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SPE 163007

Evaluating the Impact of Depreciation Methods and Production Decline Patterns on

Deepwater Economics: A Case Study of Nigeria
Emmanuel I. Onwuka, SPE, AUST; Omowumi O. Iledare, SPE, LSU Center for Energy Studies; Joseph C. Echendu, SPE,

Copyright 2012, Society of Petroleum Engineers

This paper was prepared for presentation at the Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition held in Abuja, Nigeria, 68 August 2012.

This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been reviewed by the
Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Electronic
reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more
than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract the production decline, UOP depreciation gives earliest

Upstream petroleum industry remains one of the most prolific in contractor-payout while the net present value is negatively
terms of technology and risk capital transfer and rewards. impacted by accelerated extraction.
Consequently, governments all over the world try to formulate
fiscal regimes that could favourably attract investments to Introduction
petroleum provinces in their jurisdiction. Fiscal systems that are
progressive tend to find a common ground for both government Exploration & Production business in Nigeria started in 1938
and the contractor by optimizing efforts and benefits. Nigeria when Shell DArcy was granted a prospecting licence. However, it
belongs to a region of low-risk hydrocarbon discovery relative to became prominent shortly after the company completed the first
the world average. Therefore, the government designs fiscal well, Oloibiri 1 in 1956. Since then, crude oil reserves have
regimes that would seemingly extract more economic rent from increased to 37.2 billion barrels, representing 2.7% of world total
the development of its petroleum resources. This paper reserves as of January 1, 2012. These reserves are found in
investigates the impact of some of the technical instruments in the offshore and onshore basins in Nigeria. Following the world trend,
Nigerian PSC on rewards from deepwater investments. the potential for offshore oil and gas production in Nigeria has
increased in comparison to onshore operations in recent years. But
Discounted economic models are developed for two petroleum investment in the deepwater requires huge risk capital. Therefore,
sharing contracts in Nigeria- the 2005 PSC and the interagency the investor is naturally attracted to a clime that guarantees him
team (IAT) redraft of the 2008 Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB)-with early return on investment as well as maximum economic benefit.
due consideration to the three Arps production decline profiles.
Different tangible CAPEX depreciation methods are imposed on According to Iledare (2010), the structure and conduct of the
the models and profitability indicators are estimated. Monte Carlo global E&P industry have changed significantly over the years; to
simulation analysis is applied to resolve the stochastic nature of the extent that the search for and development of petroleum
some model input variables. resources have become mostly driven by the attractiveness of
fiscal regimes rather than geological prospectivity only. The
Simulation results show that maximum reward is observed when petroleum fiscal system (PFS) contains the terms and conditions
Unit of Production (UOP) depreciation method is applied in the that govern E & P business, constituting an important factor that
redraft 2008 PIB; while straight line depreciation (SLD) gives influences investors project evaluation. It can only be said to be
better economic metrics for the 2005 PSC keeping all the terms of natural for petroleum provinces with low exploration and
the contractual arrangements constant. These results could be discovery risks to crave for more access to gross revenue.
applied in formulation of petroleum fiscal policies like the PIB by
making cost depreciation a form of incentive. It is found that for a For example, the government of Brazil on discovering large oil
specific fiscal contract, cost depreciation method influences reserves in the pre-salt areas of Santos Basin proposed to change
economic indices when used in project evaluation. Irrespective of the fiscal system from R/T to PSC because exploration risk in this
2 SPE 163007

basin is very low. Evidently, government wants larger share of oil and natural gas reserves are generally classified under two
Production (Lima et al, 2010). Similarly, Nigeria over the years categories or divisions:
has set up different series of PSCs with the more recent ones
attracting more revenue to government. And once again, in August Proved developed reserves
2008 government started a process of changing the terms of the Proved undeveloped reserves
current fiscal regime. This proposed fiscal system, popularly
called the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB), is the work of the Oil and Generally speaking, proved reserves must be recoverable with a
Gas Implementation Committee (OGIC) sent to the National high degree of confidence if estimated by deterministic methods.
Assembly for passage into an Act. It must have at least a probability of 90 percent that the actual
recovery exceeds the estimated quantities, if probabilistic methods
The hitches surrounding the passage of this bill insinuate that risks are used. For the most part, probable and possible reserves cannot
and rewards in the E & P business have not been adequately be used for economic evaluation as they do not constitute
harmonized. Therefore, this calls for thorough and insightful bankable assets (Deloitte, 2003). Therefore, serious consideration
petroleum project re-evaluation that would bring about empirical is given mainly to proved reserves in petroleum project evaluation.
evidence that reflects reality and hence leads to informed decision
making. Estimating Reserves Volumes

