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CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF

  • 2 SOLIDS

Stress and Strain Axial Loading

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Contents

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

Normal Strain

Stress-Strain Test Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Contents Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Normal Strain Stress-Strain Test Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile

Fatigue

Deformations Under Axial Loading

Example 2.01

Sample Problem 2.1

Static Indeterminacy

Example 2.04

Thermal Stresses

Poisson’s Ratio

Generalized Hooke’s Law

Shearing Strain

Example 2.10

Relation Among E, n, and G Sample Problem 2.5

Composite Materials Saint-Venant’s Principle

Stress Concentration: Hole Stress Concentration: Fillet

Example 2.12

Elastoplastic Materials Plastic Deformations Example 2.14, 2.15, 2.16

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient.

Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress & Strain: Axial Loading • Suitability of a structure or machine may

Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires

consideration of deformations in the member.

Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under

axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending

loads.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Normal Strain

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Normal Strain P   A    L  stress 
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Normal Strain P   A    L  stress 
 

P

 

A

 

L

stress

normal strain

 

2

P

P

P

 

 

2

A

A

A

 

2

 

L

2

L

L

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress-Strain Test

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress-Strain Test GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology 2 - 5
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress-Strain Test GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology 2 - 5

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology 2 -

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology 2 -

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity • Below the yield stress  E 

Below the yield stress

E

E Youngs Modulus or

Modulus of Elasticity

Strength is affected by alloying, heat treating, and manufacturing

process but stiffness (Modulus of

Elasticity) is not.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior • If the strain disappears when the stress is

If the strain disappears when the stress is removed, the material is said to behave elastically.

The largest stress for which this occurs is called the elastic limit.

When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is removed, the material is said to behave plastically.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Fatigue

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Fatigue • Fatigue properties are shown on S-N diagrams. • A member may

Fatigue properties are shown on S-N diagrams.

A member may fail due to fatigue at stress levels significantly below the ultimate strength if subjected to many loading cycles.

When the stress is reduced below the endurance limit, fatigue failures do not occur for any

number of cycles.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Deformations Under Axial Loading

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Deformations Under Axial Loading • From Hooke’s Law:   E  

From Hooke’s Law:

 

E

P

 

E

AE

From the definition of strain:

 

 

L

Equating and solving for the deformation,

PL

AE

With variations in loading, cross-section or material properties,

 

P L

i

i

 

i

A E

i

i

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.01

 6 E  29  10 psi D  1.07 in. d  0.618 in.
 6
E 
29
10
psi
D
1.07 in.
d
0.618 in.
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.01  6 E  29  10 psi D  1.07

Determine the deformation of

the steel rod shown under the

given loads.

SOLUTION:

Divide the rod into components at the load application points.

Apply a free-body analysis on each component to determine the internal force

Evaluate the total of the component deflections.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

SOLUTION:

Divide the rod into three components:

L  L L 1 2 3 2 2 A  A  12 in. 
L
L
L
1
2
3
2
2
A
A
 12 in.
 0.9 in
A
 16 in.
 0.3 in
1
2
3

Apply free-body analysis to each component to determine internal forces,

P

1

60

10

3

lb

P

2

 

15

3

10 lb

P

3

30

10

3

lb

Evaluate total deflection,

i

PL

i

i

A E

i

i

1

P L

1

1

P L

2

2

P L

3

3

E

A

1

A

2

A

3

 

10

3

1

60

12

29

10

6

0.9

10

3

15

12

0.9

10

3

30

16

0.3

 

75.9

10

3

in.

  75.9  10 3 in.
 
75.9
10
3
in.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 2.1

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.1 The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB

The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB and CD.

SOLUTION:

Apply a free-body analysis to the bar BDE to find the forces exerted by links AB and DC.

Evaluate the deformation of links AB and DC or the displacements of B and D.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.1 The rigid bar BDE is supported by two links AB

Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500

mm 2 . Link CD is made of steel (E = 200

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600

mm 2 ).

Work out the geometry to find the deflection at E given the deflections

at B and D.

For the 30-kN force shown, determine the

deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 2.1

SOLUTION:

Free body: Bar BDE

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.1 SOLUTION: Free body: Bar BDE   M B 
 

M

B

0

 

0

 

30 kN

0.6 m

F

CD

F

CD

  90 kN

tension

M

D

 

0

0

 

30 kN

0.4 m

F

AB

F

AB

  60 kN

 

0.2 m

0.2 m

compression

Displacement of B:  B
Displacement of B:
B
 

PL

 

AE

 

60

10

3

N

0.3 m

 

     

500

 

514

10

-6

10

6

m

2



70

m

10

9

Pa

 

B

0.514 mm

 

PL

 

AE

 

90

10

3

N

0.4 m

 

   

600

300

10

-6

10

6

m

2



200

m

10

9

Pa

 

D

0.300 mm

Displacement of D:

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.1 SOLUTION: Free body: Bar BDE   M B 

D

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 2.1

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.1 Displacement of D: BB  BH  DD  HD

Displacement of D:

BB  BH  DD  HD 0.514 mm  200 mm   x 
BB 
BH
DD 
HD
0.514
mm
200 mm
 x
0.300
mm
x
x  73.7 mm
EE 
HE
DD
HD
400
73.7 mm
E
0.300
mm
73.7 mm
 1.928 mm
E
E
1.928 mm 

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Static Indeterminacy

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Static Indeterminacy • Structures for which internal forces and reactions cannot be determined
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Static Indeterminacy • Structures for which internal forces and reactions cannot be determined

Structures for which internal forces and reactions cannot be determined from statics alone are said to be statically indeterminate.

