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Vector Analysis

Contents

3.1 Basic Laws of Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

3.1.1 Equality of Two Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

3.1.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction . . . . . . . . . 3-5

3.1.3 Position and Distance Vectors . . . . . . . . . . 3-6

3.1.4 Vector Multiplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7

3.1.5 Scalar and Vector Triple Products . . . . . . . . 3-9

3.2 Orthogonal Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

3.2.1 Cartesian Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14

3.2.2 Cylindrical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15

3.2.3 Spherical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

3.3 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24

3.3.1 Cartesian to Cylindrical Transformations . . . . 3-25

3.3.2 Cartesian to Spherical Transformations . . . . . 3-26

3.3.3 Cylindrical to Spherical Transformations . . . . 3-27

3.3.4 Distance Between Two Points . . . . . . . . . . 3-27

3.4 Gradient of a Scalar Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28

3.4.1 Gradient Operator in Cylindrical and Spherical

Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31

3-1

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

3.5 Divergence of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-32

3.6 Curl of a Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-40

3.7 Laplacian Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44

3-2

3.1. BASIC LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

netic concepts where 1D scalar quantities was sufficient. Voltage,

current, time, and 1D position will continue to be quantities of inter-

est, but more is needed to prepare for future chapters.

In what lies ahead the vector field quantities E and H are of cen-

tral importance. To move forward with this agenda we will start with

a review of vector algebra, review of some analytic geometry, review

the orthogonal coordinate systems Cartesian (rectangular), cylindri-

cal, and spherical, then enter into a review of vector calculus. The

depth of this last topic will likely be more intense than any earlier

experiences you can remember.

The Cartesian coordinate system should be familiar to you from

earlier math and physics courses

The vector A is readily written in terms of the cartesian unit

vectors xO , yO , and zO

A D xO Ax C yO Ay C zO Az

having unit length, i.e., jOxj and mutually orthogonal

Also, the length of A is

q

A D A2x C Ay2 C A2z

and the unit vector in the A direction is

A xO Ax C yO Ay C zO Az

aO D D q

A A2 C A2 C A2

x y z

3-3

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

3

2

1 z

y

y

1 1 2 3

2 x

3

x

(a) Base vectors

Az

A

Az

Ay

y

Ax Ar

x

(b) Components of A

Figure 3.1:Figure

Expressing3-2 the A in termssystem:

vectorcoordinate

Cartesian the Cartesian

(a) base unit vec-

tors. vectors x , y , and z , and (b) components of vector A.

Ax D Bx , etc.

3-4

3.1. BASIC LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

Addition of vectors means that the individual components are

added together, that is

CDACB

D xO .Ax C Bx / C yO .Ay C By / C zO .Az C Bz /;

thus Cx D Ax C Bx , etc.

C A

A C

B B

(a) Parallelogram rule (b) Head-to-tail rule

Vector addition by (a) the parallelogram rule

and (b) the head-to-tail rule.

DDA B

D xO .Ax Bx / C yO .Ay By / C zO .Az Bz /;

thus Dx D Ax Bx , etc.

3-5

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

z

z2

P1 = (x1, y1, z1)

R1 R2

y1 y2

O y

x1

x2

x

Figure 3.3: The notion of the position vector a point, P , R , and

to

Figure 3-4 Distance vector R12 = P1 P2 = R2 Ri 1 , i

distancewhere

between, Pi and

R and Pj , the

R are Rij position

are vectors.

vectors of points P

1 2 1

and P2 , respectively.

Formally a position vector starts at the origin, so we use the

notation

!