Petroleum project evaluation involves determining the volume of Reserves estimating methods usually are categorized into three
reserves that is recoverable within prevailing economic and families:
technological realities. This is done for tax accounting, financing,
budgeting and unitization purposes as well as setting of 1. Analogy
depreciation and decline rates for future production predictions.
2. Volumetric,
In the study of petroleum project evaluations, many researchers
including Lima et al. (2010), Vikas et al (1997), Iledare (2010) 3. Performance techniques.
and Oyekunle (2011), by assumption, built cash flow models
based on production forecasts that are predicated on exponential The performance technique methods usually are subdivided into
decline pattern, which is widely accepted as conservative and easy simulation studies, material-balance calculations, and decline
to compute. This evaluation assumption is oblivion to the fact that curve analyses.
production decline pattern is a natural phenomenon controlled by
complex petrophysical and fluid behavioural tendencies of the Reserves estimation by analogy is a way of characterizing
reservoir. Consequently, there is a need for a thorough re- reserves in a field by assuming production forecast in adjacent
evaluation of all petroleum production decline options including field with similar properties. Forrest (1985) stated that if little or
hyperbolic and harmonic decline patterns. However, irrespective no production from the target formation exists, then statistical data
of the decline pattern encountered, it is also necessary to consider from wells completed in formations having characteristics
investment costs in terms of all methods of depreciation not just anticipated for the target zone are used.
straight line spread method, as commonly assumed during
economic evaluations, especially when the fiscal system does not
Mian (2002) identified reserves estimation by volumetric
specify depreciation options.
analysis as a method used in the early life of a reservoir. He
recognized that reservoir heterogeneities are a commonly
This paper evaluates the effects the IAT redraft PIB and the
overlooked factor which makes the volumetric estimates often
existing 2005 PSC may have on the economic rewards of
different from those obtained by evaluating performance. The
deepwater investment with emphasis on the impact of production
data required for estimating the initial oil in place N, are formation
decline methods and the cost depreciation patterns on project
thickness (h, feet), drainage area (A, acres), porosity (!, fraction),
economics and government take statistics. To achieve this,
formation oil saturation (So, fraction) and oil formation volume
production and cost assumptions reflecting Niger-Delta offshore
factor (Bo, RB/STB). The following equation is used in estimating
basin are applied to formulate spreadsheet discounted cash flow
the initial oil in place.
models for these two production sharing contracts in Nigeria.
!!"#! ! ! !!" !"
Theoretical Background !! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
The availability of petroleum resources drives the desire to
venture into oil and gas investment. Petroleum resources represent Where!!!" !!"!!"#!!"#$%&'"(!!"#$%!!"#$%"#&'(.
the stock of hydrocarbon deemed extractable in an undefined
future. The resources presumed recoverable under currently For gas reservoir, the initial gas in place, G is calculated by the
known technology and economic conditions are referred to as following equation.
proved reserves. Eggleston (1962) documented that proved crude
SPE 163007 3

According to the Arps conceptual framework, a reservoir can

!"#$%! ! ! !!" !" decline naturally in any of these three ways:
!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Where !!" !!"!!"#!!"#!!"#$%&'"(!!"#$%&!!"#$%&!!!"! !"#!
Reserves estimation by reservoir simulation requires that the
reservoir be divided into units called cells. For each cell, Harmonic
permeability, porosity, thickness, elevation, saturation (initial),
initial pressure, rock compressibility and other reservoir properties Fetkovich (1980) developed a comprehensive set of type curves to
are assigned. According to Ogbe (2011), petroleum reservoir enhance the application of decline curve analysis. These curves are
simulation is the planning, construction and operation of a model variants of a hyperbola. Poston (2009) recognized that in order to
whose behaviour approximates the behaviour of the actual locate a hyperbola in space one must know the following three
reservoir. It involves building of models. This means that for each variables.
reservoir, a unique model must be built. For reservoir simulation
to be successful there has to be sufficient data of very high quality, The starting point on the y axis. (qi ), initial rate.
which would be inputted into the model in order to have a good
history match. It has been observed that obtaining a good history (Di ).the initial decline rate
match is not easy. Consequently, performance prediction generally
depends on quality history match. It has the advantage of handling The degree of curvature of the line (b).
different rock and fluid properties in different areas of the
reservoir. It can also predict production from individual wells. Applying this Arps concepts, (b = 0) defines the exponential case,
Once history match is obtained, quality reserves estimation can be (0<b<1) for the hyperbolic case, and (b = 1) for the harmonic case.
McCray (1975) expressed the general equation of a hyperbola as
Reserves estimation by material balance is a method of shown in equation 4 below.
petroleum evaluation in which the reservoir is considered to be
zero dimensional, hence evaluated using a tank model. It is based !
on volume to volume replacement of the reservoir fluid extracted. !
!" !"
It works on a very simple computational principle as presented in ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the equation below.
Setting the decline exponent b to 0, 0<b<1 and 1 and solving
Volume entering-Volume leaving=Net change in Volume (3) equation 4 would yield the Arps decline equations for
exponential, hyperbolic and harmonic production decline curves
As simple as it may look, much data is required to account for any respectively. This is summarized in Table 1. Exponential decline
change in fluid volume in the reservoir. In computation, there is easier to compute and presents conservative estimates of
must be an understanding of the drive mechanism prevailing in the production with respect to time. According to Lin et al (1982),
reservoir. This means it can be used later in the life of the hyperbolic decline is the most realistic but difficult to compute
reservoir, as drive mechanism can only be ascertained if there is due to two unknowns in its equation (Di and b) while the
on-going reservoir fluid flow. This is a very accurate method if harmonic is rarely encountered in natural reservoirs.
there are enough data for computation. Data required includes
pressure, production history, fluid properties and rock properties.
The advantages include that there is no assumptions necessary for Petroleum Production Economics
areal extent, thickness or recovery factor. However, accurate
pressure data are not easy to come by. The previous section discussed estimation of reserves and
production performance as being the first step to an economic
analysis of a petroleum venture. Subsequently, the investor is
Reserves estimation by decline curve analysis is a procedure
interested in knowing the interplay between the hydrocarbon
used for analysing declining production rates, and forecasting
market price and the actual costs of extraction and handling. The
future performance of oil and gas wells. It involves curve-fitting
resultant economic metrics would determine whether the venture
the past production performance using rate time data and
adds value to the corporation.
extrapolating the curve to predict future performance. The
assumption is that the conditions surrounding past production
The price of crude oil and in some cases the price of natural gas to
remain the same in the future. Compared to other methods, decline
a large extent drive E & P activities and they are the most
curve analysis requires minimum amount of data.
uncertain economic items of interest in the economic evaluation
process. In addition, the cost of production varies from one
location to another. The fiscal regimes may stipulate how these
4 SPE 163007

