-bit-rate Digital Subcriber Line), SDSL (Single Pair Symmetrical
Digital Subcriber Line), ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line) . ,
HDSL , -
2 /
5,4 . .
ISDN xDSL.

, . .
, :
-
, , , ;
-
,
() ;
- -
( ) -
; -
(. . 2.9).

2.7.

TCP
, ,
, .
, SPX/IPX, X.25, Frame Relay (FR), ATM,
.
64
2.7.

TCP/IP -
Internet. TCP/IP
, , , -
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol )
IP (Internet Protocol). -
, Unix Windows-95/NT.
TCP .
-
-
. TCP -
;
- -
, . . , -
, , , ,
, -
; ,
. . .
TCP -, -
-
,
- .

( ACTIVE_OPEN)
, - ( ), .
(
ACTIVE_OPEN_WITH_DATA). , -
(OPEN_RECEIVED), .
SEND , DELIVER
. -
CLOSE CLOSING.

.
, -
, .
TCP- ( ) ,
:
(16);
5(16);
, . .
, (32);
,
5(32);

65
2.

(16), -
, , -
, . .;
(16), , . . ,
;
(16);
(16);
(24);
(8);
.
TCP , -
. -
.
32
2 / ,

.
-
16 . , Jv

216 . -
, (216 8 ) / Tv . ,
Tv
0,5 1 /.
,
(01).
TCP ,
(-) -
. Tm=2t, t -
Tv . -
Tv,

,
, 0,5 ... 2,0 ,
.
, -
, , , -
, . .
.
= k + ,
k ,
.

2.7.

.
, -
,
.
.

( 512 ), . . .
( ),
. . , .


. ,
,
.

IP
IP , . .
. -
. ,
-
. -

, -
-. -
-
.
IP
, ; -
, . . ;
(
, . . TCP,
);
.
IP ( ):
IP (4) ( IPv4 IPv6);
(4), . . 32- ;
(8);
(16) ;
(16) ;
-
, -
;

. 67
2.

(16), . . , -
;
(8);
(8),
(TCP, UDP . .);
CRC (16);
(32);
(32);
(32);
( 65 356 ).
IP, -
IPv4. 32--
. , 32 2 32 4,3 -
, Internet
.
IPv6,
. , --
14-, . .
. ( 2002 .) Internet
IPv4.
14- 216 65 . -
, . . , -
, 216 .
, -
IP. , 120
216/ 120 = 546 , 65 .
300 / ( -
-
TCP).
,
( ).
, -
. ,
, . = 0 =
.
.
TCP/IP
TCP/IP .
, .
, ( ,
-
). ,
.
68
2.7.

, -
.
IP-. IPv4 , -
: (, , -
IP-, ). . -
.
IP- IP- .
Internet DNS (Domain Name Service), ISO -
.500.
IP-, ,
.
( -
). , ,
: , us, de, uk, edu-
, com , org
, gov , mil ,
net Internet . . IP-
, , , -
@ . ,
norenkov@wwwcdl.bmstu.ru : -
norenkov wwwcdl bmstu
.
14- , (), -
. ,
,
. IP-
, , IP--
. , 255.0.0.0, -
255.255.0.0 . . .
-
-, .
, , IP- -
IP- DNS. -
DIB (Directory Information Base) DNS.
, ,
IP- . IP--
, DNS
IP- IP-.
, ,
-, IP- MAC-. -
ARP,
TCP/IP. ARP- IP MAC
.
69
2.

Internet . -
; ,
; -
, -
.

.
Internet (,
wwwcdl.bmstu.ru http:// www.eevl.ac.uk) -
.
IP- IP-.
(bmstu), , -
, ()
IP- . DNS-cep-
IP- ,
.
IP- -
() , IP- -
. , -
ARP- IP- -,
. ARP- -
- , , . .
, ARP-. -
, , IP-, -
-. , -
- ARP-
-. ,
, ,
.
, Internet
IPv6 IP.
IPv6 128 . -
-
. (
):
FP = 001 , , -
(3, 8);
TLA (8 ... 13),
;
RES (8);
NLA (32),
();
70
2.7.

SLA (16), . .
;
ID (48),
-.
. ,
, .
IPv4 IPv6 -
. , IPv4 IPv6
32 , 96 .
IP- IPv6 40 -
:
(4) (4) (24)
(16) (8) (8) -
(8) ( 128).
16- ,
,
. -
-
. .

TCP/IP
. ,
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) -
, TCP,
, .
UDP- IP ,
IP-
TCP, UDP.
. UDP ,
TCP (8 20 ),
, TCP,
.
UDP- ( ):
( 16);
(16);
(16);
( 65,5 . ).
, TCP, -
. , :
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) ,
;
71
2.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


;
Telnet .
TCP/IP IEEE 802/ .25.
TCP/IP
.
, -
, ,
. TCP/IP
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol),
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
ICMP:
-
; ( -
) ICMP-, -
;

;
; ICMP-
-
;
( ) -
Tv , .
, Tv .
ICMP- .
.
Tv.
ICMP- IP- .
-
,
,
.
-
MIB (Management Information Base).
MIB: ,
, ,
.
SNMP TCP/IP.
. (
SNMP) , ( SNMP -
) , -
(, , , ) -
.
72
2.7.

, .
, , -
. SNMP MIB,
, .
SNMP, UDP.
SNMP -
,
. ,
.
SNMP RMON (Remote Monitoring)
Ethernet Token Ring RMON2 .
RMON , -

.
SNMP ,
Manage WISE Novell UnicenterTNG
Computer Associates. -
: 1 2>- , -
, ( -
); 2 ,

; 3 -
.

-
.
-
.
.
SPX/IPX
Netware Novell SPX (Sequence
Packet Exchange) IPX (Internet Packet Exchange) -
.
IPX ( -
), ( ) (-
). 30
546 . SPX 42 , . .
534 .
SPX ( ) -
connect, con-
nected () disconnected ().
, .
-
IPX.
73
2.

.25 Frame Relay


.25, , -
ITU (International
Telecommunication Union),
. .25 1976 .
, ,

, . -
.25 ,
.25.
.25 , . .
, . -
.
.25:
, , -
, . . , ,
( ), (
);
,
, (
8 128);
() ,
;
, ,
.
.25 -
( , , IP,
). -
, . . .25 ,
.
( -
), .

.
( .25 , ,
Sprint, Infotel, .)
.25 . 2.10.
.25 --
. 9,6 64 /. -
.21, -
-.2 Ibis.

74
2.7.

. 2.10. .25

Frame Relay (FR) .25


( 45 /) -
, , -
, , . .
.
,
, . FR -
.
FR
, .
FR -
, .
FR -
,
,
. ,
.25, ,
( ).
FR
, .
FR -
,
.25. , -

.
ATM
, ATM
(Asynchronous Transfer Mode), , -
(,
) . , -
-

75
2.

, , , -
, (,
6 ).
ATM
(53 ), .
ATM .
ATM , -
.
.
, ,
-
.
.
,
.

. , -
, .
, -
5 .
ATM .
-,
(TDM)
( }.
,
. N , -
.
, N. ATM ,
-
. ( ) -
( 32 )
/?- . -
, -
. -
, -
. , -
. ,
.
-, -
( ) .
.
( -
). ( ) -
.
76
2 7

-, .
TCP/ IP. -
, -
-
. .
, (
, , IP).
. -
1
() , ( * -
VPI/VCI () .
, -
.
-, ()
, ^
(
ATM), .
ATM (. 2.11).
AAL ,
( 64 )
, , , 48- ,
-
, , -
. -
, .
, ATM, -
.
.
ATM- SDH } ' 4' L1 / 4), -
,
SDH !
FR ATM FR .
.

! J
! 1 f
*ft?
<
gfe !
J
(switch)

. 2.11. ATM
77
2.


SDH, -. -
STM-16, STM-4, STM-1. ,
,
. FR
ATM 3 .
ATM 51, 155,622 2488 /
-1, -3, -12 -48 . , -
, , TCP/IP .25, ,
- -
ATM, ATM.
. -

(FR), 4
.
ATM
ATM Forum .
, ATM-
, , TCP/IP, ,
, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, FDDI. , -
IP-over-ATM (Multi-Protocol-Over-ATM), a
IP- , -
, ATM-.
TCP/IP ATM-
ATM-.
53- , --
.
, ATM -
( ). -
-
.


,
( Fieldbus).
,
SCADA.
-
, , ,
, .
,

.

78
2 7

. -
Fiber Channel, Fire Wire 1394, USB, Ethernet, a
VMEbus, PCI .
,
, , .
Ethernet
( 802.3).

() Fieldbus, -
. Fieldbus -
, . . -
: , , .
Profibus, Interbus/S, CANbus .
, -
,
. -
Infiniband, Fiber Channel, USB, FireWire 1394, -
RS-232,
RS-422,RS-485.
, , -
(,
) -
- , VMEbus -
pactPCI.
VMEbus 1987. ( IEEE 1014). -
(IEEE 1101.10
1101.11). 21 ,
. 320 /.
-
-, .
CompactPCI (PCI Peripheral Component Interconnect) -
, 1990- .
CompactPCI PCI,
. 16. -
132 / 32- 264 /
64- .
(, -
) . -
, OLE.
(OLE for Process Control).

(, )
, - 1 ( ).
79
2.

. -
,
Ethernet ,
.
Profibus, 12 , 247 , -
1,5 . ,
Ethernet. Profibus, , ,
CAN. Fieldbus RS-485
, 1,2 , 32 .

, -
(internetworking), ()
. , , -
, , , , .
(repeater) , -
, .
,
(, ) - -
, , -
.
, , .
. , ,
.
. ,
10Base-T Token Ring.

.
(bridge) ,
, .

, , -
, . -
-
.
, -
. ,
, .
, .
.
,

.
, , ,

80
2.7.

.
:
. .
,
,
.
. 2.12.

. , -
, , -
. -
. ,
.
, , ,
(AS Autonomous System). AS
.
. AS
AS,
().
, .
-
-
. , ,
, . -
-
, . . .
.
,
.

. 2.12. :
; ; ;
FDDI ;

81
2.

(router) ,
. -
-
, , .

,
IP- . -
, -
, . . ,
.
(, -
) . -
-, -
- . ,
, -
. IP--
-
.
( out-through), -
,
( store-and-forward).
, -
.
, -
.
, ,
, .
. , ODS Infinity -
Optical Data Systems Ether-
net, Token Ring, FDDI, Local Talk,
48, 48, 2 6 . -
(
), . -

.
.
,

, , .
,
, .
, ,
- .
82


. ,
.
.
,

. .
() , -
, .
, -
. -
( -
IEEE 802/10), .
(
) .
Cisco. -
Catalyst 1024 FDDI, E, TR,
ATM.
.
(gateway ) ,

. -
. ,
Ethernet SNA, -
. , -
.


1. .
2. ?
3. ? ?
4. -
.
5. (TDM) (FDM)
?
6. / -
?
7. 10Base-5,
500 .
8. ?
9. RadioEthernet?
10. 4b/5b 8b/10b -
?
11. Token Ring?
12. Ethernet ?
Gigabit Ethernet.
83
2

13.
4 130?
14. -
?
15. -
( 36 . ).
16. 1 ?
17. , -.
18. -
TCP?
19. IP- , ?
20. ?
21. ,
ATM.
22. ?
23. ?
3.

3.1.


, , -
.
,
.
-
-
. , ,
.
,
, -
, -
. .
( , -
, ) -
-
. ,
,
.
, ,
. ,
,
,

85
3

/. ()
, ,
, .
,
,
. , ,
- . -
()
, -
, . .
.
, ,
, -
, , -
,
, .
.


,
, .
.
,
.
.
( ) -
, . -
,
, -
.

. ,
.
,

| 0 |< ,
8 -
,
; =
r fj ( -I] ')/ij .', ] TAXij z- -

"
'- .
86
3.1.

, -
. ,

, ,
.
-
.


-
(). , -
: -, ,
-, .
-
.
,
,
. -
, ,
. -
.
-
(. 3.1)
. ,
, -
. -
.



| t


. 3.1.

87
3.


,
, ,
, .
3.2.




.
,
.

, .

.
,
(), ,
().
-
.


().
, -
,
. -

. -
, , ,
(), . -
: -
-
.

, .

VK(dV/dt,\,t) = , (3.1)

Ft(V) = 0, (3.2)

88
3.2.

V = (v,, v2, ..., ) ; t .


, -
(, -
) (, ).
,
(,
),
.

, -
.
.

.
. -
.
- -
.
: , , -
R, , L. -
. 3.2, .
:
= iR ( ); (3.3)

= Cdu/dt; (3.4)

- Ldi/dt, (3.5)
(, ); / .

R


-DI-

L


. 3.2. :
, , ;

89
3.

. 3.3.

-
.
(3.3) (3.5) (. . R, , L ),
R, , L ,
. -
.

() (). ,
,

:
= , (3.6)
" f = 0, (3:7)
. - ; J9
, q-e .

. . 3.3 ,
/ = 1(/(/)) im= /^^/
/()) - /?-; '^ /
; / ;
; ; R^viR^ -
, /?6 RK ;
/' = Bi - i , ;
' . , , 1, /, /. -
, .
. -
.
.
, ,
. -
,
.
90
3 2.

, ,

F= Mdu/dt, (3.8)
F ; ; .
,
. ( -
)
G = e, (3.9)
G ; ; = /// -
; / / -
G. , G = F/S, F , S
, (3.9),
dF/dt = (SE/l) d(U)/dt

dF/dt = gu, (3.10)


g = SE/l (, , -
Z,M); = d(&l)/dt .
-
, -
,
, -
.
, -, :
, , , (
); -, , -
, .
-
-
, , -
, .

. 3.2, .
-
. ,
( ) ,
(3.4) (3.5) /, (3.8) (3.10)
MnLu, -
. ( ),
91
3.

L ZM ( ), R Rrp=
= du/dF ( ).
-
: ( ),
{ID)
(3D) . ,
3D -
, , -
.
, -
, -

.
. -
. , -
-
.

/ -
( ):
pdU/dt = -dP/dx-2aU,
; U ; ;
. U = Q/S, Q ,
S , , -
,
dQ/dt =5/(/) - 2aQ/p,
'

= LrdQ/dt + RTQ. (3.11)


;
Z r = A/pAS , -
; RT= 2 aAl/S , -
.
. -
:
RT= 8//(4), ; -
-
^>^-v> |1-[ =
-' = RrQ\Q\ R=0,31(nru /\Q\)M.
. 3.4. (3.11)
, . 3 .4.
92
3 2

/,=/ 2

. 3.5.