Ri D OPi D xO xi C yO yi C zO zi

where xi , yi , and zi correspond to the point Pi D .xi ; yi ; zi /

q

d D .xj xi /2 C .yj yi /2 C .zj zi /2

3-6

3.1. BASIC LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

Vector multiplication takes the form

scalar vector:

B D kA D element-by-element multiply by k

A B D AB cos AB

algebra)

Note: A cos AB is the component of A along B and B cos AB

is the component of B along A

Also,

A A D jAj2 D A2

p

A D jAj D A A

1 AB

AB D cos p p

AA BB

Finally,

A A D Ax Bx C Ay By C Az Bz

ABDBA

A .B C C/ D A B C A C

3-7

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

O

A B D nAB sin AB

B (see picture below for details)

z

A B = n AB sin AB

n B

AB

y

x A

(a) Cross product

AB

A

(b) Right-hand rule

Figure 3.4: The

Figure 3-6 cross product

Cross AA

product B

andB the right-hand

points in the rule.

which is perpendicular to the plane

direction n,

containing

The crossAproduct is anticommuntative

and B and defined by the right-hand rule.

ABD BA

3-8

3.1. BASIC LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

A .B C C/ D A B C A C

xO yO zO

A B D Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz

D xO .Ay Bz Az By / C yO .Az Bx A x Bz /

C zO .Ax By Ay Bx /

Certain, make sense, vector products arise in electromagnetics

Definition:

A .B C/ D B .C A/ D C .A B/

Ax Ay Az

D Bx By Bz

Cx Cy Cz

Definition

A .B C/

Note:

A .B C/ .A B/ C/

3-9

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

vec_fmt (see Chapter 3 Jupyter notebook)

3-10

3.1. BASIC LAWS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

3-11

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

lations

3-12

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

There three orthogonal coordinate systems in common usage

in electromagnetics:

O C zO Az

The cylindrical system: rO Ar C A

O R C A

The spherical system: RA O C A

O

Table 3-1 Summary of vector relations.

Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical

Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates

Coordinate variables x, y, z r, , z R, ,

Vector representation A = x Ax + y Ay + z Az r Ar + A + z Az R + A + A

RA

( ( (

Magnitude of A |A| = +

A2x + A2y + A2z + A2 + A2 + A2 + A2 + A2 + A2

r z R

1,

Position vector OP1 = x x1 + y y1 + z z1 , r r1 + z z1 , RR

for P(x1 , y1 , z1 ) for P(r1 , 1 , z1 ) for P(R1 , 1 , 1 )

Base vectors properties x x = y y = z z = 1 r r = = z z = 1

RR = = = 1

x y = y z = z x = 0 r = z = z r = 0 = = R

R =0

x y = z r = z =

R

y z = x z = r = R

z x = y z r = R =

Dot product AB = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz Ar Br + A B + Az Bz AR BR + A B + A B

4 4 4 4 4 4

4 x z 44 4 r z 44 4 R 44

4 y 4 4

Cross product B =

A 4 Ax Ay Az 4 4 Ar A Az 4 4 AR A A 4

4 4 4 4 4 4

4 Bx By Bz 4 4 Br B Bz 4 4 BR B B 4

R

Differential surface areas dsx = x dy dz dsr = r r d dz dsR = RR 2 sin d d

dsy = y dx dz ds = dr dz ds = R sin dR d

dsz = z dx dy dsz = z r dr d ds = R dR d

Differential volume d v = dx dy dz r dr d dz R2 sin dR d d

The three systems are needed to best fit the problem geometry

at hand

3-13

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

volume

Differential Length

d l D xO d lx C yO d ly C zO d lz D xO dx C yO dy C zO dz

Differential Area

the scalar area ds

d sx D xO d ly d lz D xO dy dz (y z-plane)

d sy D xO dx dz (x z-plane)

d sz D xO dx dy (x y-plane)

Differential Volume

d V D dx dy dz

3-14

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

z dsz = z dx dy

dy

dx

dsy = y dx dz

dz

dz

dl dv = dx dy dz

dsx = x dy dz

dy

y

dx

x

Figure3-8

Figure 3.8: Differential

Differential length,

length, area,

area, and

and volume.

volume in

Cartesian coordinates.