costs are treated. For example, the 2005 PSC in clear terms ! !!!
stipulates that depreciation shall be by 5-year straight line, !"#$ ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !
whereas, the IAT redraft PIB section 400 sub 4 states that the Where t, is the useful life of the asset.
contract shall determine the treatment of the recoverable costs, SOYD is then used in the calculation of the depreciation given
including whether costs shall be expensed or depreciated, the cost, C, the remaining useful life, !! and the salvage value of the
method of depreciation and the treatment of pre-production costs. asset, S. Thus
A recoverable cost can either be expensed or depreciated for cost
recovery and tax calculation purposes (IAT, 2009). !! ! !!!! !
!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
CAPEX Depreciation Options
Unit of production depreciation (UOP): When an asset loses
For the purpose of this paper, depreciation is defined as a loss in value not because of time lapse but due to the service it renders,
the value of an asset over its useful life. It is a method of then its depreciation is best determined using UOP depreciation.
redistribution of tangible costs over a period of time, called useful The unit of comparison is not time but the total life time activity,
life, for income tax calculation purposes. The different methods of A of the depreciable asset. This is determined as ratio of the
depreciation applied for the purpose of this paper are: annual production, !! , to total production, !! , attained during
the useful life of the asset. Thus
Straight line depreciation (SLD)
Declining balance depreciation (DBD) !! ! !!!! !
Sum of years digit depreciation (SOY) !! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Unit of production depreciation (UOP)
Nigerian Petroleum Fiscal System Overview
There are other variants of depreciation methods which could
involve switching from one method to the other. According to Johnston (2003), there are two major classifications
of petroleum fiscal system in the world. These are
Straight Line Depreciation (SLD): This method involves
distributing depreciable cost equally over the useful life of the Concessionary or Royalty & Tax (R/T) system
asset. Given depreciable cost, C, the useful life, t and the salvage
Contractual system
value, S, of the asset, Straight Line Depreciation (SLD) is given
by equation 5.
In Nigeria, Joint venture agreements (JVA) and PSC are mostly
!!! operational. JVA is basically R/T with government participation.
!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Most deepwater operations are under PSC regimes. Nigeria has
! different sets of PSC used in the deepwater ventures. These are
Where !! is the depreciation factor.
1993, 2000 and 2005 PSCs. The petroleum industry bill when
passed into an Act will be listed alongside the existing PSC series.
Declining balance depreciation (DBD): This method is used
The summaries of terms and instruments in the 2005 PSC and the
when it is certain that the benefits derived from the asset decline
Proposed PIB 2009 are presented in Tables 2 and 3, respectively.
over time. As standalone, this method is an accelerated
depreciation method. A switch to straight line method is allowed.
There are different types of DBD: 200%, 175%, 150% and 125% Methodology
declining balance methods. In order to obtain a fixed percentage
depreciation rate, any of these methods could be divided by the The spreadsheet modelling approach similar to that adopted by
useful life of the asset. The initial value (cost) of the asset is then Mian (2002), Johnston (2003) and Iledare (2010) was used in this
multiplied by this factor. The result obtained is subtracted from study. Assumptions of a prolific deep offshore field with huge
the initial cost of the asset to determine the book value of the asset crude oil reserves, good recovery factor, reasonable peak
in the following year. This process is repeated until the useful life production capacity and decision-based decline patterns were
of the asset is complete. However, a constant comparison with made.
SLD is made each year and the greater between the two
depreciation deductions is taken. Production profile was first developed by transforming all the
Arps equations, as summarized in Table 1, into an automated
Sum of years digit depreciation (SOY): A declining charge is spreadsheet-based program. This program generates production
applied to the depreciable cost each year. The declining charge is forecasts under exponential, hyperbolic and harmonic decline
determined by dividing the remaining useful life of the asset by conditions, automatically. The profile reflecting the three phases
the sum of the years digits (SOYD) calculated as shown in of production is as shown in Figure 1.
equation 6.
Oil price was applied to the production forecasts to generate gross
revenue. The price was made to be either real or nominal by
SPE 163007 5