,
,
(3.12)
(3.12) , Q -
U d&l/dt Q US,
JAP/ = CrQ,
Cr = E/(S I) .
. -
: -
, -
.

, . 3.5.
; g ; U /
'- ; j = 1 , / = 2 -
.
. , -
,
VHDL-AMS,
across quantity,
through quantity.


.

, . . ,
.
(3. 1) (3.2).

93
3.

R.

J
tl =U[V


. 3.6. () ( )
-
-
, . -
,
. , -
, . -
( -
,
).

. 3.6.
, -
, -
. ,
, -
.

. -
() , . . - 1 , -
, ( -
). . 3.6, ,
. 3.6, ,
.
Ux 1^
, 1 -

+ = 0; (3.13)
1 - 1 = 0, (3.14)
7
; -.
94
3.2,

- - 3.1
,

. -
. - 1 2
. -
- q- RI -1 0 0
, - R2 0 -1 0
= +1 -
, = -1
R3 0 0 -1
. - R4 -1 +1 +1
= 0. J +1 0 0
. 3.6 -
. 3.1

.
( ).
, , ,
.
, , -
; ,
, ;
, . -
.
. 3.7, -
, ,
51,52 1,2. . 3.7, -
, -
, , -
, ;
, . 3.7, , .


\
L



. 3.7. :
- ; -

95
3


(3. 1) (3.2)
, -
. -
, , -
.
, , -
,

V - V - ; = tn - tn_l
. -
t ( t
tn),

FT(VJ = 0; (3.15)
Zn= (-_,)//*

Vn , Z = dV/dt.
, ,
-
.
2 + ,
(
, -
, -
), .
-
, -
( ) .

.
. -
.
(
, ), -
W . -
, -
96
3 2

. , (
, 2/2), -
, . . , .
,
, . . ,
dWIdt W, -
.
-
.

, -
.
-
(. . -
, ,
, -
).
-1, .
, , ,
2 .
-
, -
.



.
. -
,
. , -
, (3.13) (3.14)

U + M<p = 0; (3.16)

1 = 0, (3.17)
U I .
-
,
,
4

3.

1 = +, (3.18)
, -
(; , -
/.
( ) -
, -
.
(3.18) (3.16) (3.17), :
T
1= M (GnUn+ ) = - + =

= , (3.19)

= - ; = . -
, ( - 1), ,
-(-1)(-1).
(3.19)
(), , -
-
. -
,
.
, .
, -
R.
-
.
-
in = Cdu/dt \ = ( -.. ,)/*,
g = 11 = const
g=C/hn.
= gun ,.
:
= !(/-/ _,)/
L = const

98
3.2.

-
,

dU/dt I = - ,
; \ U -
.
.
, ( ) -
, , , -
,
.
, -
, -
.
.
, -

. (. 3.2), -
: UHCT(I) , ; (/)
; 1(1) ,
; L ; - i
^.
UHCT, I, , 1
. , -
, . . I,
. ( )
. : IL - ; I, ,.
- ; Gx, GL, G, -
, , .
(3.17)

3.2
(1) (/)
12
L 21 22 23
1(1) 3, 32 33

99
3.

I, (3.18),
1

= (91 /51) - .
(3.16),

U,= - - 12 - 13 = - 1] - 12 (/1)1 - ,3.



, I 1L:
- () / + M12RI) + (2)) I, + (31) KI =

= ( ) (, 1 3 -,); (3.20)
\ = - 21 + M22RI + 23) + ,; (3.21)
I = - ,(31 + M32RI + 33) + (3.22)

R = (5UHCT/9I). -
.
. 1 . -
, AL -
. 2. , , ,
1/5 Gi5 -
. 3. , ,
,
, -
(3.20)-(3.22).

3.3.

-
. ( -
) , -
,
, . -
, , , -
-
, , ,
, . .
100
3.3.

, -
,
():

, -
. -
, (3. 1 5),
, -
.
-
, . -
-
.
( -
, , ) -
(, ). -

.

tn:

; hn = tn + , - tn
( hn ).

:
</V/A
1
| = ( V - V-1,)/A,
v
' '

= *-*_,.
-
:
dVldt = AV (3.23)
V0 -
h. ; V
.

101
3.

. V n + 1 -
V0:
V_ +1 = (E + /zA)"V 0 . (3.24)

= + (3.25)
:
= T-'diag^JT.
- ; diag{A,B } - -
, . ,

, ,
, -
. (3.25) :

(3 .23) V( /) > 0 / > , ,



+1 ->->,


( + /zA)" V 0 -> ,
V 0 * 0, ( + )" -> 0, ^ 0, . - 0 -

- |1 + | < 1. (3.26)
,
.
. (
(3.23) ), -

^-^,,

(3.26)
-1<|1-/|<1<<2, (3.27)
.
, (3 .27),
.
102
3 3

(3.27), -
, ,

. , -
.
(3.27)
. , -
(3.27) , ,
, 1
.
(3.27) .
-
. , ^ -

, . . -
.

= /
. , .

,
> 105 . -
.
-
. (3.24)

h > 0. , -
-.
. -,
h > 0.
^- -
.
, .
; -,
, -, -
^-
. -
-
.
103
3.


, -
,
. ,

.
, - -
, . . , - , -

V( t) , , -
; |V (/>+1) (t)| ( + 1) V(/),
- ; -
/ .
- , . .
, h
. V(f) -
tn+l, ( + 1)-
+ (d2V/dt 2 )AV2! - (d3 V/dt 3)#/3! + ... (3.28)
( + 2)-
V(/;+2) = Vfc + 1) + (dVldt)ht + (d2\/dt2)h2x/2\ + (d3V/dt3)h3x/3\ + ..., (3.29)
hn h , -
tn+ . (3.28) (3.29), h = = /?
V(tn +2) = V(tn) + 2(dV/dt)h + 2(d3V/dt3)h3/3\ + ...,
. . , (3.28) (3.29),

h3. ,
.
, ,
. -
,
,
.
-
. ,
() d, -
.
, , ,
.

104
3.3.




.
, . -
, -

(). .
, ,
(3.19).
.
, -
, , -
, -
. , (3.19)
. -
.

F(X) = 0. (3.30)
F(X) \k ,

F(X) = F(Xt) + (SF/dX)(X - Xt) + (X - Xt)T(S2F/dX2)(X - XJ/2 + ... = 0.

, X:
, (3.31)
^ = (5F/3X)|t. (3.31)
(3.30), X t + ,.
0
, ,

.
. -
,
. -
. -
, -
.
105
3.

-
, , = 0 = 0 (3.30) , a
0 X
= 0 . -
,
, -
.
, -
,
.
h. , h =
. h -
.

,
.



. -
. k-w. -
xk
= (3.32)
at] / > k > k
<* '- =a,j-alkakjlakk. (3.33)
- 1 , (3.32), -
, -
. , -
.
(3.32)
3. -
, -
, -
. ,

(3.32).
, -
. ,
, -, (3.33),
alk akj , -,
106
3.3.

.
, ,
, , 1-2.
-
, -
, , , .

.

11*1 14*4

(3.33) ,
, , -
. ,
, .
. 3.3 . .
.
. 3.3 3.4, -
+ . ,
, .
, -
.
. -
-
, ,
.

( ) -
.
3.3 3.4

107
3.

-
. -
( ) -
.
. , -
(200 200)
320 . 9
,
28 .

(3.33) a,k 0 akj * 0 , ,
(3.33). -
, -
, , -
, .
,
.
(3.33) -
.

. ,
. , -

.

-
. -
, d/dt -
'.

, -
, .
. -
.
,
-, ,
. .

-
X
Q . ,
. ,
108
3.3.

. . , ,
.
-
,
X Q, -
. -
-
, , ,
,
. .
.
, -
, . . ^ .
. 1,
, . -
.
-
. -
,
yj . TV -
- xt ( X Q),
, -
AJC,, , -

!,= (, ~.,)/.,

jt J I I '] *

-
. , ,
./^ 1 . -
, -
,, BJt.
.
, -
, .
-
() . -
-
:,
:. -
,
109
3.

. 3.8.

(. 3.8).
-
, Y < ,
,
.
-
- ( ). -
./V , -
,
-. -
jc(. -
,
N , :
;
:
-
, , ,
.
, -
, , ./V -
, .
, -, -
-
- xt.
, *( ,
-
^ xt , (
). -
. -
,
. !
110
3.3.

, . -
,
,j [1 : ].
, < (. .
sign(.8,,) = ) ^ > sign(5,,) = 1,

I = I + *I ,'

, , , -
,
,
, -
, , -
.



-
. 3.9.
-

-

F(X) =

. -

= .

. 3.9. : V0(/0) - ;
h /? - ; UBH(/) -
; N NU -
; - ;
8 - , ; 1 -
; -
.
111
3

V:=V0;t:=to;h:=hHm

, * =

/
V :=+

. 3.9. -

, jV> ^

. -
5 ,
[2, ml] , .
N , ml, m2, , -
.

, . -
, -
. . 3.10.
112
3.3.


_>. *

t


i -




1

. .

(
) .

.
-
, -
. ,
. ,

, , -
.
- , -

, (. . 3.9). -
(. . 3.10)- , -
. 3.9.
. -
,
,
.
-
, ,
- . .

3.

3.4.


,
. ,
. -
JCj, x2, 3
t.
-
.
:
1)

- ; - ; - ; t - ; X - -
; g - , -
;
2)

at
N- ; D - ;
3) , :

4)
div = / ( ) .
; q ; Jpu 3
; gp gn --
; ; -
; .
,

, , -
.

- -
.
-
-
114
3.4.

. ,
.
-
: () . -
, . . -
.
-
.

IF(z)=/(z)

L ; F(z) ; z =
= (,, 2, 3, f) ; /(z) y(z) -
.
-
--
.
.
, -
.
. 3 . 1 1 .
, -
. ,
. , ,
,
. , -
dVldx k,

h(dV/dx) = 4+ , - V-, 2h(8V/dx) = Vk+ , - Vk_ ,; HpVIQ*) = Vk^-2Vk + Vk_ ,,

h .
. 3 . 1 1
- :
-


2
2* W = V^^ + F t _, ,+

Vk VB (,k, x ); h
.
115
3

-1 1 -1 1 1 -2 1
--

(
k)
t
^ .t u
-1

. 3.11.

,
F(z). , -
qt
T
U(z.) = Q <p(z), (3.34)
T
Q = (#,, q2, ..., <7) - ,
cp(z) - ( ) ,
, .
-
, -
U(z) (, (z) -
). U(z)
-

A(z, Q) = LU(z) -/(z) = I(QT9(z)) -f(z), (3.35)
Q.
( Q) :
1) , , (3.35),
Q:

;
2) , -
(3.35) ;
3) ,
.

. -
, . .
( ). ,
.
116
3.4.


-
( ), -
, ,
.

.
,
= 0,5 I 8 T arfR, (3.36)
R

= (en, s22, s33, s)2, 813, 823) - - ; = (, 22,
, , ,3, ?3) - ; R - .
stj
etj= 0,5(5)^/5* +dW}/dx), (3.37)
Wt *,
= 0,5SW, (3.38)
S (3.37) ; W = (w , w , \v ).
D,
, . 3.5:
a = De. (3.39)
, , ,
.
(3.39) (3.38) (3.36),
3= 0,5j\VTSTDSWdR.
R

W(X), X = (,, xz, 3).



(3.34), -
:
U(X) = NQ,
N ; Q -
. 3.5
+2 0 0 0
+2 0 0 0
X ,+ 2 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 0 0
0 0 0 0 2 0
0 0 0 0 0 2

117
3.

W(X) U(X),
= 0,5|QTNTSTDSNQrfR=0,5QT( J(SN)TDSNrfR)Q=0,5QTKQ, (3.40)
R R

= J(SN)TDSNc?R .
R

/dQ = /dQ - /dQ =


, (3.40),
KQ = , (3.41)
= 9A/5Q . , ,
, -
(3.41).
,
(3.41) .
.
,
.

3.5.
-

- ,
, -
.
-
. , -
.
--
, .
, . .
, -
.
--
.
-, . .

, (3.42)
. F,x - .
, (3.42) , FBX
.
118
3 5 -

, (3.42) , -
, . . -
. , (3.42) -
.
,
, -
. (3.42) -
, ,() (),

()
.

h(p)- .

, -
.
--
. -
,
(3.42).

, :
,
. -
.
(. 3.12), -
ht(p), h2(p)
h3(p).

= h}(p)h2(p)/(l -

. 3.12.
119
3

, :
1) ,
, -
;
2) ;
3) ;
4) -
;
5) -
.

- -

. ,
, ,
.
( 1) (-
0), . -
. -
- .
-
.
- -
, -
. , -
, , ()
= a or b, () = a and b, ()> = not , -
, b .
.
. 3.13.
-
, , -
, .

. 3.13.

120
3.5. -

&
(\ &
1
~

L&
R &
(

. 3.14. ./US'-

.
,
, .
.
-
, (. 3.14):
= not (R and ); Q = not ( and ); = not (A and Q); = not (S and ).
,
.

y(t (3.43)
t3 ; / . (3.43)
, , -
(), t + tm. -
,
.
-
.
-
(-
) . ,

. ,
, -
.
-
.
,
. ,
, .
121
3.

&
-


. 3.15. :
;

.
. 3.15, -
,
. 3.15, . ,
, -
, , . 3.15, ,
, .
.
.
, 1 <8>, -
. -
, ,
. 3.6.
, ,
.

,
, ( ) (
) .
, -
: 0-0-0, 1-1-1, 0--1, 1--. -
0-<8>-0 1--1 -
, . . .
3.6


0 1 0 <8> 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 <8> 1 -
1 0 1 1 1 1 -

122
3.5. -

3.7

1 0 0
<8>
0 1 0

(. 3.15, ) -
. 3.7.

(. 3.16). ,
, . -
-
,
{0, 1, <8>, , ), -
, , -
.
,
: 0-0-0, 1-1-1,
0-a-l, 1-P-0. 0-<&-1 1-<8) -
.
.
(t + tm) =/(X(/)) , (^) , -
tl + tm >.
, tm
[tt mm, /3 ma j , ,
+
*\ ^ mm 'j
+
ax .


