Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

SCIENCE & TECH

BIO & INFO TECH.


Augmented reality institute of india

First such institute to be set up in Varanasi.


stablished by the central government
in partnership with Eon Reality.
seen as the next big thing in the Internet revolution especially in
learning and practical training space , will provide hands on
training in various specialised fields.
It will allow students from various ranges like skill schools,
engineering, research, etc. to experience a different kind of
learning before entering the real-world workplace.
AUGMENTED REALITY

reality +virtual reality = augmented reality,enhances your


perception of reality.
real scene via any camera+ virtual info on disply= scene which
has both information + reality.
AR

advantages include enhanced reality, 3D information on


Assembly lines can futher enhance productivity.
better sophistication by using all the available options like
sound, video etc by using algorthims.
BEDAQUILINE
It is a drug for multi-drug resistant TB patients
Bedaquiline will be given to multi-drug resistant TB patients with resistance to
either all fluoroquinolone and/or
all second line injectable and extensive drug resistant TB.
considered as miracle drug.
most drug resistant TB in India arises from the failure of people to take their
drugs properly, rather than from them becoming infected with an MDR TB
strain.
So a high quality DOTS program, which includes supervising people taking
their drugs should prevent the emergence of resistance.
DOTS-Plus refers to a DOTS service with additional elements for drug resistant
TB.
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

The project aims to write (create) a synthetic DNA rather than reading a DNA
HGP-Write seeks to reduce the cost of engineering DNA segments
synthetically in the laboratory
Potential applications: Growing transplantable human organs, engineering
cancer resistance, engineering immunity to viruses and accelerating vaccine
& drug development using human cells and organs
Concerns: This project raises concern over the extent to which human life
can or should be engineered. It also raises troubling ethical concerns as this
project has potential of creating children with no biological parents
24
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was a large, international and multi-institutional
effort that took 13 years [1990-2003] and $2.7 billion to produce a blueprint of the
sequence of genes and spaces between genes that make up a typical human genome.
In 2016 Human Genome Projectwrite (HGP-write) is now underway to synthesise a
human genome from scratch.
The original HGP was a read in that it used chemicals and instruments to decipher the
genome for the first time.
The new project is to write or build an artificial human genome with sophisticated
bioengineering tools.
The potential benefits of HGP-write to India include providing new solutions to diseases
like malaria, dengue and chikungunya.
The tools, techniques and technologies that are going to be developed through
HGP-write will be universally applicable to all organisms, especially at an
earlier stage for organisms with smaller genomes (for example, viruses),
towards building individual genes and genomes efficiently and in an
inexpensive manner.
USAGE - for eg. sending sterile mosquitoes into the environment, incapable of
producing offspring after mating with their wild type mates and/or by building
pathogen resistance in mosquitoes, both by genome engineering. Results from
the initial experiments following field trials to release sterile mosquitoes have
been very encouraging.
CONCERNS - sterile, genetically-rewritten mosquitoes could create imbalances in
ecological niches and wipe out entire populations of insects. Then there are the
unintended side- effects of releasing modified mosquitoes into the wild, who
which could transfer their genes to non-target species.
The human genome sequence is like a map of the human body. Through this
map, we can tell what leads to what. We can use this map to predict
mutations in the gene, like predicting how a certain person may get a certain
disease. We can predict for instance, who will get the common bipolar disease
or single nuclear polymorphism.
PROJECT - ReAnima
looks for signs of neurological reactivation. Their focus will be on
the upper spinal cord, which is the lowermost part of the brain
stream that controls a persons cardiorespiratory functions
breathing and a beating heart, primarily.
The project is a joint-venture between the Philadelphia-based
biotech company Bioquark Inc, Revita Life Science and Anupam
Hospital in Rudrapur, Uttarakhand.
plans to inject the central nervous system of around 20 brain-
dead people with stem cells and give laser and median nerve
stimulation. These techniques have sometimes revived patients
from coma.
SCIENCE & TECH

BIOTECH & INFO TECH


PATENT REGULATION FRAMEWORK & Issues

Patent regulation framework


Indian Patent Office is administered by the Office of the
Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trade Marks.
CGPDTM reports to the Department of Industrial Policy and
Promotion(DIPP) under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
It administers the Indian law of Patents, Designs and
Trademarks.
US Trade Representative's Special 301 Review mostly puts India
at the bottom of Patent regimes of the world.
Keeps India on the priority watch list.
prepared annually by the Office of the United States Trade
Representative (USTR)
IPR

Intellectual Property Rights provides a secure environment for


investors, scientists, artists, designers, traders etc. to foster
innovation and scientific temper.
This innovation often has potential to yield astronomical returns
and rewards to creators and users.
Original inventors shall have rights to such profits. However it is
imperative that society at large should also be benefited by such
outcomes. Thus, IPR regime aims to strike balance between public
and private rights.

Patents are granted for 20 years on any new product or process to


original creator. After expiry of 20 years such patents expire and
generic industry can exploit what was once patented
For 20 years law guards private rights and then they make sure
that innovation is thrown open to public, hence striking a balance.
CL

Compulsory licensing - A compulsory license provides that the


owner of a patent or copyright licenses the use of their rights
against payment either set by law or determined through some
form of adjudication or arbitration.
In essence, under a compulsory license, an individual or
company seeking to use anothers intellectual property can do
so without seeking the rights holders consent, and pays the
rights holder a set fee for the license.
This is an exception to the general rule under intellectual
property laws that the intellectual property owner enjoys
exclusive rights that it may license or decline to
license to others.
EVERGREENING OF PATENT

As long as a company has patent for a drug, others cannot


manufacture it.
But when the patent is about to
expire, the company just slightly modifies the original drug formula
to create a new drug and seeks patent for that new drug. This
practice is known as everygreening.
Under section 3(d) of Indian patent act Evergreening is
prohibited.

India, China, Brazil and South Africa are attempting to counter a


push by the US and EU for more stringent global intellectual
property rules. The four countries have called for intensive
discussions at the World Trade Organization (WTO) on a United
Nations report recommending rigorous definition of invention and
criteria for granting of pharmaceutical patents.