applying the GDP price deflator as may be necessary in order to To measure the economic performance of a deep water venture,
account for inflation. profitability indicators were included in the model. These are
objective measures of the economic worth of the investment. They
Front loaded government payments, FLGT, were determined from include
the gross revenue and eligible technical costs based on the
stipulations of the two contractual contracts, which are: PSC 2005 Net present value (NPV)
and the IAT redraft PIB 2009. These payments include royalties, Payout Period (PP)
rentals, signature bonuses, NDDC and institutional levies where Growth Rate of Return (GRR)
applicable. Front Loading Index (FLI)
Total technical costs were treated in two ways: exploration
CAPEX and operating costs were expensed hence recovered in the Net Present Value (NPV): This is also known as present value of
year they were incurred; development CAPEX was depreciated cash surplus or present worth. It is obtained by subtracting the
hence they were spread beyond the year expended. Depreciation present value of periodic cash outflows from the present value of
method applied was an option between SLD, SOY, DBD or UOP the periodic cash inflows. It is normally calculated at a discount
in the model as described earlier. rate, id which should reflect the value of the alternative use of
funds. It is given as
Cost recovery specifications of the fiscal regimes were duly
imposed on the model. Eligible recoverable costs were determined !
and removed from the cost oil which was obtained by removing !"# ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
the royalties from the gross revenue and multiplying by cost ! ! !! !
recovery limit factor. This was used to recover all eligible costs in
a production year. Costs not recovered were carried forward Where !"#! ! !"#!!"#!"#$%&'!!"#!!!"#$!!"!!"#!!"#$!!!
indefinitely until they were fully recovered. The difference
between the gross revenue and the cost oil gives the profit oil. This study adopted the year end discounting method to arrive at
Excess cost recovery, ECR, is the cost oil after all the eligible NPV. As a decision criterion, NPV is desired to be positive in
costs have been recovered. ECR and the profit oil were shared project ranking.
between the host government and the contractor based on
respective fiscal provisions presented in Tables 2 and 3. Payout Period (PP): This is also referred to as the breakeven
point. It is the expected number of years required for recovering
The before income tax (BIT) cash flow was developed in the the original investment. At this point, the receipt exactly equals
model by applying certain taxes and levies, which are not the the cash disbursements. On its own it cannot provide a yardstick
federal income taxes. These were strictly defined by the respective for meaningful decision making. Low payback is desirable in
fiscal systems, given that tax deductible items could vary from one decision making. It is calculated by the following equation.
fiscal system to another. For PIB 2009, the BIT is basically a cash
flow for Nigerian Hydrocarbon Tax (NHT) calculations. For the !!!!"!!"#!
!! ! !"#! !!"!!"# !"#$% ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"!
2005 PSC, it is basically a cash flow for education tax !!"!!"# ! !!!"!!"#!
calculations. The host government BIT take, !"#!"# , was
obtained as the sum of FLGT, share of profit oil and the non- Growth Rate of Return (GRR): Since many managers believe IRR
federal income tax, while the contractor BIT take, !"!"# !!was is not a reliable profitability indicator, then GRR was introduced.
obtained by subtracting !"#!"# !and technical costs from gross It is also referred to as equity rate of return or modified IRR. GRR
revenue. resolves the shortcomings of IRR like trial-and-error calculations,
reinvestment rate assumptions etc. In terms of PI, it is thus
The after income tax (AIT) cash flow was calculated in the model calculated.
by applying the federal income tax to assessable profit, as defined
by the respective fiscal systems. In PIB 2009, the AIT cash flow !"" ! !"
! ! ! !! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
includes calculations for corporate income tax (CITA) and
education tax. It was also observed in the model that NHT is not Equation 11 is based on annual compounding. A project is
deductible for CITA calculations. In 2005 PSC, it involves
desirable if GRR is greater than the hurdle rate, !! .
calculations for petroleum profit tax (PPT).
Front-end Loading Index (FLI): This throws more light on the
The host government AIT take, !"#!"# , for the PIB 2009 model
spread in the discounted and undiscounted takes. FLI of zero
was the sum of !"#!"# , CITA and education tax, while in 2005
indicates an ideal condition in which a fiscal system presents no
PSC, it was the sum of !"#!"# , host government share of profit front-end loading at all. The higher the FLI, the more front-end
oil (!"#!" ) and PPT. The contractor take in both fiscal regimes loaded the fiscal regime becomes. The fiscal conditions that
was the difference between gross revenue and the sum of the present very high FLI becomes less attractive to the contractor.
!"#!"# and technical costs. FLI is calculated from equation 12.
6 SPE 163007