. 3.16. :
;

123
3.


-
() .
-
/0, /15 /2,... . .
-
, -
.
.
. -
: -
, -
.
2... 3 % -
, -
-
.
-
.
,
.
-
npmfepe (. . 3.14). . 3.8 -

.
( ) -
, , Q,P,A, -
.
-
R, S . , -
, -
.
,
, -
. , -
,
.
,
, -
.
.

124
3.6.

3.8
R S Q
0 0 0 1 1 0 1
( 0) 0 1 1 1 1 0 1
1 0 1 1 1* 1 0 0*
2 0 1 1 1 1 1* 0
3 0 1 1 1 0* 1 0
4 0 1 1 1 0 1* 0
-
: 1) -
, -
(); 2) (
) 0; 3)
k,
k - 1.
, (. . 3.14)
Q Q,, -
: S, , Qt 0,- \,- 2 > - 3.
:
= not (S and ); = not (R and ); =not (A and Q);Q=not ( and P).
( ) .
,
, ,
.
-
. - -
, .
(. . 3.14)
: 16-
, . 3.8, -
. . 3.8 , -
. , , 0 5
, -
.

3.6.


-
, , , -
,
. .
(-
125
3.

).
, -
( ) ,
() ,
.
, ,
, , , -
, . , , , -

-
. , ,
. -
,

().
-
, , -
, ,
, . .

(), (), -
. -
. -
, . ,

.
-
. , -
.
.
, , -
true () false (), -
, .
, , -
.
, -
, , , -
, . -
.
FIFO (
), LIFO ( )
.

126
3.6.


.
, . -
, . -
,
, .
, -
. -
.
, . .
, ,
,
. -
, -
.
.
, , -
.

-
.
, -
, .
, -
- -
,

, -
. , , -
. -
,
, .
-
, -
-
.

() .
-
. (,
),
. -
, -
.
127
3.


,
. -
.
-, , ,
FIFO.
-, -
.
-, -
, . . ,
, (
), .

. -
.
S, -

( ). ,
, ,
( )
( ).
, F =limP (*,)/*,
( > 0, { (fj) - St S
tr

'

(3.44)

N . . 3.17 -
1,,..., S4, . 3.9 -
.
3.9
Si 52 5 54
5i -Ki2-Ki3-Ki4 Vu Vn
Si V21 -Vi\ 0 0
5 0 0 -F34 F34
54 0 K42 0 -F42

128
3 6


, -
, . .
() -
-
. -
, . 3.17.
-
. , ,
.
.
St t}
S -
St
f,, . .

(0 = (,) - (0 = IP ,(gp ( - (,(0, (3.45)


,/eJ *

P(t) P(f) - S S -
t, ,(^,) ?,)
?,; ,(f,)P (0
S 5 , , -
; J
S
.
(3.45) /, t > ,


*L(Vj i )-
v
1' i
I Vik..
J *

dP/dt = 0
, /- -

Z(Fy,P) = P Z F t . (3.46)
j *
Vt ( (3 .46) (3 .44),
N N

Jl J ' I
;=1 t-1

\

129
3

. .

.

, -
, -
, -
.
NW , ,
Qm , Tw ,
.
. 3.18 , Sk
k .
. .

, i= 1,2,3,...,
0.
^^^
2= (( + )/, - 0)/ = (1 + ), - 0 = <0;
3= (1 + )2 - aPt = 2}= ?0 . .

= . /. , -
< 1.

S = 1, = 1/(1 + + 2+3+...) =1-.

. 3.18.

130
3.6.

3.10
So Si S2 5 S4
So - 0 0 0
Si -.- 0 0
5 0 -- 0
Si 0 0 -- .
S* 0 0 0 --

Nm - Z Pkk = ,+ 22+ 3 + ... = (\ - \\


- );
= 2 + 23 ... = Z (k- \)Pk = ^

:
N av = ^av

2av = ^


-
,
. -
.
, ,
().
.
- -
.
( -
)
, .
, SMPL . -
, SOL, GPSS.
--
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5- 131
3.

, ,
-
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, -
tk -
. . -

, .
tk
.

() .
.

, .
,
, .
,
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. .
, -
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(). ,
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.
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, , -
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,
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132
3.6.


-
.

, . -
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-
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. -
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(). , -
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.
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,
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(. 3.19):

. 3.19.

133
3.

1) X; ,
X, X ,
^
X;
2) ,
, X,
; -
;
3) , -
, ,
; ,

, ;
;
4) .
, tt, -
, -
, .
GPSS
GPSS (General Purpose Simulation System), -
, . (-
) GPSS
( ), ,
. GPSS
,
,

.
GPSS :
<> < > < > [<>],
, ,
, 19-,
.
, , -
, , , ...
, , -
, , -
. , , 1 , FN ,
( L -
, L 12), , RN1 ,
[0, 1], S ,
F , Q .

134
3.6.

<>$<>,
, QSORD ORD FN$COS
COS.
, -
.

GENERATE A,B,C,D,E
,
: 1)
[ - , + ] ; 2)
, , ;
; D ; -
. D , -
. :
GENERATE 6,FN$EXP,, 15
, 15
, 6 ;
GENERATE 36,12
, -
[24, 48].
, ,
:
FUNCTION A,B
,
/^/^/...^^
, ,
, _ Y - , .
:
FUNCTION RN1.C12
0,0/0.2,0.22/0.4,0.51/0.5,0.6/0.6,0.92/... . .
() , 12
, (RN1), -
[0,1];
FUNCTION *4,D6
1,2/2,5/3,11/4,20/5,18/6,12/7,9
(D) , -
, .

SPLIT A,B,C
. -
, ( ) .
135
3.

,
.
1, - 2, 3, 4,... . .

ASSEMBLE A

, 1 ,

GATHER A
,
.

SEIZE A
,
RELEASE A
.

ADVANCE A,B
, GENERATE.
D 1. WST -
, -
[7,11] , -
:

SEIZE WST
ADVANCE 9,2
RELEASE WST

D

ENTER A,B
, ()
().

LEAVE A,B
, -
:
STORAGE A
, .
136
3.6.

-
, -
.
.
,
.
QUEUE A

DEPART A
-
.
, -
.
TESTXXA,B,C
, ,
, XX , XX {E,NE,L,LE,G,GE};
; NE ; L ; LE ; G ;
GE (XX 13 14).
D 2. ,
4, .
:

TESTLE Q$STR,K4,LBL
QUEUE SIR
SEIZE POINT
DEPART STR
ADVANCE 50,16
RELEASE POINT

LBL TERMINATE 1

D
2
TERMINATE A
.
.
, -

START
,
. .

137
3.

3. GPSS
SIMULATE
<, >
<, >
START
END.
D

TRANSFER ,B
, .
TRANSFER. :
TRANSFER P,B,C
,
.
TRANSFER FN,B,C
, -
.
TRANSFER PICK,B,C
, -
[, ].
TRANSFER A,B,C
,
1 - .

LOOP A,B
() , ,
.
D 4. ,
[20,40], WGR1,
WGR2 WGR3, .
WGR1,
WGR2 WGR3 0,05, 0,1 0,125 . -
,
1000 .
:
SIMULATE
FUNCTION RN1.C12
0,0/.2,.22//.4,.51/.5,.6/.6,.92/.7,1.2/.8,1.61/.9,2.3/.95,3/.99,4.6/.999,6.9/1,
GENERATE 30,10
SEIZE WGR1

138
3.6.

ADVANCE 20,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR1
SPLIT 1,MET1
SEIZE WGR2
ADVANCE 10,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR2
TRANSFER , MET2
MET1 SEIZE WGR3
ADVANCE 8,FN$EXP
RELEASE WGR3
MET2 ASSEMBLE 2
TERMINATE 1
START 1000,, 1000
END.
D
-

X .

F(T) = \p(f) dt=l- exp(- X 7).

. 3.20 , -
, ,
[0, 1] ,
(3 = (1/)1(1/(1 - )) (3.47)
. (3.47)
ADVANCE (. 4) 1/.
GPSS.

ASSIGN A,B
, -
. F(T)
ASSIGN A+,B 1
, -

ASSIGN -
. -
- ' in <bv *

v ,
F F
'

LOGIC_X

139
3.

X = S ,
X = R ;
GATE_XXA,B
XX = LR = 1 XX = LS = 0 -
( GATE, ),
XX . -

VARIABLE A

,
3 VARIABLE K216-S$MEM2
3 216
2. , , ,
LBL MATCH NUMB
,

NUMB MATCH LBL
.
,
, .

TABLE A,B,C,D
; ;
; ; D .

TABULATE A
/-
, . z'-
, .

-
( ).
<, , I, >, -
, I .
, ,
, , -
, ; I -
, ,
.
, :
()
.
140
3.6.

.
. -
, . ,
-
.
.
( )
, -
. -
.
(. 3.21)
: , -
N, > Kt, N, '- , ,
, /- ;
'- /-
}, } , '- .
. 3.21
, (2, 2,3, 1). -
: (1,0,1,4).
-
, . ,
, -
, . -
() , -
, .
.
, -
. -
. , . 3.22
,
/ (2. -
.
,
- ,
. ., .

.
,
. ; -
.
.
-
, , (-
) . ,
, .
141
3.

. 3.21. . 3.22.
.
1.
WS
WS .
. 3.23. -
: /, -
WS, t2 , /3 - /,
, t4 -
; 4 -
WS:
, WS -
-
/2; -
, 4 , ,
{ -
tr . 3.23. ( 1)
2.
, /-
; ;
, -
, . . 3.24 -
. , , ,
, .
2 -
. : tt , / 2
, /3 , t4 .
,
/, -
, , -


.
/, ,
f2,
6. , -
-

-
. t2 -
v_y , -
. 3.24. ( 2)
142
3 6

. 3 ,
( 4 ), ty 2, 5 6
, . 14 -
.
,
, .
, ,.



, .
-
.
.
-
, .
, , -
, , , .
( -) ,
. -
/^ -
. -
.
, 1 --
. , ,
.
, . .
= const,
Nt /'- ; : .
- , -
, , Mt.

.
,
, , .

.

0 .
0, . , ,
( -> /.
.
,
(, Mt
143
3.

. 3.25. ( 1)

. 3.26. ( 2)

, -
Mt).
- , . . . -
- -
.
.
1. . 3.25.
, -
. ,
, , .
2. . 3.26.
, -
, , , .

3.7.


()
-. -
, , -
144
3 7

, . . , -
,
(, , . .).

, -
( ), -
, -

. -
. -
, ,
.
.
(2D) (3.D) . -
2)- - -
,
. -
2D-, 31)- -
,
, -
. .
31)- (), ,
() .

, . -
-
. -
,
.
-
, , ,
.
,
.
(, , ), -
, ( , -
), .
,

.
-
.
1. , , .
145
3.

2. ,
; -
.
3. , -
() ,
; .
4.
() - .
,
, , , . -
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. , -
.
-
.
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-
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-
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-
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.
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. ,
, -
.

-
. ,
, , -
. -
.
, -
.
:
1) ,
( );
, ;
2) , -
.

146
3. 7.

-
-
, -
.
-
5-.
, 3.27.
-
.
. ,
, , .
-

3 2
x(t) = axt + bxt + cxt + dx ;
3 X 2
y(t) = ay t + by t + cy t + dy ; (3.48)
3 2
z(t) = a.t + b_t + cj + d_,
1 > t > 0. -
, . .
(3.48).
(
)
. -
-
.
5- -
(. . ) , -
, -
.
, -
.
(3.48) , -,
(3.48) (=0(=1 -
, 4 , -,
dx/dt = X t2 + 2bX + ',
dy/dt = , 2 + 2byt + ,
dz/dt = 3a.t2 + 2b.t + .
/ = 0 / = 1 2 3,
(. 3.27).

(3.49)

147
3.

3.11 3.12
-1 3 -3 1 -1/6 1/2 -1/2 1/6
3 -6 3 0 1/2 _j 1/2 0
-3 3 0 0 -1/2 0 1/2 0
1 0 0 0 1/6 2/3 1/6 0

= (/ 3 , t2, t, 1) -, . 3.11,
G^ Pxi ,, 2, 3 4, Gy, G,
. , .
5- , -
0, ,, 2, ..., .
( [+] ^-, -
,.,, ,+ ,, ,+2. 5- [(, Pj+1]
, (3.49),

. 3.12, -
Gx, G^, G. ,_1; , +1, ,+2.
, -
, -
-. -,
[ , +1] , [Q(, Q, +]].
Q /+ , t = 1

dX(t)ldt\t__ , = [3t\ 2t, 1, 0] [*_*, *+|, xi+2F= [3, 2, 1 , 0] [,_ , , xi+], x+2]T= (-);
d2x(t)ldt\^ = [6t, 2, 0, 0] [^^^^- [6,2, 0, 0] [*,_,,*, , + +2 ] = -2+
[Q|+1 Qi+2] Qi+| t = 0
0 = [0, 0, 1,0] [^,,^=(-2;
Uo = [0. 2, 0, 0] [> xi+],xi+2, xi+3] = - 2 ,+1+ ,+
. .
. ,
Qi+1 [Q^ QI+1]

= [1, 1, 1, 1] 4x

, [Qi+1 Q,+2],
+]
.
5-
, (3.48)
.
148
3. 7.


( )

, ( ) , ,
, , .

, , .

^ ,. -

=, (3.50)
.
- 1 3, -
, ,
W. ID
(3.50), . 3.13, a W- 1.

. 3.14 3.15 , , ,
.
3.13 3.14 3.15
1 0 0 0 0 COS sin 0
0 1 0 0 0 -sin COS 0
A*i 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 1

(3.50) ,
(3.50). ,

= = ,'
= ; ; .

.
= + , 1 > > 0 ( -
-
). : = (, yd), = (xb, yb);
() .
,
, :

149
3.