A structure will be statically indeterminate

whenever it is held by more supports than are

required to maintain its equilibrium.

Redundant reactions are replaced with unknown loads which along with the other loads must produce compatible deformations.

Deformations due to actual loads and redundant reactions are determined separately and then added or superposed.

L

R

0

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.04

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.04 Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.04 Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release the bar from that support, and solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads.

Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant reaction at B.

Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to the redundant reaction be compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads and the reaction found at B.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.04

SOLUTION:

• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with the redundant constraint
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied
loads with the redundant constraint released,
3
3
P
0
P
P
600
10
N
P
900
10
N
1
2
3
4
6
2
 6
2
A
A
400
10
m
A
A
250
10
m
1
2
3
4
L
L
L
L
 0.150 m
1
2
3
4
9
PL
1.125
10
i
i
L
A E
E
i
i
i
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant constraint, P  P 
• Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant
constraint,
P
P
 
R
1
2
B
6
2
 6
2
A
400
10
m
A
250
10
m
1
2
L
L
 0.300 m
1
2
3
PL
1.95
10
R
i
i
B
δ
 
R
A E
E
i
i
i

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.04

• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to the redundant reaction be
• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
 0
L
R
9
3
1.125
10
1.95
10
R
B
 0
E
E
3
R
577
10
N
577 kN
B
• Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B
 F
 323kN
0
R
300 kN
600kN
577kN
y
A
R
A
R
 323kN
A
R
 577kN
B

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Thermal Stresses

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Thermal Stresses • A temperature change results in a change in length or
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Thermal Stresses • A temperature change results in a change in length or

A temperature change results in a change in length or thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by

the supports.

Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of superposition.

T

thermal expansion coef.

T

L

P

PL

AE

The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must be compatible.

T

P

0

T

L

PL

AE

0

P

T

P

0

 

AE

T

P

A

 

E

T

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Poisson’s Ratio

 
• For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:

For a slender bar subjected to axial loading:

 

  • x

   

y

0

x

E

 

z

The elongation in the x-direction is accompanied by a contraction in the other directions. Assuming that the material is isotropic (no directional dependence),

0

y z • Poisson’s ratio is defined as
y z • Poisson’s ratio is defined as

y

z

• Poisson’s ratio is defined as

 
 

lateral strain

 

y

 

z

n

 

axial strain

x

x

   

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Generalized Hooke’s Law

• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading, the normal strain components resulting from the stress
• For an element subjected to multi-axial loading,
the normal strain components resulting from the
stress components may be determined from the
principle of superposition. This requires:
1)
strain is linearly related to stress
2)
deformations are small
• With these restrictions:
n
n
y
x
z
 
x
E
E
E
n
n
y
x
z
 
y
E
E
E
n
n
y
x
z
 
z
E
E
E

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Shearing Strain

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Shearing Strain • A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform

A cubic element subjected to a shear stress will deform into a rhomboid. The corresponding shear strain is quantified in terms of the change in angle between the sides,

xy

f

xy

A plot of shear stress vs. shear strain is similar the previous plots of normal stress vs. normal strain except that the strength values are approximately

half. For small strains,

xy

G

xy

yz

G

yz

zx

G

zx

where G is the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.10

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.10 A rectangular block of material with modulus of rigidity G =

A rectangular block of material with

modulus of rigidity G = 90 ksi is

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.10 A rectangular block of material with modulus of rigidity G =

bonded to two rigid horizontal plates.

The lower plate is fixed, while the

upper plate is subjected to a horizontal

force P. Knowing that the upper plate

moves through 0.04 in. under the action

of the force, determine a) the average

shearing strain in the material, and b) the force P exerted on the plate.

SOLUTION:

Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block.

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress

and strain to find the corresponding

shearing stress.

Use the definition of shearing stress to find the force P.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS • Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block. 

Determine the average angular deformation or shearing strain of the block.

xy

tan

xy

0.04in.

2in.

xy

0.020rad

• Apply Hooke’s law for shearing stress and

strain to find the corresponding shearing

stress.

xy

G

xy

90

10 psi0.020rad

3

1800psi

Use the definition of shearing stress to find

the force P.

P

xy

A

1800psi8in.2.5in.

36

10

3

lb

P 36.0kips

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Relation Among E, n, and G

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Relation Among E , n , and G • An axially loaded slender

An axially loaded slender bar will elongate in the axial direction and contract in the transverse directions.