!"#$%&'()*!!"#$%&'$&(!!"#$ Deterministic Results for PIB 2009

!"# ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"!
Table 4 shows the summary of economic measures obtained using
These economic metric measures were used as outputs to perform the base inputs assumed. The best case contractor NPV of $557.63
sensitivity analysis on various input parameters using two methods million was obtained as the production was made to decline in
exponential manner while UOP CAPEX depreciation option was
Monte Carlo simulation via @RISK imposed on the cash flow model, whereas the worst case NPV of
Designed model manual variations. $26.11 million was obtained as the production declined in
harmonic manner given DBD CAPEX depreciation option.
Results and Discussions Similarly, the best case payout period of 7.72 years was obtained
as the production was made to decline in exponential manner
This section presents deterministic as well as stochastic results for while imposing the UOP CAPEX depreciation option on the
both 2005 PSC and PIB 2009 obtained by various input variations model. Harmonic DBD scenario presented the worst payout
in the models developed. period of 9.74 years. On the basis of FLI, similar pattern was
observed; the exponential UOP scenario presented the best case
Base case assumptions result of 0.055 while harmonic DBD scenario gave the worst
case performance of 0.207.
The following assumptions were made to arrive at the
deterministic results presented in this section. These include The results indicate that no matter how the reservoir declines, if
unit of production CAPEX depreciation option is imposed on the
Real oil price of $80/STB cash flow evaluation, the investor receives the best possible
Price and cost escalation of 1% reward from his investment. This is supported by the fact that the
Hurdle rate of 12.5% PIB 2009 has royalties and profit sharing tied to production. Using
UOP CAPEX depreciation option in this fiscal regime can
All development and facilities costs were 100% depreciated
effectively cushion the effect of host governments high rent
Total CAPEX was taken to be 20% of the production worth of
extraction. This depreciation method ensures that at the peak of
the field size and operating cost was about 9.4% of annual
production, the proportion of cost to be recovered by the investor
is maximum despite huge royalty imposition. It is only natural and
Field size of about 200MMSTB
fair to recover more cost when production is more and vice versa.
Percentage of production before decline was 32.7% of Contrarily, using other depreciation methods in this fiscal regime
ultimate recovery. would amount to more economic rent to the host government as
Peak capacity was fixed at 0.04% of field size per day and the cost recovery economics may not encourage the contractor in
lasted for two years terms of NPV, payout period, FLI and discounted takes.
Production build up lasted for three years from 1000 STB/D
till peak capacity. This paper indicates that host governments can imbed in fiscal
Economic limit was constrained at 100 STB/D systems of this nature, CAPEX depreciation options as forms of
The hyperbolic decline curve exponent, b was taken to be incentive to the contractor. This way, the front-end loading index
0.5194 of the fiscal regime could become more progressive.
Gas production was considered uneconomic.
1000 m of water depth fiscal terms and conditions were Deterministic Results for 2005 PSC
Table 5 is the summary of the objective functions given the
Empirical Results assumed base inputs. The presentation pattern established above
would be followed in this section. The best case contractor NPV
Twelve input scenarios are created in the models by varying the of $540.95 million was obtained as the production was made to
four depreciation methods against the three production decline decline exponentially while SLD CAPEX depreciation option was
patterns for each fiscal system. For the purpose of this study, the imposed on the cash flow model, whereas the worst case NPV of
terms of the fiscal regimes are made constant, that is to say that $180.32 million was obtained as the production declined
terms such as royalty rates, tax rates and other levies are not in any harmonically given DBD CAPEX depreciation option. Unlike the
way varied but used as stipulated by the fiscal regimes. This NPV, the best case payout period of 7.66 years was obtained as
means that the economic performance presented in this paper is a the production was made to decline in exponential manner while
strict functional variation of the twelve decline-depreciation imposing the UOP CAPEX depreciation option on the model. Just
scenarios created. The results (profitability indicators) are like in the PIB 2009 fiscal system, the harmonic DBD scenario
discussed as either best case or the worst case on the basis of the presented the worst payout period of 9.09 years. Better FLI was
scenario variations. obtained in the 2005 PSC than in the PIB 2009. The exponential
SLD scenario presented the best case result of 0.020 while
SPE 163007 7

harmonic DBD scenario gave the worst case performance of estimate stochastic values for NPV, payout period, GRR and FLI
0.099. for each PSC under consideration.

