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Through the 1970s, shipyard layout responded primarily to advances in

technology and to requirements for new types and larger sizes of ships. Changes in
the layout of shipyards were, in most cases, piecemeal. Many yards are a century
old and have been extended and revised with little opportunity for a complete
redesign commensurate with a total systems approach. The history of shipyard
layout can be divided into three distinct periods:(1) prior to World War II, (2)World
War II to 1960,and (3) from 1960to the present.The movement from the first to the
secondperiod coincides with the changeoverfrom riveting to welding in the late
1930s.The introduction of flow line techniqueswas primarily responsible for the
movementfrom the secondperiod to the third.

Figure 5-1providesa comparison between production organizations.

Shipbuilding has seen the complete range of organizations listed. Prior to the
advent of welding, shipbuilding was a craft organization relying heavily on the skills
of workers and little based on prior planning. Following the application of welding,
most ships were built using the hull block construction method, involving the
scheduling androuting of steel assemblies and blocks and the forward loading of
work areas. The categorization of shipyard layout will be presentedin terms of the
production organization classifrcation shown in Figure 5-1.
A. Pre World War I
This period corresponded to the job shop or craft type organization. Shipyards
characteristically had limited storage and shop facilities and lift capacities in the
five- to ten ton range. Most of the ship components were assembledon or
immediately adjacent to the shipway. First-generation shipyards were characterized
by a long, narrow layout, following along the waterway, with comparatively little
depth back from the waterway (seeFigure 5-2).The work was concentrated around
the shipway and outfrt pier.

B. World War II - 1960

This periodwas characterizedby adoption of prefabrication of weldments away
from the shipways and development of more accurate, high-technology steel cutting
and welding. The process production organization corresponds to the shipbuilding
system of this period. This period was ushered in by Henry Kaiser during the Second
World War, at shipyards in Portland, Oregon, and Richmond, California. Other yards,
responding to the high demand resulting from the war effort, adopted similar
methods. Figure 5-3 shows a typical second-generation shipyard. Comparedto the
frrst-generation layout, there is a shrinking of the length of the yard along the
waterway,but an increase in depth back from the waterway. The number and size of
fabrication shops increased significantly.
C. 1960 Present
Shipbuilding in the 1960s and 1970s was particularly influenced by
specialized ship types, larger ships, and a move to series production. European and
some U.S. shipbuilders began to modify existing yards to accommodate this mass
production type organization. Work stations were clearly defrned and fixed. High
technology was introduced in steel fabrication and transport. For efficient
production, these yards required a standardized product and high through puts.
Ship Size, Types of Ships, and Series Production.Some yards specializedin new
typesofships, such as:

bulk carriers
oil, bulk, ore carriers (OBO)
roll-on/roll-offships(RO/RO)with complex ramps, doors, hatches, and
elevators, and high freeboard
barge carriers
cementand grain carriers equipped with specialized unloading
gascarriers (LNGILPG) which required highly advancedwelding systemsand
Shipyards specialized in one or more of these types of merchant ships in order to
attempt to gain a competitive edge in a specific ship building market.
Conventional Shipyard Layout in the 1960s and 1970s
Series production and further advances in modular construction, begun in the
postwar period, contributed to development of heavy-lift ground transport vehicles
and cranes. Cranes capable of lifts of 200 tons were fairly common, and some yards
were equipped with gantry cranes capable of lifting over 1,600 tons. Docks have
been built in several variations, including:

intermediate dockgateswhich enable flooding of part of the docks

canal docks with opening son both ends, also in corporating intermediate
multilevel docks with an upper level which can be flooded by pumping in
water and a lower level which is gravity flooded
Product-Oriented Shipyard Layout
Third generation shipyards attained a high degree of mechanization at the cost of
inflexibility in product size and throughput. When the demand for ships, particularly
supertankers and bulk carriers, collapsed in the mid-1970s, many shipyards went
into receivership or were nationalized. Hose shipyards which did not follow the trend
toward heavier lift capacity and larger modules, but improved their management by
using the technologly currently available, fared better. These are the fourth-
generation shipyards, which incorporate the principles of group technology and are
characterized by greater flexibility in planning and throughput requirements.
Shipyard Facilities and Siting
With the exception of the Ingalls West Bank Facility, there have been no completely
new major shipyards built in the United States since the Second World War. Some
major redesigns have been accomplished and more are likely. Several shipyards
have begun long range redesigns based on the application of the principles of group
technology. Regardless of whether a proposed shipyard is to be built from scratchor
as a modification to an existing yard, certain factors should be considered.A
thorough analysis of potential markets, market shares, vendor/ subcontractor
markets, labo rmarkets, environmental requirements, energy costs, and the
availability and costs of land must be
conducted. This analysis should also consider geographic/ urban factors, such as:

proximity to openseaand protection from the sea

highway, rail, and water transportations
availability of air transportations
proximity of technical schools and universities
2.1 General Yard Layout
The guiding principle is logical material flow. This is facilitated by allowing
adequate roadways for transporters and other vehicles, such as fork lifts, mobile
cranes,and center lift carriers. Personnel traffrc shouldbeseparated from industrial
traffic and provision made for personnel transport from parking areas located away
from the industrial part of the yard. The perimeter of the shipyard should be
reserved for rail, barge,and truck delivery of raw materials and interim products that
were built at other shipyard facilities or by subcontractors.
2.2 Building Positions
Thetraditional building positionfor shipsare longitudinal sloped building ways
or shipways (seeFigure 5-10). The vesselis built on blocksand other supports.

Graving docks are permanent structures totally excavated from existing land or built
up by dredgingand depositingmaterial (sand, rock, and concrete)alongthe
sidesofthe dock area (see Figure 5-11).End gates are either hinged or floating. The
former are hinged at the bottomandusually havea buoyantchamber at the top to
facilitate openingand closing. When a ship is beinglaunched,the dock is flooded and
the end gate is opened.The buoyant chamberis alsoflooded,enablingit to sink to the
bottom in the openposition to permit the vesselto float out of the dock.
Side-launch systems are particularly well suited where conventional stern-
launching shipways would bevery steepor where there is insufficient openwater for
stern launching (seeFigure 5-12). Side-launch ways have the advantage of the ship's
being level during erection .As in longitudinal shipways, vessels are built on
blocksand the weight shifted to groundways and sliding ways just prior to launch.

2.3 Material Handling

The adoption by many yards of heary-lift surface transporters represents a major in
material-handling equipment over the past two decades. This followed the
introduction and growth in size of modules. Because of their low profile,transporters
are well suited for the movement of completed blocks and Deck houses to enclosed
blast and paint facilities. They are also used to move blocks between platen areas,
where the blocks are assembled and outfitted, to block storage areas, located close
to the erection berths.
2.4 Warehousing Facilities
In many group technology shipyards, warehousing, pallet preparation,and all
Equipment are the responsibility of the material control grup. The main point
madein most facilities plans is that warehouse facilities shouldbe located adjacent
to the shops which use the material. Depending on distances involved and
assuming an adequate transportation network, a central warehouse might also be
desirable (seeFigure 5-17).
2.5 Production Facilities
Shipyard facilities layout cannot be considered independent of automation.
However automation and capital intensiveness are economic decisions which must
depend on market analyses and company objectives. In general, the cost of
automation and capitalintensivenessis the price that must be paid to reduce
required work area and to improve accuracy and reduce rework.
2.5.1 MoldLoftand Marking
The advantages of 1/10th-scale lofting and computer-assisted lofting citedin
Section1.3 of this chapterare applicable to group technology yards. Modern
computer-aidedd esign(CAD) systems have become the standard in nearly all
modern shipyards. These system soften include automatic marking capability.
Numerically controlled (N/C) plate marking is accomplished by burning zincor plastic
powder on to a plate to form a continuous 1/16 (1.6mm) inch-wide line. This method
can mark a continuous line at the rate of 40 feet (12.0 m) per minute.

