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Biology 151 Quiz I (Fall 2014)

1. ______________________ are caused by non-living environmental components, while
______________________ caused by living organisms.
2. _________________________ states that small islands far from the mainland have fewer
terrestrial species than larger, closer islands.
3. ________________________ occurs when a few individuals start a new population.
4. ______________________________ occurs when just a few members of a species survive a
catastrophic event such as a natural disaster.
5. _________________________________ is the minimum population size required for long-
term survival of a species.
6. A collection of populations that have regular or intermittent gene flow between
geographically separate units is called a ______________________________.
7. The U.S. makes up ________ percent of the worlds population, but consumes ___________
percent of all oil production and generates ________ percent of all toxic wastes in the world.
8. The current human population is _____________________, and it is projected to stabilize at
9. _________________________ awakened the public to the environmental threat posed by
pesticides in her book Silent Spring (1962).
10. _____________________________ describes either the role played by a species in a biological
community or the total set of environmental factors that determine a species distribution.
11. ____________________________________ states that no two species can occupy the same
ecological niche at the same time.
12. When species co-exist in a habitat by utilizing different parts of a single resource,
_____________________________ is occurring.
13. _______________________________ is the development of a new species.
14. ___________________________ are characterized by warm, dry summers and cool, moist winters.
15. ___________________________ support lush summer plant growth when water is plentiful.
The eastern U.S. is one of the regions is this biome is found.
16. _______________________________ receive lots of rain, and are categorized by mild
seasons. The northern west coast is where this biome is found.
17. __________________________ have a broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees
between 50 and 60 N latitude, and are dominated by pines, hemlock, spruce, cedar and fir
with some deciduous trees mixed in.
18. __________________________ have few offspring, slower growth as they near carrying
capacity and exercise more parental care.
19. The four factors that affect growth rate are ____________________, __________________,
_____________________ and ____________________
20. __________________________ is the number of organisms that move out of the population
to another population.
21. The number of organisms that move into the population from another population is
22. The longest period of life reached by a given type of organism is
23. Comparing a treatment group to a control group, which has not received the treatment, is a
__________________________ study.
24. _______________________ require one variable to be deliberately altered while all other
variables are held constant.
25. ___________________ are simple representations of something.
26. A general agreement among informed scholars is __________________________; however, when
a majority of scientists agrees that an old explanation no longer works very well
____________________________ occur.
27. Working to influence attitudes and policies that affect our environment is _________________________.
28. When two plausible explanations are reasonable, the simpler one is preferred. This is called
29. The idea that forests should be saved not for wildlife or beauty, but for homes and jobs is
30. ________________________________ emphasizes the fundamental right of other organisms to
exist and to pursue their own interests.
31. The idea that economic improvement for the worlds poorest nations is possible without
devastating the environment is _________________________________.
32. _________________________________ is the concern for, and action to help solve, global
environmental problems.
33. The World Bank has set the earnings of less than_____________________ per day as the threshold
for extreme poverty.
34. When a harmless species mimic the warning coloration of harmful species to gain protection,
it is called ____________________________. However, when two harmful species evolve to
look alike, ___________________________ is occurring.
35. __________________ is when two or more species live intimately together with their fates linked.
36. When both organisms benefit from their association, _______________________ occurs;
however, when one benefits and the other is harmed _______________________ occurs.
37. _______________________ occurs when one species benefits while the other neither
benefits nor is harmed.
38. __________________________ play a critical role in a biological community that is out of
proportion to its abundance.
39. _________________________ is the total number of organisms in a community.
40. _________________ are characterized by low moisture levels (less than 30 cm per year) and
precipitation that is infrequent and unpredictable from year to year.
41. ___________________________ have large daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations,
thick organic soils, and have been largely converted to farmland.
42. This biome is often cold a very cold desert. It is found at the poles. ____________________
43. Oceans cover ______________ percent of the Earths surface.
44. _________________________ are aggregations of coral polyps that live symbiotically with algae.
_____________________________ occurs when they expel their algal partners and then die.
45. ___________________________ are trees that grow in saltwater along tropical coastlines,
help stabilize shoreline, and act as nurseries for fish, shrimp.
46. Tests and experiments should be repeatable, and the same results should be reproduced. This
is referred to as ______________________________.
47. We rarely expect science to provide absolute proof that a theory is correct;
48. __________________________________ is learning about the world by careful observation
of empirical phenomena.
49. The ability of system to recover quickly from disturbance is __________________________.
50. Periodic destructive events such as fire or flood are referred to as _______________________.
51. _____________________________ is the dynamic state in which system is stable over time.
52. ____________________ is the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular
organism lives. When an organism is found nowhere else, it is sad to be ________________.