If the reservoir declines either exponentially or harmonically, the The Stochastic Results for PIB 2009
SLD CAPEX depreciation option would present marginally, the
best NPV and FLI while hyperbolic decline production evaluated The stochastic results from the best case input scenario are in
by UOP CAPEX depreciation option would give the best NPV and consistent consonance with those obtained from the deterministic
FLI. However, irrespective of the production decline pattern approach. This was observed when production was made to
encountered, UOP depreciation would present the best payout decline exponentially as UOP CAPEX depreciation option was
period as most of the CAPEX invested would be recovered during employed in the cash flow analysis.
the assumed three-year peak production period. This cannot be This combination presented a maximum payout period of 8.06
said to be true for other depreciation options that are not sensitive years. The economic performance showed a minimum contractor
to variation in production levels. However, the NPV and FLI may NPV of $135.92 million and a maximum of $639.61 million.
not follow production trend as royalty and profit sharing are not There was a 50% confidence that FLI would be between 0.064 and
tied to production but to water depth and R-factor respectively. 0.077 with corresponding GRR range of between 14.44% to
15.25%. The summary of the results for the best case scenario is
The economic performance of other scenarios would lie between presented in Figure 2 to Figure 5.
the best and worst case results presented here. For example, if a
decline is hyperbolic, irrespective of the CAPEX depreciation The worst case scenario just like in the deterministic approach was
option chosen the NPV ranges from $26.11 million to $557.63 obtained when a production declined harmonically with cash flow
million for PIB 2009 and $180.32 million to $540.95 million for evaluation that employed DBD CAPEX depreciation option. The
2005 PSC. result showed a minimum NPV of -$304.28 million and a
maximum of $ 258.56 million. There was 50% chance that the FLI
The Stochastic Results would be between 0.21 and 0.28. The minimum period to recover
initial capital investment was 9.7 years.
In order to resolve the uncertainties inherent in some of the input
variables, Monte Carlo simulation method was applied using The best case scenario presents economic metrics that are highly
Palisade @RISK, an MS Excel add-in. Probability distributions favourable to the contractor as the minimum NPV is positive. Also
were imposed on the inputs to reflect their behaviour ( range of the front-end loading effect of the fiscal regime on the contractor
values) in a given probability domain. economics is very mild and acceptable. However, the worst case
scenario presents harsh economic conditions to the contractor who
Table 6 presents a summary of the inputs considered and their could lose immensely going by the negative minimum NPV
assumed distributions. results. If at all the initial cost can be recovered, it will take a very
long time as indicated by the payout period.
Recovery factor was assumed to have a normal distribution with
35% of original oil in place as mean value. It can be easily observed that the stochastic results confirm those
presented in the deterministic approach.
The field size was given lognormal distribution with values
ranging from 2475 acres to positive infinity. The Stochastic Results for the 2005 PSC

Initial production rate was assumed to have normal distribution The results for the 2005 PSC model revealed that on the average,
with 1000stb/d as mean value. exponentially declining production evaluated by SLD method
yielded the best economic metrics for the contractor when
The peak capacity was given a lognormal distribution with 0.04% compared with other decline depreciation scenarios examined.
of field size as minimum value. This combination gave a maximum payout period of 8.53years
with a minimum contractor NPV of $130.93 million and
Total CAPEX and crude oil price were given triangular maximum of $765.71 million. The maximum FLI observed was
distribution in which minimum, most likely and maximum values 0.091 with a 50% confidence that the GRR would go between
were as defined in Table 6. 14.47% and 15.22%. However, for quicker investment payout, the
UOP depreciation represented the best option irrespective of the
Finally, cumulative production before decline is assigned a decline pattern undertaken by the production. The summary of the
lognormal distribution whose value ranged from 20% to 50% of best case is presented in Figures 6 to 9.
the ultimate recovery.
The worst case scenario is similar to that observed in the
For each of the twelve scenarios established, 5000 iterations of the deterministic analysis. The harmonic decline-DBD CAPEX
statistical inputs were carried out in two simulation runs to depreciation presented minimum contractor NPV of -$50.78
million and a maximum of $412.62 million. The observed
8 SPE 163007

maximum FLI was 0.36 while there was a 50% chance that payout Stream. All opinions, errors, findings and recommendations
period would go between 9.11 years and 9.41 years. expressed in this paper are those of the authors.

The best case results present a highly favourable economic metrics Nomenclature
to the contractor considering the profitability indicators used in
this research. If production declines in a way that is not AIT After Income Tax
exponential there are possibilities of making losses no matter what BIT Before Income Tax
depreciation method is employed. This risk may increase as CAPEX Capital Expenditure
decline goes from exponential to hyperbolic and finally to CITA Corporate Income Tax
harmonic. It can only make sense to use depreciation methods that CPI Consumer Price Index
can mitigate any economic regressiveness or uncertainty that may CT Contractor Take
arise from any production decline pattern presented by natural CUM. Cumulative
phenomena taking place in the reservoir. DBD Declining Balance Depreciation
DCT Discounted Contractor Take
Generally, stochastic results show that the contractor has slightly ECR Excess Cost Recovery
more favourable economic metric measures under 2005 PSC than FLGT Front Loaded Government Take
in the PIB 2009 cash flow model. It is also noted that considering G Original Gas in Place, scf
the NPV sensitivities, very high cumulative production before GDP Gross Domestic Product
decline, impacts negatively on NPV of the contractor as shown in GRR Growth Rate of Returns
Tornado charts of Figures 4 and 8. This means that depleting the HGT Host Government Take
reservoir at a very high production rate will lead to more crude oil HC Hydrocarbon
being bypassed in the reservoir. Consequently, secondary recovery IRR Internal Rate of Returns
measures become imminent early in the life of the reservoir and JVA Joint Venture Agreement
hence more cost implications. This may lower the net cash flow of N Original Oil in Place, stb
the venture and subsequently the NPV. NCF Net Cash Flow
NHT Nigerian Hydrocarbon Tax
Summary and Conclusions NPV Net Present Value
PFS Petroleum Fiscal System
Discounted cash flow models have been successfully developed PI Profitability Index
for 2005 PSC and PIB 2009 fiscal systems. PIB Petroleum Industry Bill
PO Profit Oil
Production decline patterns and tangible CAPEX depreciation are PPT Petroleum Production Tax
successfully integrated into the models. These have tremendous PROD. Production
impact on rewards of investment. PSC Production Sharing Contract
R/T Royalty and Tax
Both deterministic and probabilistic results can be obtained from SLD Straight Line Depreciation
the models developed. SOY Sum of Years Digit Depreciation
TC Technical Cost
The deterministic results under PIB 2009 show that applying UOP UOP Unit of Production Depreciation
method of depreciation to a reservoir declining exponentially ai Initial Decline Rate, per time
offers the most favourable economic metric measures to the qi Initial Prod. Rate, stb/time
contractor, while SLD method is the most favourable under 2005 qt Prod. Rate at any time t, stb/time
PSC, given the same production decline pattern. Np Cum. Prod., stb
b Hyperbolic exponent.
The stochastic results also give similar trends as the deterministic
results. However, it becomes clearer that 2005 PSC would allow
the contractor a higher maximum discounted take.