2.5.2 .Cutting and Edge Preparation

Material to be N/C cut is generally chosen because of its diffrculty in burning and
layout. Numerically controlled burning is generally used for processes requiring high
precision and for plates cut repetitively from the same N/C tape or data. Table 5-2 is
an example of recommended cutting methods for different categories of steel parts.
2.5.3 Panel Line
A typical layout and flow pattern for a curved panel parts fabrication and
subassembly shop(Shop 1) and a panel line (Shop2) for flat panel parts fabrication
and subassembly are shown in Figure5-19. Plate enters the plate staging areas from
a combinedshotblast and primer facility. Numerically controlledburners feed the
curved panel subassembly and flat panel lines. Vertical stiffener storage is provided
on racks adjacent to the panel line. Plates are moved from the shop entrance to
either panelline using conveyors. The panel assembly method is describedas

Plate Fitting: Plates are moved by rollers and chain conveyors to the fitting
station, where they are fitted together manually and tack welded.
Plate Welding: The panel is then conveyed to the seam butt-welding station
where adjustable copper backup bars are positioned according to the width of
the plates.
Marking and Cutting : Plate is marked and cut to size at this station. Marking
of panels is done after welding to allow for neat cutting (i.e.,to exact
dimensions)ofthe panel.
Egg-BoxAssemblies : In conjunction with the panel assembly,and along side
it, is another conveyor line where longitudinals and transverse frames are
StiffenerSetting:The normal flow of panels is a straight line through the shop.
Stiffener and Egg Box: The stiffeners and egg-boxblock assemblies are
welded using gravity or automatic methods
Repair: Welding checks are made at the exit end of the shop, and any final
repairs are performed here.

2.5.4 Blasting and Painting

Most blasting operations are carried out in enclosed spaces in order to comply with
environmental standards and to permitgrit recycling. Some painting may also be
done in enclosed space. Finish paintingis generally to the shopby crane and,/or
conveyor system from the stock yard. Treatment is applied in accordance with a
paint schedule within prescribed specifications. Figure 5-23 is a photograph of parts
fabrication shop blast and paint equipment.

2.5.5 Pipe Fabrications

Significant automation in pipe fabrication is rare in shipyards. Apparently demand
for pipe does not usually justify the expense involved in building a capital-
intensivepipe facility. The layout and flow of work in a pipe shop incorporating a mix
of manual and semi automated methods is shown in Figure b-26.

Pipe suppliedby the digitally controlled cutter is conveyed to the assembly and
welding stage swhich are equipped with the following N/C controlled equipment:

(1) Piperobot
(2) Flangerobot
(3) Flangebolt hole detector
(4) Flangecheckingmachine

2.5.6 Plates and Jigs

Steel platens are used throughout a shipyard. These are situated according to the
process lane plan for the yard. Many jigs and frxtures have also been developed.
The pin jig is perhaps one of the simplest but most effective pieces of equipment to
be invented by modern shipbuilders.

2.5.7 Production Services

Production services include people movers, utilities, small tool and Consumables
storage, and staging. In addition, shipyards engaged in the overhaul and conversion
of U.S.Navy ships must provide shoreside berthing and messing facilities.

Process Lanes
Group technology ship building systems are based on the organization of
work into distinct problem areas,using a product-oriented work break down
structure. The shipyard facility should reflect this organization. The process
lane concept marries the work organization and the physical plant. The
process lane concept can be defined as "the categorization and separation of
similar types of work, and the subsequent development of work centers
specifically designed to efficiently performthat kind ofwork."
3.1 Physical Process Lanes
Figure 5-32 presents the layout of a U.S. shipyard that adopted a process
lane work organization. This existing shipyard was reorganized to apply this
concept. Six major block categories were chosen.
3.2.Process Lane Loading
The goal of uniform work flow, either actual or virtual, throughout the
shipyard should be sought at each work station. Process lane loading
involves attempts to achieve uniform work flow in as much of the
shipbuilding system as is possible.The practical approach to loading process
lanes therefore entails the establishment of a hierarchy