1) : = - ;
Ay:=yb-ya;
:= ;
: = ;
2)d = 2Ay- Ax;
3) d> , { : = +1; d := d+ 2( - )};
d:=d+2 Ay;
4)jc: = *+ 1;
5) 3, .
. 3.28.
.
, -
.
= *,, = 2, =, = 2 (. 3.28). -

. , ABCD -
= 2
.
R:
1) JCP > 2 XR > 2,
;
2) < 2 XR < x2,
;
3) jc p < 2 XR > 2, ,
R = 2, = yf + (yR - )(2 -
-XP)/(XR-xf); ;
4) > 2 XR < 2,
X
= 2, =yR + (yf-yR)(x2- *( ~ R)' R
;
-
.
,
AEFD, = 2 AGFD
(. . 3.28). , -
AGHFD.
,
, .
.
z-, z-
, . -
, z
z = 0.
150

-
z, . . - '
, -
z- /
(). ^ ''
z. 1
fi
9 A
\

i
, (- I
i
z- S), i
t
z (. . ) N
i
i
S. z- - i
i
i
. 11

J 'o
. . 3.29.
-
-

(. 3.29). , ' '
*; = x.dlz,
' ".
d > " .
,
.
,
cos ,

. -
. -
, -
. ,
.


1. .
2. . 3.30 , ,
. i
3. -
2
if
-
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. 3.30.

1'.
, * 1 1
4.
(- 1
-J * /"*
),
. 3.31, F ,
? '
. . 3.30.

151
3

5.
(. . 3.30) -

.
6.
. 3.31. -
. 3.30.
7. ?
8.
dx/dt = 10 - 2 = 0
h - 2, (3.27).
.
9. ?
10.
?
11. ?
12. -
-
?
13. -
?
14. -

f(x) (. 3.32, -
/,).
15.
. 3.32. - . 3.33.
16.
.
17. .
18. .
19. ,
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20. GPSS , -
.
.
1 2, 1 3.
21.
, , -
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22.
GPSS.
GPSS , -

. 3.24 .
23. -
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24. ,

D.
. 3.33. - 25.
-?

152
4.

4.1.

, -
-
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-
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153
4.

.
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.

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).
.
: -
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X, -
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.
,
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, -
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-

extrF(X), (4.1)
XeD^.

,= {|<()>0,/() = 0},

F(X) ; X () -
; () vj/(X) -; D^ -
. (4.1)
-
.
154
4.1.

, -
, -
, (4.1), -
, F(X).

-
-
, -
, (4.1)
!
. , \

, - - 4.1.

.
.
-
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.
. 4.1. },
X, .
, , , -
-
. , ,
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. , . . -
. , -
, 2,
.
155
4.

() -
( ) , -

F(X) = ^(), (4.2)

; . (4.2)
,
'>j j , j < 0.
-
. , (4.2)
.
, -

)=^(). (4.3)

, (4.3), -
.
,
, -
. -
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S
'- . (
, -
,
< ):
J
S = (T-yj)IT,

S = (T-y
J V
1 J J'
)/8, J>

, 5
'- , , . -

[1: ] 1 .
(4.1) -
:
F(X) = max min S (X), (4.4)
XeD x 6
[1 ] '

156
4.2.

D^
:



. 4.2,
-

-
. -

, - .
,
-

.
- . 4.2.
,
-
,
. -
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.
. ,
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.

4.2.

,

X. + 1
= . + .,
^^ \
(4.5)S

AX t -

AXk = hg(Xk). (4.6)

157
4.

Xt k- ; h ;
g(Xt) . , -
, () .
.
-
, -
, X .
, -
.

. -
, ,
-
.
- -
. -
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.
, -
.
, , -
, -
. , -
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,
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grad (F(X)) = (dFldxlt dFldx2, ..., 1\
:
1) g(Xt) (4.6);
2) /;
3) .
-
, .
,

g(Xt). .
:
- -
\k, , ,
|4 - J < .
158
4.2.



, , ,
.
[, ], (
). -
(. 4.3, ) ,
q, -
F(C + q) F(C - q). , F(C + q) > F(C - q),
[,], F(C + q) < F(C - q),
[,], F(C + q) = F(C - q) [ - q, + q]. ,
[, ]
[,], [, ] [ - q, + q]. ,
q. , N
, N log ((B-A)/q) ,
.
(. 4.3, )
[,] Ct Z), 5 = aL
, L - .
F(x) , >,. F(C:) < F(Dl), -
[A,D^\, F(C{) > F(Dl)), [ ],
F(C}) = F(Z)j) [,, Z>J. , [,] -
[A,D^\, [C}, ] [,, D^, . . -
L/(L - aL) = 1/(1 - ) .
, -
, . .
[, >,] D2 ,, -
[,, ] 2 D{,
( ) 2 .
:
(1 -2d)Lk = aLk ,, , Lk /Lk_l:= 1/(1 -), = 0,382.
.

F(x) I

, Z),

. 4.3. () ()
159
4

, N N + 1
, N , ( - )/ = (1 - d)N
.
, R, -
Ri+2 = Ri+t + Rt R0=Rl = 1,
. . 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144 ...
,
Ri_2/Ri, / ,
R: ,
(-)/, .
, ( -)/ = 100, / = 12, ./?,= 144,
= 55/144 = 0,3819, = 34/89 = 0,3820 . .
-
F(x)
2
() = 0 + ^ + 2 (4.7)
, ,
. ,
(4.7) , ,
().
ak (4.7), , dP(x)/dx = 0, -
. , -
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-
, , , .

, , .
-
.
-
,
, \\t - \k_ J < ,
, -
.
-
. 4.4, Xt , xt -
. ,
F(X). ,
.
160
4.2.

. 4.4. . 4.5. -

-
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, , ,
bb,
. , .
. ,

-
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Xt+/i - Xk; - 2
-
X, .
-
-
( - ).

,

X t - ^_ , . 4.7,
- . 4.6. -
3 X,,
4.

6 161

4

-
( - ) -
( + 1)
,
-
.
, -
.
. 4.8 -
. -
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2 , 3 . 4 ,
X, ( -
) -
, 4 d ,
| - ,|. 4 X,. ,
4 ,
d .
J 5 . 2 , 3, 5
2 , 6, -
? . . ,
, ,
( ). -
-
.
, g
.

. 4.8.
162
4.2.

-

Xk+l=Xk + hk grad F(Xk~) I |grad F(Xt)\,
/^ .
,
, -
. -
. -
, .
,
( - ), -
T
. Q-, A QB = ,
Q ,
N (

, Q N); -
; -.
Q = , ,
F(X) :
F(X) ./V -
N .
.
.
-
, F(X) -
,
N .
.
X = X,_, + A S . (4.8)
Si+1 S,
'
S +1 = -gradF(X) + w,S, (4.9)
w- . ,
8_,8,= 0 (4.10)
grad F (X) X
grad F(X+1) = grad F(X) + (+1 - X, ). (4.1 1)
h , , ,
-,
S^grad F(X) = 0, (4.12)
-,

dFIdh = (dF(X)/dX)(6X/dh) = grad ^(X)Tgrad FQL, _,) = 0. (4.13)
6* 163
4

(4.9),

|gradF(X4)|<E.
w , (4.8) - (4. 1 3)
(4. 10) Si+| (4.9) S (4.8)
S|+irS = (WjS, - grad F(X )) ( - X . ,)/ =
= (w,S - gradF(X))TIT-' (gradF(X) - grad F(X _,))//; = ,

(w, S - grad F(X ))T (grad F(\) - grad F(X _ ,)) = 0,

w, S/ (grad F(X) - grad F(X _ ,)) - grad F(X )T grad F(X ) + grad F(X )T grad F(X,_ ,) = 0
(4. 1 2) (4. 1 3)
w S^grad F(X ,) + grad F(X )T grad F(X ) = 0.
,
w = grad F(X)T grad F(X) / (S] grad F(X _ ,)). (4.14)
S, = - grad F (X0) X, . -
(4. 14) w p (4.9) (4.8) 82 2 . .
( - - -
)
- .
-
F(X)
gradF(X) = 0. (4.15)
(4.15) ,
, -
. (4.15) , . .
. -
, (4. 1 5) -
\k:
grad F(X) = grad F(X 4 ) + ( - X t ) = 0. (4.16)
(4.16) - .

, ,

- -
,
, .
164
4.2.

-
N, . .
' X w = X t + N grad /KXt).
:
dg4= grad *10- grad

- . N0= . N -
, . .

LA-IB,.
i-O /=0
1
, , " , (- k>n, - -
.
N _,+_ 1, = .




grad F(X) = 0.
(4.1)
, - , -
.
-
(), -
(, ,
,() = 0, / = 1, 2, ..., , (4.17)
,

grad F(3) + Z grad ,() + Z () = 0, (4.18)


/=! =1

- ; L- ; > 0 -
.

165
4.

. 4.9. -

-
. ,
. -
R, , = 0, -
(4.17); R, ,
. 4.9, -
ut , ! -
) - ,(). ,
, (4.17) -
(. . 4.9, -
X , -
). ,
(4. 18) .

, -
vj/(X) = 0, . . -

extr FX), (4.19)
XeR
= { | / ( ) = 0}.

(4.19) -

L = (,,, -2, "ky ..., A,L) - ; L - .


():

5(,)/5 = ()1 + I X, ,()/ = 0; (4.20)

5(, D/SL = \|/ (X) = 0.


166
4 2

(4.20) + L , - -
, -
.
(4.20), -
, , .
-
.
- -

(),
F(X) 5():

- , .
-
. ( -
),
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). ()
2 , -
F(x) . 4.10.
:
1) (() >

- ;
2)

= Z(mm{0,<p/X)})2,
1=1

()
(. . -
) ;
3)

S(X)=Z(vi/,(X))2.
1=1
,

, -
. -
- . 4.10.
, -
.

167
4.


.

( - ) , - , - -
,
F(X) , -
( -
).
-
. (
).
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.
2- -
() = 0. . 4.11
, - -
.
( ).
,
.
,
.

. 4.11. :
- ; 0,1,2,..., 7 -

168
4.2.

. , -
, . .

min | - |
|/() = 0, -

\|/() + (grad ())( - ) = 0.
, - = U ,
-
U U,
() = U T U + (\|/() + (grad X|/(B))TU);
/ = 2U + ?i(grad \|/(B)) = 0; (4.21)
T
/ = \[/() + (grad y(B)) U = 0. (4.22)
(4.2 1)
U = -0,5A.(grad\|/(B)).
(4.22),
\() - 0,5X(grad v|/(B))T grad \j/(B) = 0,

A. = (2(grad v|/(B))Tgrad /()().


, X, (4.21),
U = - grad vKB)(grad vj/(B))Tgrad \)' V(B).
. -
D, , -
S,
h. -
, F(X)
:
F(C) - F(A) =
T
grad F(A) S - /XX), , -
S:
T
min F(C) = min ((grad F(A)) S), (4.23)
S D; gradv|/(A)
S - . , (4.23)

(grad ij/(A))TS = 0,
S T S=1.
169
4.

, -
S , . . -
( S - ).
(4.23)
<D(S, , q) = (grad F(A))TS + X (grad \j/(A))TS + q(S*S - 1),
X q - ;

/dS = grad F(A) + A grad \j/(A) + qS = 0; (4.24)

/5 = (grad \)/(A))T S = 0; (4.25)

= S T S- 1 =0. (4.26)
(4.24) ,
S = - (grad F(A) + A grad \|/(A) )/?.
S (4.25),
(grad \]/(A))Tgrad F (A) + A (grad vj/(A))Tgrad vy(A) = 0,

X = - [(grad V(A))Tgrad \|/()' (grad v)/(A))Tgrad F(A), S = -{grad F(A) -


- gradn/(A)[(gradv)/(A))Tgradv)/(A)]4(grad4/(A))Tgrad F(A)}/q =

= -{E - grad 4/(A)[(grad M/(A))Tgrad vj/(A)]4 (grad v/(A))T}grad ^(A)/^. (4.27)


,
P = E - grad vj/(A)[(grad \|/(A))Tgrad v(A)]-1 (grad vjy(A))T
, S,
(4.27), - grad F(A) .
-
. , -

max min Z] (X),
j
Z - /- , -
.

X max /
> X i > X mm
. i .

xmaxi xabi-
170
4.3.

xt. Z?(X)

Z,(X) - Zt(X) = 0, (4.28)
Z (X)
(4.28).

4.3.


- -
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171
4.

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real, integer, Boolean, string (
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172
4 3

(. . -
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).

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>0, - < 6 < , * , = + .

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, Spice,
Adams -9 , .

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. -
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).
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).
173
4.


() ,
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NP- , .

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174
4 3

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175
4.

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176
4 3

-- -
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and = false, (4.29)
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177
4.



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178
4 4

4.4.


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:
extr F(\), (4.30)
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D = { X | W(X) >0, Z(X) = 0 },


-F(X) ; W(X), Z (X) -, -
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179
4.

, -
F(X ) , X ;
4) -
F(X'.) ^ , . . i(Mt),
F(X) > L(Mk) ( F(X)).
-
: 1) ^ ;
2) : ; 3)
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X , F(X) Sa(Xt),
.

. -
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. -
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.
Q -
N. -
-
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180
4.4.

4.1
Q(N) , 2 =100, 53=10006,

N NI 100 NI ,
2
N N2 10 N2 31,6 N2
3
N N3 4,647/ 10 N3

2" N4 6,64 + , 9,97 + N4

Q onN, , Q (N) -
, , . -
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= 1 , -
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100
2100
.
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181
4.

, , --
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2)
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(4.30)
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Xk. D
Sa(Xt). F(X ) > F (^) ^ So(Xt), , -
-
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.
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(tabu search).
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/r(X;t+]) > /*XXt). -
.

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= <,,>,
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182
4.4.

,
. , -

. , , .

.
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. pt
() ,
.


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.
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D -
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,
.
(constraints propagation).

X ()
W Z.
.
, , z, -
[1: 100], [1: 100], z e [10:100], D

x+y>5z, (4.31)
183
4.

>+5. (4.32)
(4.31) z -
, z < (1+)/5 = 40, (4.32)
- z < 39, jmax= 95,
, + > 50 (4.32) >2,>22.
, [28:100],^ [22:95],ze [10:39].
.

.


(4.29) .
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{,, 2, 4, ;}, {&,, 2, 4}, {,, 2, }}.
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ILOG -
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() -

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184
4 4


(. . -
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(real, integer, Boolean, enumeration).
(enumeration) -
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() ;
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4) X :
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185
4.

:
xt;
;
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{ ;
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.
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-
F . , F .

P=(F
i
v
max
-F)/I,(F
i' *^
v
max
-F),
j''
(4.33)
v 1
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186
4.4.