Contractor NPV is negatively impacted given very high proportion

of reserves produced before production decline commences.

The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Petroleum
Technology Development Fund and the management of African
University of Science and Technology, Petroleum Engineering
SPE 163007 9

References 22. Ogbe D. O., Reservoir Simulation, Lecture material, AUST,

1. Arps J.J. Analysis of Decline Curves. TRANS AIME Vol. 23. Oyekunle A.A, Impact of the Petroleum Industry Bill on
160, 228 247, 1945 deepwater Economics, SPE 150774, 2011.
2. BP world energy statistics, 2011 24. Poston S., A two-day lecture on Decline Curves sponsored by
3. Center for Energy Economics, Fiscal Terms for Upstream Hamilton Group Company, 2009.
Projects An Overview, University of Texas at Austin. 25. Vikas S., Eppink J., Godec M. Application of a
4. Department of Petroleum Resources, Business Opportunities Decision-Making Model for Economic Evaluation of
in Nigeria and the E&P Environment, A Paper Presented at Production-Sharing Contracts in India, SPE PAPER 38780,
International Oil and Gas Business Days Conference, Norway, 1997.
August 26 -28, 2003.
5. Egbon F., Offshore Technology, AUST-Total lecture manual,
6. Eggleston W. S., AIME, What are Petroleum Reserves? SPE
Paper 255, 1962.
7. Fetkovich M. J., Decline Curve Analysis using Type Curves,
SPE 4629, 1980.
8. Financial Reporting in the Global Mining Industry, Deloitte
Toche Tohmastu Publication, 2003.
9. Forrest A. G., Oil and Gas Reserves Classification, Estimation
and Evaluation, SPE Distinguished Author Series, 1985.
10. Iledare O. O., Evaluating the Impact of Fiscal Provisions in
the Draft Petroleum Industry Bill on offshore E&P Economics
and Take Statistics in Nigeria. SPE 136972, 2010.
11. Iledare O.O, Advanced Petroleum Economics lecture notes.
African University of Science and Technology, Abuja, 2011.
12. Inter- Agency Team, Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) redraft,
13. Johnston D., International Exploration Economics, Risk and
Contract analysis, PennWell Books, 2003.
14. Lima G.A.C., Ravagnani A.T.F.S.G., Schiozer D.J.,
Proposed Brazilian Fiscal System for Pre-Salt Production
Projects: A Comparative Study of Gain and Loss of
Government and Companies, SPE PAPER 139311, 2010.
15. Lin C., Rowland D. A., Determining the Constants of
Hyperbolic Production Decline by Linear Graphical Method,
unsolicited issue, 1982.
16. McCray A. W., Petroleum Evaluations and Economic
Decisions, Prentice-Hall Inc. publications, 1975.
17. Mian M.A., Project Economics and decision Analysis,
volumes 1, PennWell Corporation, 2002.
18. Mian M.A., Project Economics and decision Analysis,
volumes 2, PennWell Corporation, 2002.
19. Muscolino R., Rizzo C.A., Mirabelli G., The Cost Recovery
Oil in a Production Sharing Agreement, SPE 25844, 1993.
20. NNPC Annual Statistic Bulletin, 2010.
21. Nwonodi C., Eluozo B. A., Kwelle S. O., A Stochastic
Approach to Offshore Stranded Gas Project Investment
Analysis in Nigeria, OWA conference and exhibition, 2008.
10 SPE 16300

Table 1: Arps Decline Equations


DECLINE !! ! !! !! ! !!
!! !! !! !!
RATE,(!!! ) !! !! !! !! !!!!! !!
! !! ! !"
!" !! !! ! !! !! ! !! ! !!
PROD.RATE, !! !"#!!!!! !! !! !!
(!! ) ! ! !!! ! ! ! ! !! !
CUM.PROD, !! ! !! !! !! !!!!! !! !!
!! !"
(!! ) !! !!! !! ! !! !! !! !!

Table 2: Typical 2005 PSC Fiscal Terms and Instruments (source: Nwonodi et al, 2008)
SPE 163007 11

Table 3: Typical Redraft PIB 2009 Fiscal Terms and Instruments.