3.2.2 Cylindrical Coordinates

The cylindrical system is used for problems involving cylindri-

cal symmetry

azimuthal angle, 2 0; 2/, and z 2 . 1; 1/, which can

be thought of as height

O and zO are mutually

As in the case of the Cartesian system, rO ; ,

perpendicular or orthogonal to each other, e.g., rO O D 0, etc.

cyclical result

rO O D zO ; O zO D rO ; zO rO D O

3-15

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

z = z1 plane

z1 P = (r1, 1, z1)

R1

r = r1 cylinder

O y

1 r1 z

= 1 plane

r

x

1 ) in cylindrical A point in the

r1 is the cylindrical the origin in the xy plane, 1 is the

system.

radial distance from

angle in the xy plane measured from the x axis toward the y axis, and z1 is the vertical distance from the xy plane.

O C zO Az

A D aO jAj D rO Ar C A

q

jAj D A2r C A2 C A2z

position vector

!

OP D rO r1 C zO z1;

3-16

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

dz dsz = z r dr d

r d dr

ds = dr dz

dz dv = r dr d dz

dsr = r r d dz

O y

r

x r d

dr

Figure 3-10 quantitiesareas

Differential in theand

cylindical

volumesystem.

in

cylindrical coordinates.

Differential Quantities

system

function of the radial component, i.e.,

d lr D dr; d l D rd; d lz D dz

In the end

O

d l D rO dr C rd C zO dz

3-17

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

d sr D rO r d dz . z cylindrical surface/

d s D O dr dz .r z plane/

d sz D zO dr d .r plane/

d V D r dr dz

a line, we need the distance vector shown below:

z

P1 = (0, 0, h)

a

A

O y

0 r 0

P2 = (r0, 0, 0)

Figure 3-11 from z-axis

Geometry in r

to point3-3.

of Example plane.

3-18

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

P2 in the r-plane, .r0; 0; 0/, is

! !

A D OP 2 OP 1 D rO r0 zO h

rO r0 zO h

aO D q

r02 C h2

Note: is not present!

resolved

Z 2 Z 2

D 6 (cm)2

SD r d dz

0 0 rD3=2

3=2 Z 2 Z 2

r 2 3=2 9

Z

VD r d dz dr D 4 D (cm)3

0 0 0 2 0 2

3-19

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

In this coordinate system a single range variable R plus two

angle variables and are employed

R

P = (R1, 1, 1)

R1

= 1

conical 1

surface

y

1

x

Figure 3.12:

FigureThe spherical

3-13 coordinate system showing a point P1

Point P(R1 , 1 , 1 ) in spherical coordi-

O

nates.vector R1 .

and position

azimuthal angle (same as cylindrical), 2 0; 2/, and the

zenith angle 2 0; , which is measured from the positive

z-axis

space

3-20

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

The cross product of the unit vectors produces the cyclical re-

sult

O O D ;

R O O

O O D R; O D O

O R

O R C A

A D aO jAj D RA O C A

O

q

jAj D A2R C A2 C A2

! O 1;

R1 D OP D RR

Differential Quantities

The differential quantities are different yet again from the Cat-

estian and the cylindrical systems

imuthal component in the cylindrical system

function of both the radial component and the zenith compo-

nent, i.e.,

3-21

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

In the end

O

d l D Rdr O

C Rd O sin dz

C R

O 2 sin d d . spherical surface/

d sR D RR

d s D O R sin dR d .R conical plane/

O dR d .R plane/

d s D R

Again the differential area is likely the most familiar from cal-

culus

d V D R2 sin dR d d

z

R sin d

d = R2 sin dR d d

dR R d

R

d

y

d

x

Figure 3.13:3-14

Figure The spherical coordinate differential volume.

Differential volume in spherical coordi-

3-22

nates.