An initially cubic element oriented as in top figure will deform into a rectangular parallelepiped. The axial load produces a

normal strain.

If the cubic element is oriented as in the bottom figure, it will deform into a

rhombus. Axial load also results in a shear

strain.

Components of normal and shear strain are related,

E

2G

1n

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 2.5

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Sample Problem 2.5 A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed

A circle of diameter d = 9 in. is scribed on an unstressed aluminum plate of thickness t = 3/4 in. Forces acting in the plane of the plate later cause normal stresses x = 12 ksi and z = 20 ksi.

For E = 10x10 6 psi and n = 1/3, determine the change in:

  • a) the length of diameter AB,

  • b) the length of diameter CD,

  • c) the thickness of the plate, and

  • d) the volume of the plate.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

SOLUTION:

• Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

find the three components of normal strain.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

B

A

x

d

0.533 10

3

in./in.9in.

x

 

x

n

y

n

z

E

E

E

1

10

10

6

psi

12 ksi

0

  • 1
    3

20 ksi

D

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

B

A

 

4.8

10

3

in.

z

d

1.600 10

3

in./in.9in.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

C

D

 

14.4

10

3

in.

 

0.533 10

3

in./in.

t

y

t

1.067

10

3

in./in.0.75in.

y

 

n

x

y

n

z

E

E

E

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS SOLUTION: • Apply the generalized Hooke’s Law to • Evaluate the deformation components.

t

 

0.800 10

3

in.

 

1.067

10

3

in./in.

z

 

n

x

n

y

z

E

E

E

 

1.600

10

3

in./in.

Find the change in volume

e

x

y

z

1.067

10

3

in

3

/in

3

V

eV

  • 1.067

10

3

15

15

0.75 in

3

V  0.187in

3

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Saint-Venant’s Principle

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Saint- Venant’s Principle • Loads transmitted through rigid plates result in uniform distribution
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Saint- Venant’s Principle • Loads transmitted through rigid plates result in uniform distribution

Loads transmitted through rigid

plates result in uniform distribution

of stress and strain.

Concentrated loads result in large stresses in the vicinity of the load application point.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Saint- Venant’s Principle • Loads transmitted through rigid plates result in uniform distribution

Stress and strain distributions become uniform at a relatively short distance from the load application points.

Saint-Venant’s Principle:

Stress distribution may be assumed independent of the mode of load application except in the immediate vicinity of load application points.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress Concentration: Hole

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress Concentration: Hole Discontinuities of cross section may result in high localized or

Discontinuities of cross section may result in

high localized or concentrated stresses.

K

max

ave

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress Concentration: Fillet

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Stress Concentration: Fillet GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology 2 - 32

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 2.12

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.12 Determine the largest axial load P that can be safely supported

Determine the largest axial load P

that can be safely supported by a

flat steel bar consisting of two

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Example 2.12 Determine the largest axial load P that can be safely supported

portions, both 10 mm thick, and respectively 40 and 60 mm wide,

connected by fillets of radius r = 8

mm. Assume an allowable normal

stress of 165 MPa.

SOLUTION:

Determine the geometric ratios and find the stress concentration factor from Fig. 2.64b.

Find the allowable average normal stress using the material allowable normal stress and the stress concentration factor.

Apply the definition of normal stress to find the allowable load.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS • Determine the geometric ratios and find the stress concentration factor from Fig.

Determine the geometric ratios and find the stress concentration factor from Fig. 2.64b.

  • D 60mm

  • d 40mm

r

8mm

 

d

40mm

  • 1.50 0.20

K 1.82

Find the allowable average normal stress using the material allowable normal stress and the stress concentration factor.

ave

max

K

165MPa

1.82

90.7MPa

Apply the definition of normal stress to find the allowable load.

P

A

ave

36.3

10

3

40mm 10mm 90.7MPa N





P  36.3kN
P  36.3kN

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Elastoplastic Materials

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Elastoplastic Materials • Previous analyses based on assumption of linear stress-strain relationship, i.e.,

Previous analyses based on assumption of linear stress-strain relationship, i.e., stresses below the yield stress

Assumption is good for brittle material which rupture without yielding

If the yield stress of ductile materials is exceeded, then plastic deformations occur

Analysis of plastic deformations is simplified by assuming an idealized

elastoplastic material

Deformations of an elastoplastic material are divided into elastic and plastic ranges

Permanent deformations result from loading beyond the yield stress

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Plastic Deformations

 A P   A  max ave K  A P  Y Y
A
P
 
A
max
ave
K
A
P
Y
Y
K
P
U
A
 K P
 
Y
Y

Elastic deformation while maximum

stress is less than yield stress

Maximum stress is equal to the yield

stress at the maximum elastic

loading

At loadings above the maximum

elastic load, a region of plastic

deformations develop near the hole

As the loading increases, the plastic region expands until the section is at

a uniform stress equal to the yield

stress

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology
MECHANICS OF SOLIDS GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology