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Stairs

Staircase is means of giving access to the different floors of a


building. It is a medium of communication between various floors
by providing ascent and descent between various floors.
Importance:
1. To provide ascent and descent between various floors of a
building.
2. In case of emergency like fire, stairs are better option than
other sources like escalators and lifts.
3. To provide comforts while going up and coming down.
Terminologies
1. Staircase
Staircase is enclosure in a building where stair is provided.
2. Flight
Unbroken series of steps between two landings is called
flight.
3. Landing
Space between the two flights is called landing.
4. Winders
Tapered steps used for changing directions are called
winders.
5. String
Sloping member which supports steps in a stair and run
along the slope of stair.
6. Rise
Vertical distance between two treads is called rise.
7. Tread
Upper horizontal part of step where foot is placed is called
tread.
8. Step
It is composed of tread and riser and is that portion of stair
which provide ascent and descent.
9. Risk
Vertical distance between two consecutive treads is called
risk
10. Going
Horizontal distance between two consecutive riser.
11. Run
Total length of stair in a horizontal plane including landing.
12. Pitch
Angle between the line joining the nosing and horizontal is
called pitch
13. Scotia
Mouding provided under the nosing is called scotia.
14. Headroom
Min vertical distance between the tread and the overhead
constructions like ceiling or soffit of other flight.
15. Nosing
Projected portion of tread is called nosing.
16. Newel
Vertical member provided at the bottom or the top
supporting the handrail.
17. Baluster
Vertical member provided between steps and handrails.

Types of stairs
1. Straight flight stairs
2. Quarter turn stairs
3. Half turn stairs
4. Geometrical stairs
5. Bifurcated stairs
6. Spiral stairs
7. Circular stairs
8. Helical stairs
Structural behavior of a Staircase
Staircase behaves like a slab supporting on the walls or beams. It
may be supported in the direction of steps or in direction of going
depending upon the availability of supports.
1. Stair slab spanning horizontally.
2. Stair slab spanning longitudinally.

Stair slab spanning horizontally


Slabs supported on both sides over the walls or beams is called
stair slab spanning horizontally. Each step is designed as a
beam of span L