3.2. ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS

v D 4 cos2 .C/m3/

density over the volume

Z

Q D v d V

ZV 2 Z Z 0:02

4 cos2 R2 sin dR d d

D

D0 D0 RD0

Z 2 Z 3 0:02

R

D4 sin cos2 d d

0 0 3

Z 2 0 3

32 6 cos

D 10 d

3 0 3 0

Z 2

64 128

D 10 6 d D 10 6

9 0 9

D 44:68 .C/

sin cos2

3-23

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Overview of the various transformations: .x; y; x/ , .r; ; z/,

.x; y; z/ , .R; ; /, and .r; ; z/ , .R; ; /

TableTable

3.2: Coordinate transformations.

3-2 Coordinate transformation relations.

+

Cartesian to r = + x2 + y2 r = x cos + y sin Ar = Ax cos + Ay sin

cylindrical = tan1 (y/x) = x sin + y cos A = Ax sin + Ay cos

z=z z = z Az = Az

Cylindrical to x = r cos x = r cos sin Ax = Ar cos A sin

Cartesian y = r sin y = r sin + cos Ay = Ar sin + A cos

z=z z = z Az = Az

+

Cartesian to R = + x2 + y2 + z2 R = x sin cos AR = Ax sin cos

spherical + + y sin sin + z cos + Ay sin sin + Az cos

= tan1 [ + x2 + y2/z] = x cos cos A = Ax cos cos

+ y cos sin z sin + Ay cos sin Az sin

= tan1 (y/x) = x sin + y cos A = Ax sin + Ay cos

Spherical to x = R sin cos x = R sin cos Ax = AR sin cos

Cartesian + cos cos sin + A cos cos A sin

y = R sin sin y = R sin sin Ay = AR sin sin

+ cos sin + cos + A cos sin + A cos

z = R cos z = R cos sin

Az = AR cos A sin

Cylindrical to R = + r2 + z2 R = r sin + z cos AR = Ar sin + Az cos

spherical = tan1 (r/z) = r cos z sin A = Ar cos Az sin

= = A = A

Spherical to r = R sin r = R sin + cos Ar = AR sin + A cos

cylindrical = = A = A

z = R cos z = R cos sin Az = AR cos A sin

formations:

O ;

O zO /, and .R;

2. The unit vectors .Ox; yO ; zO /, .Or; ; O /

O

3. The vector components .Ax ; Ay ; Az /, .Ar ; A ; Az /, and

.AR ; A ; A /

3-24

3.3. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

This is the most obvious and most familiar

p y

1

r D x 2 C y 2; D tan (watch the quadrant)

x

x D r cos ; y D r sin

zDz

P(x, y, z)

z

y

3

r

2

x = r cos

1

123

y = r sin

x

Figure 3.14: Cartesian and cylindrical variable relationships.

Figure 3-16 Interrelationships between Cartesian

coordinates (x, y, z) and cylindrical coordinates (r, , z).

y

r

y

r

x

x

Figure 3.15: Cartesian and cylindrical unit vector relationships.

Figure 3-17 Interrelationships between base vectors

(x, y ) and (r, ). 3-25

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

p !

p

1 x2 C y2

RD x 2 C y 2 C z 2; D tan

z

y

1

D tan (watch the quadrants)

x

x D R sin cos ; y D R sin sin

z D R cos

z

z

R

(/2 )

R r

z = R cos

y

x = r cos

r

y = r sin

r

x

Figure 3.16: Cartesian and spherical variable and unit vector rela-

Figure 3-18 Interrelationships between (x, y, z) and

tionships.

(R, , ).

3-26

3.3. COORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

See Table 3.2

p

R D r 2 C z 2; D tan 1.r=z/; D

r D R sin ; D ; z D R sin

The distance between two points, P1 D .x1; y1; z1/ and P2 D

.x2; y2; z2/, arises frequently

transformations to arrive at

d D .r2 cos 2 r1 cos 1/2 C .r2 sin 2 r1 sin 1/2

1=2

C .z2 z1/2

2 1=2

2 2

D r2 C r1 2r1r2 cos.2 1/ C .z2 z1/

1=2

C sin 2 sin 1 cos.2 1/

3-27

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

In this section we deal with the rate of change of a scalar quan-

tity with respect to position in all three coordinates .x; y; z/

change of the scalar quantity will have direction

as quickly as possible you ski the path the follows the

negative of the maximum rate of change in elevation

The route corresponds to the negative of the gradient

material as a function of .x; y; z/

@T @T @T

rT D grad T D xO C yO C zO

@x @y @z

with the gradient gives the scalar change in temperature, d T ,

i.e.

d T D rT d l

D rT xO dx C yO dy C zO dz

@T @T @T

D dx C dy C dz

@x @y @z

3-28

3.4. GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD

sian coordinates as

@ @ @

r D xO C yO C zO

@x @y @z

Directional Derivative

In calculus you learn about the directional derivative

dT

D rT aO l

dl

as the derivative of T along aO , which is the unit vector of the

differential distance d dl D aO l d l

sponds to points P1 D .x1; y1; z1/ and P2 D .x2; y2; z2/

to obtain Z P2

T2 T1 D rT d l

P1

yO 3 zO 2 evaluated at .1; 1; 2/

rT D xO 2x C yO 2yz C zO y 2

3-29

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

Note that

l D xO 2 C yO 3 zO 2;

so

xO 2 C yO 3 zO 2

aO l D p

17

The directional derivative is

O O O

dT x 2 C y 3 z 2

D xO 2x C yO 2yz C zO y 2

p

dl 17

2

4x C 6yz 2y

D p ;

17

At the point .1; 1; 2/ we finally have

d T 10

D p D 0:588

d l .1; 1;2/ 17

dT/dl at z = 2

dT/dl

The point

(1, -1, 2)

dT/dl

.x; y/ with z fixed at 2.

3-30

3.4. GRADIENT OF A SCALAR FIELD

ical Coordinates

To move forward with the expressing gradient in the other two

coordinate systems, requires a bit of calculus

@ 1 @ @

r D rO C O C zO

@r r @ @z

O @ C O 1 @ C O

rDR

1 @

@R R @ R sin @

From basic calculus it follows that

r U C V D rU C rV

r U V D U rU C V rU

rV n D nV n 1 rV; for any n

Consider the scalar function

V D x 2y C xy 2 C xz 2

rV D xO .2xy C y 2 C z 2/ C yO .x 2 C 2xy/ C zO .2xz/

3-31

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

rV .1; 1; 2/ D xO 3 yO C zO 4

The divergence of a vector field is in a sense complementary

to the gradient:

Divergence of a vector function ) Scalar function

wiki/Divergence

field behaves as a source or sink

defines the outward flux crossing a unit surface ds

sphere (infinitesimally small) around it, there will be a

net flow of flux over the surface of the sphere; move the

sphere away from the charge location and the net flow of

flux (in/out) is zero

For the ME: Consider heating or cooling of air in a re-

gion; the velocity of the air, which is influenced by the

heating, is a vector field; the velocity points outward from

3-32

3.5. DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD

the heated region just like the electric field from the Cq

charge

+q

Imaginary

spherical

surface

E

Figure 3.18: The electric field flux lines due to a point charge Cq

Figure 3-20 Flux lines of the electric field E due to a

O centered on the charge.

are normal to a sphere (n)

positive charge q.

flux crossing a unit surface)

E ds

Flux density of E D D E nO

jd sj

dot product insures that only the flux normal to the surface

is accounted for; nO is the outward normal to the surface, i.e.,

d s=jd sj

3-33

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

I

Total flux D E d sO

S

we can sum the outward flux through each of the faces of a

differential cube as shown in Figure3.18

E

n 4

E

(x, y + y, z) x

Face 4

z

E

Face 1 Face 2

n 1 n 2

y (x, y, z)

(x + x, y, z)

Face 3

y

(x, y, z + z)

n 3 x

z

Figure 3.19: Detailing divergence by considering the flux exiting the

Figure 3-21 Flux lines of a vector field E passing

six facesthrough

of a differential cube (parallelpiped).

a differential rectangular parallelepiped of

volume v = x y z.