53. Chance events that cause genes to be lost from a population is ________________________.
54. _________________________________ occurs when predators reduce a stronger
competitors abundance and allow the weaker competitor to increase its numbers.
55. Over time, predator and prey evolve in response to one another, such as the cheetah and the
gazelle. This is called ___________________________.
56. ____________________ is the number of different species, ecological niches, or genetic variation.
57. __________________ is a branch of philosophy concerned with right and wrong.
58. ______ percent of the worlds population lives in countries with per capita income below $35,000.
59. The conditions that surround an organism or group(s) of organisms is the ___________________.
60. The systematic study of our environment as well as our proper role in it is called
61. Shipping toxic wastes poor communities or communities of color in developing nations is referred
to as ________________________________.
62. _________________________________ are hot with an intense dry season, and a short rainy
season that does not sustain tree growth. They are also fire prone.
63. ______________________ are bays or semi-enclosed bodies of brackish water that form
where rivers enter the ocean.
64. ______________________ are coastal wetlands flooded regularly or occasionally by seawater.
65. ________________________ are categorized as having land surface area saturated or
covered with water at least part of the year.
66. ____________________________ are narrow islands made of sand that form parallel to a
coastline that provide protection from storms, waves, tides.
67. When a population exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment and deaths result from a
scarcity of resources, _______________________ occurs, which leads to a rapid die back
below carrying capacity called a _________________________.
68. ___________________________ occur when a population undergoes repeated cycles of
overshoots followed by crashes.
69. _____________________________ affect populations through the environment, i.e. drought,
fire, or other habitat destruction, while __________________________ intensify as
population size increases.
70. _________________________ rely upon a high reproductive rate to overcome the high
mortality of offspring with little or no parental care.
71. ______________________________ is a measurement of how likely something is to occur.
72. A study of events that have already happened is a _________________________________.
73. A ____________________________ is when the researcher doesnt know which group has been
treated until after the data have been analyzed, whereas a ____________________________
occurs when neither the researcher nor test subject knows who is in the treatment group.
74. Basic patterns and processes are uniform across space and time. This is called
75. __________________________ is the acceptance that knowledge changes as new evidence
76. _______________________________ combines civil rights with environmental protection to
demand a safe and healthy environment for everyone, while _______________________________
restrict certain groups of people to degraded environments based on race.
77. ______________________________ deals with our moral obligations to the world around us.
78. Our ____________________ are our sets of basic beliefs, images and understandings that
shape how we see the world around us. They also determine what questions are valid to ask.
79. ___________________________ is the philosophy that humans have a moral obligations to take
care of the resources we are given.
80. _______________________________ is extending moral and inherent right and values to things
outside of ourselves.
81. ______________________ is the measure of the worth of something.
82. The total number of all the members of a single species living in a specific area at the same
time is the _________________________.
83. Growth at a constant rate of increase per unit time is _______________________; whereas
__________________________ is regulated by internal and external factors that establish
84. ____________________________ is the population of a species that can be supported in a
specific area without depleting the available resources.
85. _____________________________ operate within or between individual organisms in the
same species, while ____________________________ imposed from outside the population.
86. ___________________________ is the acquisition of traits that allow a species to survive in
its environment.
87. The process whereby individuals suited to a particular environment pass on more of their
traits to the next generation is called ________________________________.
88. Changes in DNA coding sequence that occur by chance is ___________________________.
89. The single factor in shortest supply relative to demand is the __________________ in a
species distribution.
90. Each environmental factor has both minimum and maximum levels beyond which a particular
species cannot survive or is unable to reproduce. This is the _________________________.
91. The methodical and logical process for producing knowledge is _________________________.
92. Inferring a general rule from many observations is __________________________, while gathering
reasoning from a system where you already know the laws is ___________________________.
93. A __________________________ is a testable explanation, while a _________________________
is a description or explanation that has been supported by a large number of tests.
94. A ____________________________ helps maintain stability in a system by suppressing
change, whereas a _______________________ increases the change in a system by driving
in a continuous direction.
95. The U.S. has lost __________ percent of its wetlands.
96. The biome most dominated by humans is the ____________________, while the
________________ is the least harmed.
97. ______________________ are areas sharing similar climate, topographic and soil
conditions, and thus the same basic types of biological communities.
98. Temperature and precipitation change with altitude, i.e. as you go up a mountain, it gets
cooler and wetter. This is referred to as _______________________________.
99. ____________________________ occur where rain exceed 200 cm.
_______________________ have similar precipitation patterns, but are cooler.
100. __________________________ are brown and dormant much of the year but become
green during the rainy season. They have enough rainfall to sustain trees.