Fmax F ()
; F i- .
(4.31) .
, Fmm F, -
, (4.33).
. N=4, F . 4.2.
4.2
/' F, F Fi

,
1 2 5 0,5
2 7 0 0
3 6 1 0,1
4 3 4 0,4

(). , -
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f d g k V e
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187
4.



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1 2 3 9 5 6 7 8 4

. ( ), ( -
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188
4 4

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).

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189
4.


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190
4.4.

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191
4.

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192
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194
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4.

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196
4.4.

23) h = (Z,+ L2)U0/U, Z, L2


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197
4.

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= true;
4) , . 3, , >
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1. .
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198

4. , 2
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200
5.1.

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UNIX, Windows NT, Novell
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201
5.

UNIX
TCP/IP. UNIX -
, .
Windows NT -
,
.
(Windows NT Server) (Windows NT Workstation) .
Novell Netware -
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.



(. 5.1).

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202
5.1.

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203
5.

(, , ..) . -
, , -
.
,
.
,
CORBA. IDL RPC,
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ORB , -
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CORBA (Internet Inter-ORB Protocol), -
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, . -
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.
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( -
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204
5.1.

, Sr , Hd
.
DCE
ORB, , RPC.


,
, , ( ),
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) .
.
,
Internet, ISO-IP (ISO 8473),
. Internet -
:
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HTTP (Hypertext Transmission Protocol) Web--
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( off-line). -
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. (,
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-
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205
5

( ),
.
-
.
SMTP MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).
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.
Lotus cc: mail, Microsoft Mail, Outlook
Express . -
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; -
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.
-
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E-mail Web- Internet, -
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.
, -
. off-line on-line. off-line -
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on-line -
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FTP , -
. FTP-
[<>][< >] (5.1)
IP- IP-
.
Internet FTP- -
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.
206
5.1.

(5.1) FTP- -
. ,
( S, ):
open [< S>] ;
close [< S>] ,
;
quit , close, ( ftp);
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get [< 8>[< >]] S ;
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21, ,
.
FTP- .
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Internet .
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telnet < >
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( SQL ODBC). -
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, -
.
.
,
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. E-mail on-line.
USENET. -
. -
, . on-line
, . off-line -
.
207
5

() .
( -
). , ,
, Internet.
BBS (Bulletin Board System) ,
, -
.
BBS ,
.
-
- .
-.
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: E-mail-, -
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( ), .
-
. -, -
(,
) ,
8 ... 10 /.
ISDN xDSL .

(unicast), (broadcast)
(multicast) . -
,
, . . -
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.
, - -
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, -
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.
, , E-mail, -
(,
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NetMeeting (Microsoft).

208
5.1.

-
, -
, , (). -
: Whute Pine's Meeting Point , Data Beam's
Learning Server .
, -
-
( on-line). ,
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, .
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7 . .) -.
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). 64 /.
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( )
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,
. , 28,8 / 7 ... 10 , 176 144
. ISDN 10... 30 .
, -
.
WWW (World Wide Web -
) Internet. -
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-
, . - -
() .
- . -
.
, Internet Web-, Web--
(). Listener,
. -
, Web- -
.
209
5

WWW (brousers). -
(, Lynx) ( Netscape
Navigator MS Explorer) . Sun Microsystems -
HotJava. , -
, , -
.. , FTP, E-mail.
WWW -
HTML XML (Hypertext and Exensible Markup Language)
, -
.
Web- HTTP, -
TCP/IP. Web- , -
.
Apache Digital Unix, Netscape Enterprise
Server Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), Unix,
Windows NT, Netware Web Server, Netware.
CGI, HTML-. -
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) -
.
,
Unix,
Windows NT.
HTML VRML (Virtual Reality
Modeling Language) 3/)-.
-
Internet. RDF (Resource Definition
Format), . . -
( ). -
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, ,
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HTML Web-
. , -
.
HTML ASCII
( , -
). ,
, , , -
. . WWW -
. , Internet Assistant,
MS Word, .

210
5.1.

< >,
.
WWW
<HTML><HEAD>
<TITLE> </TITLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>

</BODY>
</HTML>
, -
<BODY> </BODY>. <>
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;
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: <DL> - , <DT> -
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.

, -
, URL (Uniform Resourse Locator).
, ,
, . -

211
5.

, . . , -
. URL , ,
URL= #35 35. URL
IP- -
, , .

<IMG SRC="URL"[ALIGN=TOP|MIDDLE|BOTTOM][ALT="text"]>
ALIGN , -
; ALT - ,
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( gif jpeg).
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< HREF="URL" > </>
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< HREF="URL#MeTKa"> </>

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HTML ,
. -
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HTML , ,
() -
, .
,
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CALS-
SGML (Standard
Generalized Markup Language ),
ISO 8879. SGML
.
212
5.1.

, , -
. , -
DTD (Document Type Definition).
SGML , HTML, -
. 1996 .
XML (extensible Markup Language), -
SGML.
XML -
, -
,
.
.
Web- Java
,
Sun Microsystems .
Java: -, -
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HTML- () ,
. CGI -
. CGI -
CGIJBIN, ,
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( JAVA,
> (
) )

. 5.2. Java

213
5.

. -
. HTML--
, CGI HTML -
. CGI- WebDBC, Web-
ODBC- .
CGI , -
, ISAPI (Internet Server Application Program Interface) Microsoft
NSAPI Netscape.
JavaScript
. JavaScript ,
Java, JavaScript , Java -
CGI, JavaScript -
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HTML-
<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="javascript"><!--...//--></SCRIPT> (5.2)

<!--...//> . , JavaScript--
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JavaScript .
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CGI.


, .
-
( , Internet), -

.
-
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, ,
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).
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214
5.1.

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(, Kerberos),
, . -
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. .
.
, . -
. -
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. , -
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ABC, -
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, ,
: , , , ,
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.
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) ,
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215
5.

); 4) ;, 5) -
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. 64-).
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.
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DES (Data Encryption Standard),
1980 ., , -
28147-89. -
216
5.2.

, . -
RSA (
).
, , .. , .. , ..
. , 2001. .:
.

5.2.

,

-
CAD, .
CAD- -
. 2D , -
; 3D -
, ,
, ID- 3/)-.
, -
, , -
.
CAD- , -
. , -
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, , , -
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.
CAD- -
. -
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217
5

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, . -
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.

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218
5.2.

- -
, , -
, -
.

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Pro/Engineer.
(),
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, , ,
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-
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.
.
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.
( ) -
CAE/CAD/CAM-
.
-
. , 80 %
CAD- , , -
.
219
5.

() , -

.
CAD-.
, CALS-,

.

CAD/CAM/CAE- -
Unigraphics ( EDS), CATIA (Dessault Systemes),
Pro/Engineer (). I-DEAS (EDS),
CADDS5 () EUCLID3 (Matra Datavision).
Unigraphics
- ,
, .
. ( CAD) -
,
, SD-, (
) ,
. ( ) -
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-, . ( )

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3)- -
. , -
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Autodesk, Solid Works
Corporation, Beantly, , , , -Pitron
. Wintel,
, - 2D, -
3/)-, , -
,
,
.

220
5.2.

-
Autodesk.
-
Autodesk ,
AutoCAD Mechanical Desktop Inventor.
Mechanical Desktop (MDT) SD--
, ,
Internet, 2D-. ACIS.
CAD- ,
.
Inventor -
, ,
. -
ACIS. 3>- , ,
, . 3)- 2- -
. , -
. ,
.
,
, -
.
Autodesk -
, Autodesk Data Exchange -
DXF SAT ( ACIS) ,
STEP, IGES, VDA-FS.
,
Autodesk, , Mechanical Applications Initiative
. Dynamic
Designer Motion ( Mechanical Dynamics), -
( ). -
, , , .
Dynamic Designer Motion -
Cosmos. , Cosmos/DesignSTAR -
, Inventor Solid Edge, -
Cosmos/Works - Solid Works.
, -
, , ,
.
-
Solid Works ( Solid Works Corporation)
Parasolid, Unigraphics Solution. -
,
() .
(-representation) -
.
, -
. -
IGES, DXF, D WG- .
, , -
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( ) T-Flex CAD ( ).

221
5


.
, -
, .
, - -
. - , -
, -. -
,
( , , , -
, , , -
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T-Flex CAD 3D
T-Flex CAD Parasolid. -
, . . -
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, -
, , , , . . -
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, T-Flex
CAD 3D SE. --
T-Flex CAD ID, -
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T-Flex/ , -
, , -
,
, , .
T-Flex .
T-Flex CAD -
, -.
Cadmech 2000 AVS
, Techcard -
, LCAD . -
- -
Autodesk.

Moldflow, Part Adviser Mold Adviser
.
- -
.
Consistent Software Technologies
.
, , -
, , ,
, . SolidCAM (CADTech),
, Mechanical Desktop, ACIS, -
, 2,5- 3- .
( ) , , -
.

222
5.3.

- -
- Nastran Patran ( MSC Software Corporation)
Ansys ( Ansys Inc.).
, , -
, , .
, -
, . , Ansys
,
, , -
. - ,
. () Ansys -
.
-
- Adams,
7 9.

5.3.


.
-
60- XX . -
(ECAD Electronics Computer
Aided Design) , -
. -
ECAD, -
.
ECAD -
. ECAD
-
(),
. -
(). -
VHDL,
. -
, VHDL
,
.
, -
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. , , ,
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.
223
5.

,
, . -
, (RTL Register
Transfer Level, ), , ,
(-).
-. -
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, -
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-
.
-
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.
,
. , -
, , -
. , , -
(HDL Hardware Description
Language). -
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State Machine) . ,
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(allocation). -
() , .
-
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, (gate level),
RTL- -
; , , - . .

( )
. , -
(floorplanning) . -
(

)
. , ,
,
.
HDL-, -
- , -

224
5.3.

, VHDL
Verilog.
EDIF (Electronic Design Interchange
Format) GIF (Caltech Intermediate Format). EDIF
, , ,
, . . CIF
,
, .
-
, .
-
. -

.
--
, -

, , ,
.
-
, -
, -
.
, -
(ASIC Application-Specific Integrated Circuits), -
().
- -
ECAD.
-
CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device) -
FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).
CPLD -

.
FPGA , , -
(fuse) , , , -
(antifase). , CPLD
FPGA -
-
-
.
, .
, Xilinx,
Altera, Actel ,
.
225
5.

-
(SW/HW -
Software/Hardware co-design). -
, ,
, -
RTL-
, -
. -
-
, ,
, -,
, . . -
-
, -
.

(SoC - System-on-Chip)
.
. -

VHDL, .
.
,
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() -
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226
5.3.

- -
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,
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. , -
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, , -
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RTL -
.
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, - ,
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VHDL- Verilog- -
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.

, . . -
. ,
35 % , ,
-
.
-
. , -, -
,
. ,
, -
, -
. -, (BIST Built-
in Self-Test), -
,
.
-
(BS boundary-scan}, -

227
5

. , -
.
,
, (
BIST) .
BS -
.

1149.1 BSDL HSDL (Boundary and
Hierarchical Scan Description Languages), VHDL.
, -
, . . RTL .
ECAD
, -
(layout) ,
.
.
(partitioning ) -
, -
,
-
(floorplanning) . -
,
,
.
(placement) , -
(routing) , (compaction) , -
, -
.

. , -
, , , , -
(channel) (switchbox). -
,
. -
-
. -
,
, -
.
, -
,

.
228
5.3.

-
, , , -
.
. -
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(, -
). -
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RTL- ).
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).

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(switch level) -
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.
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(RF-) -
-
, -. -
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-
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Spice -
.
229
5.

- ()
() . -
,
( , -
), ( -
). -
,
.

, -
ECAD.
-

.
ECAD

,
.
Synopsys, Cadence Design Systems, Mentor Graphics.
-
, ECAD.
Synopsys , -
. -
Synopsys' Behavioral Compiler.
-
, , -
. Synopsys -
DC Expert DC Expert Plus.
, , -
,
.

.
Synopsys
. -

.
, -
-
.
-- Synopsys -
, ,
. -
Chip Architect Design Planner,
, , -
RTL-, , , -
, .

230
5.3.

, -
-
. , ,
CPLD- FPGA-,
(DSP Digital Signal Processor), -

, , , . .
-
Cadence, Elanix, Mentor Graphics, CADIS . , System View
ELANIX RF/Analog Library Elanix -
DSP , , -
, .
Mentor Graphics RTL- -
Design Architect QuickVHDL -
Autologic.
QuickSim.
FPGA FPGA BoardLink.
-
- . -
RTL, .
Pearl (Synopsys), Verilog-XL Verilog-XL
Turbo (Cadence), TimeMill (Epic Design Technology), Voyager (IKOS Systems) . -
Model Technology ASIC-, FPGA- CPLD- VHDL, Verilog
HDL-,
ModelSim. Simucad -
Silos III ASIC FPGA-.
Mentor
Graphics .
, , -
, -
.
,
.
Mentor Graphics
(layout) AutoCell -
, 1C Block 1C Graph - .
AutoActive RE . -
, -
, 1C Verify Accusim.
Synopsys
, SLE-XP , FlexPla-
.
Mentor Graphics .
,
, -
1149.1, -
BIST . FastScan FlexTest
1,5 .
-
BSD Compiler Synopsys. -
, BSD Compiler -

231
5.

(BS-), BS-,
BSDL -
.
1149.1, BS- -
.

Wintel OrCAD, SPECCTRA
Design Studio (Cadence Design Systems), P-CAD Protel 99SE
(Protel International), .
1999 . OrCAD Cadence Design Systems
-
OrCAD OrCAD
9.2.
, OrCAD, -
. ,
.

. OrCAD
.
SPECCTRA Cadence

, .
,
.
P-CAD.
, Accel EDA 15.0, Accel Technologic
Protel International P-CAD 2000.
, ,
. -
-
SPECCTRA.
P-CAD , -
, -
, -
.
DXF PDIF -
, AutoCAD, OrCAD, Viewlogic .
Protel International ( Altium) P-CAD
2000 Protel 99SE , -
, P-CAD 2000.
-
, RELIEF
. -
.
, -
,
Pro/ENGINEER -
3>-.
AutoTherm FLOTHERM Mentor Graphics. -
,
- -
. -
, , -

232
5.3.