In the end we have

@Ex @Ey @Ez

I

E ds D C C D divE V

S @x @y @z

3-34

3.5. DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD

tion of divergence

r E D div E D C C

@x @y @z

is present, and r E D 0 means the field is divergenceless

Divergence Theorem

Moving forward into Chapter 4 we will quickly bump into the

divergence theorem, which states that

Z I

r E dV D E ds

V S

@3x 2 @2z @x 2z

r ED C C

@x @y @z

D 6x C 0 C x 2 D x 2 C 6x

r E D 16

.2; 2;0/

3-35

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

slice plot from Mathematica

Out[50]=

sphere centered at .2; 2; 0/; the positive divergence is clear.

3-36

3.5. DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD

Working a diverge calculation in cylindical or spherical re-

quires the formulas inside the back cover of the text

O 3 cos =R2/

E D R.a O 3 sin =R2/;

.a

1 @ 2

1 @

r ED 2 R ER C E sin

R @R R sin @

1 @E

C

R sin @ !

3 2

1 @ 3 1 @ a sin

D 2 a cos C

R @R R sin @ R2

2a3 cos

D

R3

At the point .a=2; 0; / we have

r E D 16

.a=2;0;/

a field sink is present

used to review the field behavior using arrows

3-37

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

a = 10

3.0

2.5

2.0

Out[64]= 1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

R

Figure 3.21: 2D vector field plot for a D 10 in just the R and axes

making the negative divergence at .5; 0; / clear.

3-38

3.5. DIVERGENCE OF A VECTOR FIELD

form of a vector representation. Determine r A analytically

and then compare the results with your expectations on the ba-

sis of the displayed pattern.

3-39

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

notebook to verify divegence of zero.

Moving forward, the next vector operator, Curl, applies more

often to magnetic fields; See https://en.wikipedia.org/

wiki/Curl_(mathematics)

sense

3-40

3.6. CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD

I

Circulation D B dl 0

C

integral around a closed rectangular contour in the x y plane

yields zero, i.e.,

Z b Z c

Circulation D xO B0 xO dx C xO B0 yO dy

a b

Z d Z a

C xO B0 xO dx C xO B0 yO dy

c d

D B0 x B0 x D 0

form field will not rotate, no matter the orientation of the wheel

rotation axis

y

a d

Contour C

x x

b c

B

x

(a) Uniform field

Figure 3.24: A uniform field, B D xO B0 with circulation over C zero.

z

3-41

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

the z-axis

y

The magnetic flux in thex y plane follows O with strength

a d

0I =.2 r/

Contour C

x we consider

To compute the circulation x differential length d l D

O d and determine the circulation to be

r

b c

2

0 I O

Z

Circulation D O r d D 0I

0 2 r

B

x placed in this field will rotate!

Clearly a paddle wheel

(a) Uniform field

z

Current I

Contour C

y

r

B

O 0I =.2 r/ with circulation

Figure 3.25: An azimuthal field, B D

around the z-axis.3-22 Circulation is zero for the uniform field

Figure

in (a), but it is not zero for the azimuthal field in (b).

3-42

3.6. CURL OF A VECTOR FIELD

I

1

r B D curl B D lim nO B dl

s!0 s C max

lation; position the paddle wheel so it spins the fastest

Since r B is a vector, its direction is n,

surface s (use the right-hand rule with the fingers curling in

O

the direction of C and the thumb pointing along n)

xO yO zO

@ @ @

r B D @x @y @z

Bx By Bz

For other coordinate systems consult the back page of the text

Stokes Theorem

Stokes theorem converts a surface integral of the curl to a line

integral of a vector along a contour C bounding surface S

Z I

r B ds D B dl

S C

3-43

CHAPTER 3. VECTOR ANALYSIS

The Laplacian operator shows up in a number of contexts

as one possibility

2 @2V @2 V @2V

r V D C 2 C 2

@x 2 @y @z

mining the electrostatic potential in 1D, 2D, and 3D problems

3-44

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