. -
Omega PLUS -
.
CAD

.
LAVENIR Lavenir Technology,
-
, .

Spice, -
.
PSpice ,
, - -
(mixed-signal simulation), ( -
) , ,
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. , ,
PSpice Optimizer.
PSpice
(, , , -
, , ,
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, -
. .
.
ICAP/4Window (Intusoft), Saber Mixed-technology Simulator
( Analogy), Viewanalog (Viewlogic Systems), Continuum (Mentor Graphics) .

. 7, , -
, -
, , , 9,
Java
.
-
. TESLA ( Tesoft),
, -
; Spectre/XL (Avista Design Systems),
; GENESYS
(Eagleware), - -, -
; Eclispse (Arden Technologies), -
,
, , ; Microwave Office (AWR),

, , ;
( ),
.
233
5.

-
Silvaco. :
, -
, , , -
;
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3>- . -
Arcadia (-
Synopsys),
, -
.

. , ,
Omega PLUS, -
, , ; -
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; ,
;
;
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,
, -
, , -
.

ACOLADE ICUCOM.
, , , , -

, , , . .
, -
, .
OPNET COMNET III OPNET
Technologies CACI Products Company .
,
-
, PDM.
, Mentor Graphics.

5.4.

, ,
. -
(- ) -
,
, , , -
.

.
234
5.4.

.
,
-
ERP, MRP, MES, SCM .
ERP,
SCM CRM .
,
. ,
. ,

.
.
1. (UNIX, Windows,
OS/2) Oracle, Ingres,
Informix, Sybase; ODBC (Open Data Base Connection),
OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange); -
. -
.
2. -
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235
5.

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ERP, , , -

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Resource Planning Material Requirement Planning).
ERP
EDM, PDM .
MES ERP
:
;
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ERP R3,
IV, Oracle Applications, J.D. Edwards, -
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Omega Production.
IV .
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236
5.4.

, , -
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4GL.
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237
5.

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239
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240
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241
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242
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245
5.

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247
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250
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254
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258
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260
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Rapid Application Development). -
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261
5.

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262
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263
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265
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268
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277
5.

() -
.
.
, . . , -
. ,
: ,
.


-
, DSS (Decision
Support Systems) , . -
OLAP- (On-Line
Analytical Processing).
OLAP- ,
(
). OLAP-
, , ,
, .
.
OLAP-, ,
, -
-
. OLAP- - Oracle
Express,
, , -
.

.
, -
. -
, , .
.

- -
. -
. -
, ODBC
- (CBD - Component-Based
Development) . -

. ,

278
J

, -
.
:
1) , -
-
,
,
,
;
2) - , -
, , -
, -
. .
,
, -
STEP, -
. -

-
.
-
, , -
.
-
.
-
,
. -
, , -
(, -

).
, -
. -

.
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-
, - -
.
-
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279
5.


, -
. , ,
, -
, ,
- . -
.
- -
. -
, .

-
,
, , , , -
. .
,
,
,
. -
STEP/CALS. ,
STEP, ,
.
STEP -
. -
, , -
OLE, DDE, -
.
-
. -
,
- .
.
, Unix
, . -
-
. . -
, ,
.
Microsoft -
Clipboard, DDE, OLE -
ActiveX.
Clipboard - -
( , -
). -
280
5.6.

, , -
. -
OLE, -
.
: (linking)
(embedding).
, . , -
, . -
. -
.
OLE, (Object
Linking and Embedding).
DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) -
-. -
, ( - ), (-
). () -
, .
, ,
, . -
.
PDM
PDM -
. -
, -
. PDM
, -
, -
, . -
, PDM, ,
, -
.
PDM

. -
, . . .

( Bill of materials - BOM), -
( , 3D-
, - -
, ), ,
.
281
5.


PDM
.
PDM
. -
, . -
.
, , -
, , -
.
, PDM STEP Suite ,
, , , , -
. -
, , .
BaanPDM . -
,
() -
, , , -
. -
( ),
.
PDM, Cadence ,
, ,
, , , . - , -
().
- , - .
, ,
, .
PDM iMAN PSE (Product Structure Editor), -
,
.

. -
, ,
. , , -
. , ,
.
, BaanPDM . -
, . -
, , BaanPDM
. -
. - -
, .
, -
, , - .
NELSIS CAD Framework
: - , -
; - -
, , -

282
5.6.
; - ,
; -
, , .
.
PDM STEP Suite
(), . -
. ,
.
. -
. -
.
-
. ,

, . -
, , -
.
, -, (-
, , -
-) -
, ; -,
; -, -
-
.
, : , , -
. . -
, -
.
BaanPDM
- .
. ,
, .
, , -
, ,
( ) .
-

.

. ,
, , -
, . , -

, ,
, , . .

283
5.

, PDM,
,
. -
, ,
, -, .
Lotus Notes Lotus Domino -
Lotus Development. - -
, AutoCAD Microstation, DOCS Open
( Hummingbird), CADLink, -
- Documentum, Search ( )
.
Search , , -
, , . .
,
, , . -
.

, -
. -
.
. -
-
, -
, , ,
. .
. -
, , ,
, -
.
-
. , CASE--
, , , UML-
. ,
-
. -
4GL.
, Ulyses -
, , -
. -
, .
-
, -
.
, () .

284
5.6.

, iMAN, -
- ,
.
, -
, -
, .
, , Artemis Project (-
Metier), Primavera Project Planner (Primavera Systems), Open Plan (Welcom
Software), - Time-Line (Symantec), Microsoft Project (Microsoft)
.
, Project Manager Workbench
,
,
, , , .
, -
. ,
, .
PDM- -

. . ,
, ; , ,
2- 3)-; ; ; -
(, , . .).
, NELSIS CAD Framework
, .
Design flow browser - ,
, , -
, ,
.
Hierarchy Browser - .
Version Browser- (viewtypes), -
. , . . , -
, , , , -
.
Equivalence Browser ! -
.
Schema Browser - ,
.
Design Manager (Euclid Quantum)
( - ) -
. -
(, , , . .), , -.
, -
.

285
5.

CORBA, Java XML,


. -
.
(, PDM STEP Suite) - -
- . , -
.
PDM

. CALS-

. ,
, -
.
CALS- STEP,
PDM STEP
Express. STEP 208, -
,
. 208 -
(), -
, , -
.
IGES, DXF, VRML, SAL,
EDIF, .
-
. - -
, -
.
,
, -
. -
Lisp .
Skill Design Framework-2
Cadence CCL (CASE Comment Language) Matra Datavision,
Lisp-, AMPLE PDM Falcon Framework Mentor Graphics,
Pascal.

PDM
PDM ,
. -
iMAN (EDS), Optegra ProPDM (PTC), Euclid Design Manager
(Matra Datavision), WorkCenter (Autodesk), BaanPDM (BAAN) .
286
5.6.

copy out

L

refuse

check in
I
validate
(Repository)

t
(user Area) (Workgroup Area)
share
check out 7
. 5.14. PDM Design Manager ( Euclid Quantum)
PDM iMAN in-KE Y, Unigraphics
Solutions, EDS, . iMAN -
Oracle V8, --
, , -
, .
PDM Euclid Design Manager - ,
, , , -
.
Design Manager Euclid Quantum ,
.
-
,
(UA - User Area),
(Workgroup Area), .
(Repository). User Area (UA) Workgroup
Area (WGA) check in share.
, -
. -
, , , -
R, UA .

out check out ( 5.14).
, -
. (UA, WGA, R) -
retrieve, - store.
( - -
) . -
(, , , . .), -
, 3>-.
-
, , -
( ) .
-
SAP (Collaborative Engineering Project
Management), SAP -
mySAP.com.
IBM ENOVIA,
, -
-
.
287
5

BaanPDM - ,
, -
. BaanPDM -
;
-
, , -
; -
, ,
.
BaanPDM
, -
.
PDM PartY Plus ( )
PDM :
1) , , (-
, , , -
,
.), , -
;
2) , , -
, , -
();
3) , -
;
4) , -
Catia, Unigraphics, Pro/Engineer, SolidWorks, ACIS, -
STEP .;
5) ;
6) (, . .).
-
.
, ,
Falcon Framework, Mentor Graphics. -
- Falcon Framework's Design Manager, Decision Support System (DSS),
BOLD AMPLE. Design Manager , -
, -
-
.
DSS -
. BOLD . -
AMPLE DSS
.
PDM , -
.

PLM.

- ,
,
.
, -
, , ,
288


. , -
,
-
. , -
, ,
. -
-
-
. ,
Web- -
, .
, Windchill, -
Internet Web- -
. ,
, , -
, , -
,
. , , -
web-, ERP PDM , -
, . -

.
PLM mySAR.com (
SAP) Team Center (EDS).


1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. .
5. .
6. HTML ?
7. ?
8. , ECAD.
9. : , , , .
10. -
?
11. ?
12. ERP .
13. -
.
14. SCAD ?
15. ?
16. IDEFO- -
.
17. .
289
5.

18. IDEFIX- , ,
, .
19. .
20. ?
21. PDM? PDM
?
22. .
23. .
24. -
?
25. ORB CORBA.
26. IDL?
27. CAS.CADE? -
CAS.CADE.
6.

CALS-
6.1. CALS-

STEP
CALS- ISO 10303
STEP (Standard for Exchange of Product data - -
),
() -
.
Express, STEP.
ISO 10303 (), -
, . . STEP -
. STEP
, Express,
, , ,
, (, -
, , , -
- . .), , -
.
STEP - -
, -
, STEP-.
CALS-
ISO 13584 Parts Library ( P_Lib), ISO 14959 Parametrics,
ISO 15531 Manufacturing management data (Mandate), ISO 18876 Integration of
Industrial Data for Exchange, Access, and Sharing (IIDEAS), ISO 8879 Standard
Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
291
6. CALS-

Parts Library, Parametrics, Mandate, I IDE AS


Parts Library (P_Lib) -

. -
, , , -
,
. P_Lib -
, . -
- -
.
P_Lib
, -
. -
PJLib . 1
.
10 ... 19 -
.
20... 29 .
20,24 26, , -
.
30 ... 39 .
31, .

42; 101 -
; 102 - STEP
.

, -
. Parametrics.
ISO no Parametrics , .

. -
-
, -
.
Mandate ,
, -
, -
.
, ISO 15531-21,
. -
:
, , ,
.
ISO 15531-31
. ,
, .
292
6.1. CALS-

ISO15531-41 -
.
WG10 SC4 -
ISO 18876 IIDEAS. - -
, , -
, ,
. ,
, ,
, SGML, XML, Express. - -
, , ,

ISO 18876 2000 . -
-
, .
, -
, -
STEP, P_Lib, MANDATE. ,
EXIST (Expression of Information based on Set Theory),
, Express, -
, Unified Modelling Language (UML), Knowledge Interchange Format (KTF),
XML . EXIST
WG11 Expresss-2. EXIST -
,
.
, CALS-
EIA 649 .
-
, ,
, ,
. -
, -
. , , -
.
(). -
-,
-
. -
(). -
.
-
Express . CALS--

. , -
293
6. CALS-

2>- (, ) BMP
JPEG. 2)- ( )
MIL-PRF-28003 -
COM (Computer Graphics Metafile), ISO/IEC 8632. -
MIL-PRF-28002. -
- TIFF.
, -
, -
. , (
1 - Interactive Electronic Technical Manual). -
: 1...3 - , 4 - -
.
MIL-PRF-87268
DETM.
1000D -
, (-European
Association of Aerospace Constructors). 1000D -
. -
, SGML HyTime
(Hypermedia Time-based Structuring Language)
CGM JPEG, . -
(
).
-
( ) -
1986 . EDIFACT (Electronic Data Interchange For
Administration, Commerce and Transport). -
ISO 9735, -
, , -
,
.
-
. -
VHDL,
1987 . 1076. -

EDIF CIF.
CALS-
,
. -

UML, -
, IDEF1X.
294
6.2.

6.2.
SGML
-
CALS- ,
SGML XML.
ISO 8879, SGML, -
,
-
. SGML
, .
, -
-
. SGML -
, . ,
.
SGML
.
1. , -
,
.
2. ,
STEP, .
3. , -
STEP- SGML-.
SGML-
STEP, ISO 10303-21.
SGML STEP-pecypcax
SGML_STRTNG,
Express. -
, , STEP-
SGML. -
STEP- SGML-.
SGML -
, DTD,
SGML-. DTD
, ,
, -
, DTD, . , SGML
.
SGML- : 1) -
, SGML-; 2) -
, ,
; 3) -
SGML-; 4) DTD.
295
6. CALS-

XML
Web- , , CALS-
XML. XML -
SGML,
CALS-, XML
SGML. XML
SGML -
Web-. -
() XML.
, , . CALS-
Product Definition eXchange (PDX), .
XML- DTD
, -
.
XML-. -
,
( CALS, Ethernet, PDM).
-
, -
.
XML- . -
:
, - .
DTD. XML--
:
<?xml version = " 1.0" ?>
<?xml-stylesheet type = "text/ess" href - 'dict.css"?>
<!DOCTYPE dictionary [
<!ELEMENT dictionary (item) >
<!ELEMENT item (termin|description|examples?) >
<!ELEMENT termin (#PCDATA)>
<!ATTLIST termin number CDATA #REQUIRED >
<!ATTLIST termin group
(technology|networks|software|other) #REQUIRED >
<!ELEMENT description (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT examples (#PCDATA)>
<!ENTITY LAN "Local Area Network" >
]>
<dictionary >
<item>
<termin number = '14' group ='technology'> CALS </termin>
<description> - Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support, -
-
296
6.2.

.
.
</description>
</item>
<item>
<termin number = '24' group = 'networks' > Ethernet </termin>
<description> -
/.
</description>
<examples> 10Base-5, 10Base-T,
100Base-X. Gigabit Ethernet.
</examples>
</item>
<item>
<termin number = '52' group= "technology" > PDM </termin>
<description> - Product Data Management, -
. PDM, ,
CALS-.
</description>
<examples> Windchill eSeries, iMAN, SmartTeam, Optegra.
</examples>
<item>
</dictionary>
, DTD .
( dictionary),
XML (version = "1.0"), ,
( dict.css),
.
DTD ,
. ,
, -
. -
, .

<!ELEMENT _ >,
- ,
<!ELEMENT terrain (#PCDATA)>
( #PCDATA ), ,
,
<!ELEMENT item (termin|description|exarnples?)>
( examples
item).
297
6. CALS-

.
, ,
. . ,
,
<!ATTLIST _ _ _ >.
:
<!ATTLIST terrain number CDATA #REQUIRED>,
CDATA - string, #REQUIRED
number termin ( #IMPLffiD -
). -
,
<!ATTLIST termin group (technology|networks|software|other) #REQUIRED >.
-
, . -
, -
. ,
:
<!ENTITY >.
:
<!ENTITY LAN "Local Area Network" >.
, ,
. . . <item>
</item>, <termin> </termin>, <description> </description>, <examples> </-
amples>. ,
<termin> .
XSL (exten-
sible Stylesheet Language),
(CSS), HTML. -
termin (bold) 12-
5 , examples -
(italic) 10- 10 . CSS,
dict.css,
item
{display :block;}
termin
{font-weight:bold; font-size: 12pt; text-indent:5mm; font-sryle:normal;}
description
{font-size :12pt;}
examples
{display:block; font-style:italic; font-size: lOpt;
text-indent: 1 Omm;}
298
6.3. STEP-

. 6.1
CALS - Continuous Acquisition and Lifecycle Support, -
-
. -
.
Ethernet -
/.
10Base-5, 10Base-T, 100Base-X. Gigabit Ethernet.
PDM - Product Data Management, .
PDM, ,
CALS-.
Windchill eSeries, iMAN, SmartTeam, Optegra.


, . 6.1.

6.3. STEP-
STEP
-
,
, CALS-. CALS--
-
, ,
. , -
, -
.
,
CAE/CAD/CAM-. -
, -
- , -
,
.
STEP.
ISO
. STEP CALS-
.
-
STEP Express, .
STEP , -
IDEF1X
299
6 CALS-

IDEFO -
(, ISO P_Lib, Mandate, SGML, CDIF
.).
STEP :
(Application Activity Model) - IDEFO -
;
ARM (Application Requirements Model) - ,
;
AIM (Application Interpreted Model) - ARM-, STEP-
;
(Application Protocol) - ,
Express;
SDAI (Standard Data Access Interface) - -
() (
CAD/CAM-) STEP-; -
STEP- -
STEP.
STEP . N
> ISO 10303-
.
ISO 10303-1 - , -
STEP.
, , , , ,
, , , , AIM, ARM,
, , .
11... 14 - .
21...29 - .
31...39 - .
41...50 - .
101...108 - .
201...23 6 - .
301...336 - .
501...520 - .

- 11... 19 - -
Express.
N = 11: Express language reference manual.
Express. Express-C
Express-G. -
, . .
. Express-C -
( ).
300
6.3. STEP-

Express
, -
Express-G ( Express). Express-
G - ,
IDEF1X.
N=12: Express-I Language Reference Manual. Express-I - -
, .
7V= 14: Express-X - Express,
Express- -
(views); views -
, Express-
, IGES.
,
Express.
Express-M: Mapping definition language; , Express-X, -
,
Express. , -
, , ,
( ).
-, - .
-. Express-M ,
SDAI
STEP-. , SDAI,
ISO 10303-22, a Express-M , 4GL
SDAI.
Express-P: Process definition language; ,
.
Express-V: , ARM- 1--
, , Express-,
, , , ARM.
ARM- -
, AIM, . Express-V
: 1) - (AIM), , 203;
2) -, , -
; 3) . Express-V
( WHEN) .
AIM , ARM,
. -
Express-V ARM -
AIM .
Express
(Implementation Methods), -
, ,
.

( 21...29) ,
-
STEP-. -
.
301
6. CALS-

N=21: Clear Text Encoding of the Exchange Structure (physical transfer file
format); . -
STEP ; Express
,
. STEP- -
.
N=22: Standard Data Access Interface Specification; SDAI

( CAD/CAM-). , -
, SDAI-. SDAI- -
, SDAI- ,
.
, SDAI- .
23...29 SDAI-
C++, , Java,
IDL, XML.

,

STEP
,
, , -
Express. ,
-
, . .
.
-
, . -
-
. , ,
5-. -
- (building blocks)
.
-
STEP ( 41...50).
, , ,
. .
, ISO 10303-41 -
, , , -
(shape_representation), (action), -
(application and product context), (approval), -
, , , ( ), -
, , , .

302
6.3. STEP-

ISO 10303-42 , -
, ,
, IGES. , : -
(axis_placement), 5-
(b_spline_curve) (bezier_curve), 5-
(b_spline_surface), 5- (rational_b_spline_surface)
(bezier_surface), (cartesian_point), -
(cartesian_transformation_operator_3d), -
(geometric_representation_context),
(offset_surface), (surface_of_revolution) .
101... 199 , -
,
(Integrated application resources). - ISO 10303-
104, .
Express .
. :
(, , ); -
(, ID 3D, 2D- 3)-),
(, , ); ; -
, , (-
, , , ), (,
, ), .
. , -
, ; , -
; ; ; -
. .
, N= 501, -
,
.
. -
: , ,
, -
, , -
. .
ISO 10303 , -
N=201.
, 203, 214.
STEP- -
.
,
, Express
Express-G.
-
. -
303
6 CALS-

(UoF - Units of Functionality). ( -


Conformance Classes) .

. , STEP
.
201: Explicit draughting; . -
, , , -
, . , , -
, -, , . .
202: Associative draughting; . , -
. , -
201 -
:
(, , );
(, );
(2D- 3)-);
();
( , , -
);
6} (, );
7) ();
8) .
203: Configuration controlled design;
. .
, 3>-, -
,
.
203 Express ,
.
1. ISO 10303-41,10303-42 10303-44 -
. , -
, , ,
, , , , -
, . .
2. ,
SELECT .
3. , .
. 1
. 2 -
, , .
3 , . .
, , . 4 -
. 5 6 ,
BREP (Boundary representation). , -
() , -
. 6 , ,
(, , ), -
, 5- .
4. , ,
, , .
208: Life cycle management - Change process;
( ).
(), , , -
, .
304
63 STEP-

210: Electronic assembly, interconnect and packaging design; -


,
-
.
, ,
, . .
212: Electrotechnical design and installation; -
.
, , . -
, -
, , , -
. ( ,
, .) -
: , , -
(installation_location), , , , , , , -
, . , ,
.
, .
. :
1 - (, , -
, ) ;
2 - 1 ( -
, .);
- 1 (
, );
4 212,
. . 1, 2 .
214: Core Data for Automotive Mechanical Design Processes;
. -
, , ,
( , , ) .
19 ,
(, , ), , ,
.
(, ), -
, 214 UoF,
. :
Gl: wireframe_model_2d, , ,
, , , , -, 21>- .;
G2; \vireframe_model_3d , 3D;
G3: connected_surface_model, -
, G2 G8
, , -
, .;
G4: faceted_b_rep_model, BREP- , -
. , , G3
G5, - , BREP--
(manifold solid B-rep) .;
G5: b_rep_model - , -
. . -
G3;
G6: compound_model - , , -
. :
, . .;

II 305

6. CALS-

G7: csgjnode, solid model using Constructive Solid Geometry


.
UoF , , -
.;
G8: geometrically_bounded_surface_model UoF - -
.
UoF :
S2: element_structure - , , ,
, , 2D 3D, , . .;
S5: work management , , , ,
, ;
S6: classification , -
;
S7: specification_control -
, . -
, , , ,
, , ,
, , . .
221: Functional data and their schematic representation for process plant; -
.
, -
, . -
, , .
224: Mechanical product definition for process plans using machining features; -
. -
(, , , ), -
, , .
233: Systems engineering data representation - -
( ),
(, , , ,
, . .), ,
, , . -
, ( ) -
.


( 31...39) ISO 10303
Express. -
-
STEP, (, ,
), -
,
, .
, -
N =301.
, 100 , . . N = 301
201 . .
STEP
SDAI.
. 6.1 6.2 .
306
6.4 Express

Express-


N
i
Express-

~\!

11

|
Express-

i '

i
1
Express-

i
\ \ - ,/ . /
-
. 6.1. Express-

4j


SDAI-

SDAI-
CAD/CAM-


SDAI (STEP)
Express-

- SDAI
N
Express-M
/
^ J

. 6.2. Express- SDAI

(. . 6.1) ,
.
(, Express-X), -
, -
.
SDAI (. . 6.2) -
, . 6.1, , , -
SDAI
.
Express -
.
6.4. Express
Express
Express -, -
, -
307
6. CALS-

,

.
Express STEP
(Model).
, , .
,
(schema). - , -
. .
: , -
, , .

,
schema - .
- . end_schema
( Express
):
schema < >;
< > < >;
end_schema;
Express-G -
. 6.3. ,
Express-G , -
. 6.3.
(Data Type}. -
( -
). Express :
(entity), (simple type), (aggregation data type), -
(defined data type), (enumeration data type) -
(select data type) .

- ,

.
(attributes). -
,
.
entity, -
, , , -
, :
entity < >;
< >:< >;

end_entity;
308
6.4. Express

, (line) I < >


1 ( point) - '
: . 6.4.
entity line; Express-G
pO,pl: point;
end_entity;
-
; , [_
, ,
.-
, , z:

entity point;
x,y,z: real; . 6.5.
end_entity; Express-G
Express-G , -
(. 6.4).
, -
(optional) . -
optional:
< >: optional < >;
Express-G . 6.5, , -
, , , -
- ,
optional . -
, . -
. -
.
.
, ,
(derived), derive -
. , ,
, -
:
entity point;
x,y,z: real;
end_entity;
entity circle;
center: point;
radius: real; ~ center, radius
derive
area: real := pi*radius**2; (* area *)
end_entity;

309
CALS-

, (* *) -
. -
,
(--).

:
integer ( );
real ( );
number , integer real;
logical - true, false unknown (-
);
Boolean - true false;
binary - 1 0;
string - .
Express-G . 6.6.
binary string -
, ,
24 , :
A: string(24);
24 ,
A: string(24) fixed;
,
A: string;
binary, abc[5:7]
5- 7- .
. -
(, ), , (true,
false, unknown), ( ). -
:
( %)-%!00101110
- 1052
( ) - 4.-3 0.034
( ) - 'first name'

BINARY || NUMBER REAL

LOGICAL || BOOLEAN GENETIC |

INTEGER || STRING

. 6.6. Express-G

310
6.4. Express


- . -
, -
. 6.2. 6.2

array
bag
list
set

array array -
.
,
. :
Fl: array[2:8] of real; (* F1, -
real , 2*);
F2: list[l:?] of integer; (* F2 -
integer; *)
matr: array[l:10] of array[9:12] of atrac; (* matr 10 -
, atrac.*)
[2:8] list[l:?] ,,.,. ,
Express-G [2:8] REAL
L[l:?],
- . 6.7.
. , - Express-G
. 6.7.
, ,
-
. - , -
() .
. -
type,
. :
type volume = real;
end_type;
entity manual;
name: string;
vl,v2,v3: volume;
end_entity;
enumeration
of, . :
311
6. CALS-

defined i i * clr = enumeration of


' (red, green, blue);
1- end type;
enumeration i .1 ~
- red
1 (
elect ' *clr-red-
-' -
. 6.8. . -
\-. ~
J select.
Express-G
v .-,
,
:
type a_c = select (one, two, three);
end_type;

proc: a_c; (* proc one, two, three*)


,
. 6.8. , -
, .

- - , -
(-)
, Express -
. (supertype), ,
(subtypes), . . 6.9
, ,
.
--, -
al 2.
2 size real, -
vol real, 2 - met string.
:
entity al
supertype of (oneof (,2));
size: real;
I 1 end_entity;
' entitybl
1 subtype of (al);
I I vol: real;
- end_entity;
I I entity b2
subtype of (al);
. 6.9. met: string;
Express-G end_entity;

312
6 4 Express

:
, al -, oneof -
and ( andor), . . -
:
supertype of (bl and 2);
,
( , - -), al , -
, ; -
subtype of (al);
supertype
abstract, al - ,
. . al ;
;
; -
,
, 1.size.
:
entity device
supertype of (oneof (transistor, diode));
(* device - --
transistor diode*)
end_entity;
entity transistor
subtype of (device);
b: real;
end_entity;
entity diode
subtype of (device);
r: real;
end_entity;

, , -
(rules). .
, ,
rule, , for, -
, , , ,
.
(uniqueness rules)
,
(domain rules). , Z
X. Y , , X
Y Z,
313
. CALS-

entity Z;
X: integer;
Y: string;
unique
X,Y;
end_entity;
-
. where
, true, false unknown.
, -
true. , , -
vect = (x,y,z) , cons:
entity vect;
x,y,z: real;
where
cons: x**2 + y**2 + z**2 = 1.0;
end_entity;

.
, -
.
procedure, -
. :
procedure eq (x,y: real; n: integer; var result: route);
, -
:
function log (a: real; m: integer): real;
,
local

end_local;
.

. -
:
Abs - ; Sqrt - ; - ;
Log, Log2, LoglO - , ,
; Sin, Cos, Tan, Acos, Asin, ATan - -
sin, cos, tg, arccos, arcsin, arctg.
: BLength - -
; HiBound - array
set, bag, list; LoBound -
314
6.4. Express

; Length - ; Odd -
true, - ; SizeOf - -
; TypeOf -
, ; Exists - -
true, -
, .
Insert Remove - -
.
-
(null), (assignment), (case), -
(compound statement), ( i f . . . then ... else), (repeat),
(return), (skip).
, , .
, real -
:
* ,/ , DIV ,+ -
, - , ** , MOD .
: not - , and - , or - -
, - . logical
. -
al in a2 true, al 2.
like . -
-
:=: :<>: .
( bag set) - (Intersection),
(Union), (Difference). * (),
+ (), - () . Query (A <* | ) -
, -
, - , .
+ () binary string
.
-
, ,
: generic, aggregate -
. generic , -
-
. aggregate
- array, bag, list, set. :
function add (a,b: generic: intype): generic: intype;
local
nr: number;
vr: vector;
end_local;

315
6 CALS-

if ("number" in typeof (a)) and ("number" in typeof (b))


then nr := a+b;
(* typeof () ,
number, true *)
return (nr);
else
if ("this schema.vector" in typeof (a)) and ("this schema.vector" in typeof (b))
then
vr.i := a.i + b.i;
vr.j:=a.j+b.j;
vr.k := a.k + b.k;
(* , vector
this schema *)
return (vr);
end_if;
end_if;
end_function;
Express-G , -
.


:
constant
year: integer: = 1995;
start: date := date(12,16,1982); ("", date
: , , *)
end_constant;

-
. - use reference. -
:
schema si;
entity par 1;
name: string;
end_entity;
end_schema;
schema s2; (* s2 name
sl.parl *)
use from sl.parl ( name as x);
end_schema;

316
6.4. Express

use , -
, reference
.
Express-G .
(schema level) ,
(entity level) - , , ,
.
.
- .
S1 .par 1. , -
( name).
, , Express-G-
, ,
.

person_organization_schema 41
STEP (ISO 10303-41).
schema person_organization_schema;
entity address;
internaMocation: optional label;
street_number: optional label;
street: optional label;
postal_box: optional label;
town: optional label;
region: optional label;
postal_code: optional label;
country: optional label;
facsimile_number: optional label;
telephone_number: optional label;
electronic_mail_address: optional label;
telex_number: optional label;
where
wrl : exists(internaMocation) or exists(street_number) or exists(street) or
exists(postal_box) or exists(town) or exists(region) or exists(postal_code) or
exists(country) or exists(facsimile_number) or exists(telephone_number) or
exists(electronic_mail_address) or exists(telex_number);
end_entity;
entity personal_address
subtype of (address);
people : set[l:?] of person;
description: text;
end_entity;
317
6. CALS-

entity person;
id: identifier;
last_name : optional label;
first_name : optional label;
middle_names : optional list[l:?] of label;
prefix_titles : optional Iist[[l:?J of label;
suffbcjitles : optional Iist[[l:?] of label;
unique
url : id;
where
wrl : exists(last_name) or exists(first_name);
end_entity;
end_schema;
. 6.10
202, .
- , . - ,
. ,
, .
202 . 6.10 .
S[0:?]

Sfl:?]


*j
S[l:?]
1 1 [

-
' Boolean I
- I KOHTJ '

-0 [ '

0 {

-^ 5-
-0 S[l;?]



. 6.10. 202 Express-G

318
6.4. Express

STEP
(ISO 10303-21)
STEP , -
P_lib.
STEP .
( HEADER ENDSEC) -
:
Entity file_name -
;
Entityfile_description- -
;
Entity file_schema - , -
;
keyword ( ).
( DATA ENDSEC) -

:
# = keyword ( );
:
#1 = POINT(0.0,0.2,0.5); (* POINT
1 0, 0.2 0.5 REAL.*)
#2 = WIDGET(.RED.); (* WIDGET 2
RED.*)

#8 = LINE(#1,#4); (*
1 4.*)
,
.

Express
Express-C -
:
event a;
when b =^> ; (* b - , - -
b = true*);
end_event;
transaction ;
local d: e;
end_Iocal;

end_transaction;
319
6. CALS-

Express-
Express-X Express-M. , Express-M
- , al, 2, , -
, b 1, 2, ,
:
shema map < ;
:=!;2:=2;:=;
end_shema_map;
, , al
, a b 1 - , b 1 := 1 * 100.
6.5.

ISO 9000
, ISO 14000,
.
CALS-, -
, -
- .
, . -
-
-
. ,
, -
,
.
.
, 100 %-
-
. ISO 9000,
ISO 1987 . .
, -
ISO 9000. -
, ,
. -
-
.
ISO 9000

. -
ISO 9000 -
, , -
.
320
6 5

ISO 9000
ISO 8402: - ,
-
. 15467-79: -
- , -
-
. ISO 9000 (QS - Quality System),
-
. ,
, , , -
, .

: 1) -
; 2) (, , -
); 3) , , . .
ISO 9001 - 9003
. -
- -
.
ISO 9000 -
, .
, .
, ,
-
.
,
.
ISO :
ISO 9001 - , , -
, ;
ISO 9002 - ISO 9001 (
);
ISO 9003 - .
20 ,
.
, , -
, , . , -
, , -
.
, , -
( ).
321
6. CALS-

:
ISO 9000 - , ISO 9001;
ISO 9004 - .
-
:
ISO 10011 - , ;
ISO 10012 - ;
ISO 10013 - .
-
. , :
9001-96 .
, , , ;
9002-96 .
, ;
9003-96 .
.
ISO 9000
ISO 9000:2000 Quality management systems ( -
), :
ISO 9000:2000 Fundamentals and vocabulary ( );
ISO 9001:2000 Requirements ();
ISO 9004:2000 Guidelines for performance improvement ( -
).

,
.
ISO 9001 -
. ISO 9002 - 9003 .
, , -
, , . ISO 9004
20 :
(management responsibility);
(resource management)
(product and/or service realization);
(measurement, analysis, and improvement).
ISO 9001 - 9003
. -
- -
.
ISO 14000
.
ISO
9000, ISO 14000. ISO 14000
322

, , ISO
9000, ,
, ,
.
.


1. STEP.
2. CALS-?
3. . DTD?
4. STEP-? -
?
5. 203?
6. Express IDEFlX-,
, , , .
7. Express.
8. Express, , Express-X Express-V?
9. , -
ISO 9000.

1. : -
/ . . .. .
: , 2001.
2. .., ..
. : , 1997.
3. .., ..
. .: - . .. , 2000.
4. : . / . .. .. -
. .: -, 2002.
5. . . . .: . ., 1997.
6. ., . :
. . .: , 2001.
7. .., ., .. -
. .: , 2001.
8. : . -
: 9 . / . .. . .: . ., 1986.
9. .. . .: . ., 1990.

() 18
86 234
96 (
) 26,235
- 185 ( -
- 181 -
- 150 ) 26,78,240
- 180 308
186 - 309
24 - 309
- 100 - 257
- 100, 108 - 103
- 143 215
- 24,108
- 24
- 24, 109 - 213
24, 109 271
- 276
213
272
126
143
-
- 235
38
277
(
( ) 215
) 37 210
( ) 25 214
- 243 146
- 26,235
(
) 243 15
325

94 - 43
- 99
- 99 - 278
209 () 31
28 276
150 108
32

186
186 42
186 38
209 - 60
143 - 42
- 176 - 38
- 60,62
40
67 - 40
() 210 257
249 62
- - 256 81
45
126 - 76
- 126 - 41
143 - 41
47 108
46

12,20 - 46
22,172 - 49
- 157 - 208
-NP- 48
156 80
24
- 24
143 24
156
- 156
16 - 156
- 176 - 155
264 187
326

- (-) 161
( - 158
) 39 - 180,182
- 83 - 166
- 7,99
- 39 --
- 38 - 116
- 64 - 163
186 - 158
- 164
- 164
21 - 96
18,85 - 161
141 - -
82 160
77 - 124
- 42 - 109
19 -
105
- 163 - 168
- 118 124
- 106 - 59
- 107
- 110 160
- 179 - 115
- 116 - 124,133
- 106 - 163
- 158 - 104
- - 97
(-) 162 - 60
- 159 - 160
- 124 - 167
- 159 - 184
- 116
- 190 101
- 115 101
- 116 18,85,114
- 146 276

327

16 204
- 145 80
- 127,131
- 246 - 38
- 122 - 62, 76
20, 308 187
- 21
- 21, 128
- 21 15
- As Is 32

- 121
- 146
- 21 - 28
- 21 - 2$
- 22,33,249 - 28, 85
- 21 - 28
- 32 - 28
- 145 - 28
- 21 - 28, 37
- 20, 88 86
- 145 - 155
- 33, 249 - 109,155
- 145 206
- 21 38
- 85 - 80
- 21 103
- 121 161
- 21 143
- 85 48
- 32 19
- 21 154
- 34 - 154
- Be 33 - 158
- 33 - 158
- 21 - 24
61 256
264
(
) 88 41
328

57 12
15 - 12
- 15,20 - 19
- 15,21 19
- 15,20,22 - 18
- 246
- 93 - 32
- 15, 89 - 18
( - - 32
) 225 - 246
46
15 - 30
80 16
39 41
- 39 - 71,302
15 - 64
- 27 - 72
- 27 314
312 - 19

- 102 - 44
- 117 33
113 36

- - 14
-- 14 58
- 13 215
- 14 106
205 125
187 183
113 202
46 247
117 126
126 - 302
121
- 179
- 263
12,22 (
- 33 )13,25
329

143


- 93
- 29, 271
- 93
- 38
187
19
49
- 39
- - 15
39 256,308
- 140 312
- 41 308
- 183 - 216
- 141 - 215
- 39 - 275
-.2574 - 215
40 259
- 40
- 41

- 40 250
- 41 - 175
( - 207
) 131
- 61
- 22, 153 13
- 22 308
15 277
- 15 16
- 126 126 '
- 34 273
- 202

- 15
- - 150
243
13 202
45 - 262
56
( - - 114
) 126 - 129
127 - 114
15 - 114

330

- 114 - 170
- 185,186
- 17 - 154
42
- 42 X
- 42 94
- 42 274
- 42 172,185
- 17, 86
- 17
- 42 16
- 42 16
- - 86,118

103
- 20
- - 165
173
83
- 40
- 186
147 86
131 15
172,183 - 146
314 ( -
- 116 ) 41
**

- Application Activity Model 300 BBS - Bulletin Board System 208
ActiveX 266 BOM-Bill of Materials 281
AIM - Application Interpreted Mo-
del 300
CAD -Computer Aided Design 13,
AP - Application Protocol 300
25,217
API - Application Program Inter-
CAE - Computer Aided Enginee-
face 35 ring 25, 218
ARM - Application Requirements Mo- CALS - Continuousr Acquisition and
del 300 LifeCycle Support 30
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mo- CAM - Computer Aided Manufactur-
de 75 ing 25
331

CASE - Computer Aided System Engi- ERP - Enterprise Resource planning 26


neering 245 Ethernet 48
CASE - Computer Aided Software En-
gineering 28, 245
CGI - Common Gateway Interface 213 Fast Ethernet 52
CNC - Computer Numerical Control 27 FDDI - Fiber Distributed Data Inter-
COM - Component Object Model 265 face 55
CORBA - Common Object Reguest FDM - Frequency Division Method 38
Broker Architecture 203 FOE - Fiber Optic Ethernet 51
CPC - Collaborative Product Commer- Frame Relay 74
ce 27,239 FTP - File Transfer Protocol 72, 206
CPLD - Complex Programmable Logic
Device 225
CRM - Customer Requirement Man- Gigabit Ethernet 52
agement 26 GPSS - General Purpose Simulation
CSMA/CD - Carrier Sense Multiple System 131, 134
Access /Collision Detection 47
H
D
HDL - Hardware Description 224
DW -Data Warehouse 274
HTML - Hypertext Markup Lan-
DCE - Distributed Computing Environ-
guage 210
ment 203
HTTP - Hypertext Transmission Pro-
DDE - Dynamic Data Exchange 281
tocol 205
DFD - Data Flow Diagram 248
DNS - Domain Name Service 69
DSS -Decision Support Systems 278
DTD - Document Type Defunition 213 ICMP - Internet Control Message Pro-
tocol 72
E ICOM - Input/ Control/ Output/ Me-
ECAD - Electronic CAD 28, 223 chanism 252
E-commerce 27 IDEF - Integrated Computer-Aided Ma-
EDA - Electronic Design Automa- nufacturing 250
tion 28 IDEF0246,251
EDIF - Electronic Design Interchange IDEF IX 246,256
Format 225 IDEF3 255
EDIFACT - Electronic Data Inter- IDL - Interface Definition Langua-
change For Administration, ge 203,266
Commerce and Transport 294 IETM - Interactive Electronic Techni-
ERD - Entity-Relation Diagram 249 cal Manual 292
332

IIDEAS - Integration of industrial data


for exchange, access, and sha- Parametrics 292
ring 293 PJLIB - Parts Library 292
IP (Internet Protocol) 65, 67 PCI - Peripheral Component Intercon-
IPX - Internet Packet Exchange 73 nect 47,79
ISDN - Integrated Service Digital Net- PDM - Product Data Management 25,
work 63 281
ISO - International Standard Organiza- PMX - Partially Matched Crossover 188
tion 41

J
QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modula-
Java 213 tion 61
JavaBeans 268 QS - Quality System 321
JavaScript 214
R
RAD - Rapid Application Development
LAN - Local Area Network 39 261
LLC - Logical Link Control 43 RadioEthernet 51
RPC - Remote Procedure Call 203
M RTL - Register Transfer Level 224
MAC - Medium Access Control 43, 69
Mandate - Manufacturing management
data 292 SADT - Structured Analysis and De-
MCAD - Mechanical CAD 28 sign Technique 251
MES - Manufacturing Execution Sys- SCADA - Supervisory Control and
tem 26,236 Data Acquisition 27, 240
MFC - Microsoft Foundation Clas- SCM - Supply Chain Management 26
ses 262 SDAI - Standard Data Access Inter-
MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Ex- face 300
tensions 206 SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierachy 58
MRP-2 - Manufacturing Resource Plan- SGML - Standard Generalized Markup
ning 26, 238 Language 212, 295
SMTP - Simple Mail Transport Proto-
col 71
OLAP - On-Line Analytical Proces- SNMP - Simple Network Management
sing 278 Protocol 72
OLE - Object Linking and Embed- SPX - Sequence Packet Exchange 73
ding 281 STEP - Standard for Exchange of Pro-
ORB - Object Request Broker 203 duct Data 291
333

STP - Shielded Twist Pair 57 UTP - Unshielded Twist Pair 57


S&SM - Sales and Service Manage-
ment 26
V
VME-bus (Versabus Module Europe-
bus) 79
TCP - Transmission Control Proto- VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Lan-
col 65 guage 210
Telnet 207
W
TDM - Time Division Method 38
WAN - Wide Area Network 39
Thick Ethernet 50
Workbench 246'
Thin Ethernet 50
WWW - World Wide Web 209
Token Ring 52
Twisted Pair Ethernet 50 X
U XML - Extensible Markup Langua-
ge 210? 213, 296
UDP - User Datagram Protocol 71
X.25 74
UML - Unified Modeling Langua-
ge 258

.
. .
.. , ..
..

26.07.2002 . 70x100/16
. .
. . 21. . . . 27,3. .-. . 28. 5000 .
2107

. . . ,
105005, , 2- , 5

-
432980, . , . , 14

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