!"#$%&'($)*( !" #$%!&" $!" !" #$%!&"
'()*'+, &-.-$/012 $-.-!-/012 3!/012 &-.-#&&//4512 3#&&//4512
6*788'9-97:,+ &-.-!/012 !-.-$&/012 3$&/012 &-.-$&&//4512 3$&&//4512
;,,<-97:,+ &-.-!&/012 !&-.-#&&/012 3#&&/012 &-.-!&&//4512 3!&&//4512
=>?-@A>BC-@CA- IF6-@A>BC-
K&-.-KL& & K&-.K$ &
KL&-.-K#&& &%M1K K$-.KL &%$1#&4,(:)
K#&&-.-K#M& #$N&%$1K KL-.-K#O #&N&%#!1#&4,(:)
K#M&-.-K#P& $&N&%#1K K#O-.-K#P #PN&%#&1#&4,(:)
FACF- F??=QFTBC BJ/%-@A=;%-U//D08V
_X(UKO&1D08H-O&"-'5-@+X4,V #&
_X(UK#$1D08H-O&"-'5-@+X4,V aL!
_X(UKO&1D08H-O&"-'5-@+X4,V $&
_X(UK#$1D08H-O&"-'5-@+X4,V a#!&
;CC@-QFGCA _X(U-K-L1D08H-O&"-'5-@+X4,V 788-<+'2%-?,`,8)

FBGJF?-Z=AC>IT-CS@ L!" !&"
F??=QFD?C-Z=AC>IT-CS@ R!" P&"
@A=;JBG>=T-F??=QFTBC-@CA-6GD K-----------------L%&&
F??=QFD?C-@A>BC-?>/>G O&"
B>GF O&"
A>ZG-K1D08 &%!
T;;B O"
T<-U//D08V L!& #&&& $&&& 3$&&&
"-6*7+, &%$ &%O &%M (,W':X708,
ECFA @C? @@? @/?
# #& #&& #&&&&
$ #& #&& #&&&&
O #& O&& #&&&&
M #& O&& #&&&&
! #& !&& #&&&&
YN #& !&& #&&&&
12 SPE 163007

Table 4 Summary of the deterministic economic metrics for PIB 2009

)3A,"(0$ 2A!(7 2A350,A+&#!A !"#$%&'#()*+ ,!-'.//* 0(( !0 1(( 23& 450

8 )52 :78: ;6:7<< >;796D 87=8 8<7;D 8@766D 676?:

> 2C2 :7@< <<=7:9 >=7;6D 87>? 8<7>D 8;7=6D 676:<

= )$# :7?; <;?7@< >=79;D 87>? 8<7=D 8;7@6D 676:8

< %$! @7@> ;;@7?= >:7=6D 87=? 8<7:D 8@796D 676;;

; )52 :7:< =8@7?9 >6796D 87>6 8=7>D 8=7==D 6786<


? 2C2 97>: ><=7<: 8:7=:D 878< 8=76D 867;:D 678=8

@ )$# 9789 >;97<: 8:7::D 878; 8=78D 887>6D 678>?

: %$! :78= <6?7;? ><7;;D 87>: 8=7;D 8?78<D 676@<

9 )52 976: 88:79: 8?76=D 876: 8>7:D ?79@D 678;9


86 2C2 97@< >?788 8=7>6D 876> 8>7?D 87?8D 67>6@

88 )$# 97?: <>78 8=7?;D 876= 8>7?D >7;:D 6789:

8> %$! :7<< >=67?9? >67<<D 878@ 8=78D 8>7<;D 6786;

Table 5: Summary of the deterministic economic metrics for 2005 PSC

)3C,"(0$ 2C!(7 2C350,C+&#!C !"#$%&'#()*+ ,!-'.//* 0(( !0 1(( 23& 450

= )52 ;76: ++++++++@867>@ :97;8A =7?? =87<A =;76;A 676:6

: 2B2 ;78< ++++++++8<>7:9 :@7:=A =7:9 =87?A =<7=<A 676??

? )$# ;786 ++++++++89<7=8 :@7<:A =7:; =87?A =<7?@A 676?6

8 %$! 97<< ++++++++@?<79= :;7@@A =7?@ =87;A =97?=A 676:?

@ )52 ;7<: ++++++++?;?7:9 :?7:>A =7:8 =?78A =<768A 676?6


< 2B2 ;7;8 ++++++++?6;7<; :6796A =7=; =?7:A =?78=A 676@:

9 )$# ;7;6 ++++++++?=<7@? :=76;A =7=> =?7:A =?796A 67689

; %$! ;7=: ++++++++?;>7<8 :87@9A =7:9 =?7@A =@78<A 676:;

> )52 ;79< ++++++++:<67;? :67:9A =7=9 =?7=A =@7::A 676<=


=6 2B2 >76> ++++++++=;67?: =978;A =7== =:7>A ==76>A 676>>

== )$# >768 ++++++++=;;7@8 =97;?A =7=: =:7>A ==7@8A 676>:

=: %$! ;7<6 ++++++++::>7@: :678?A =7=< =?7=A =:7?;A 676<:

SPE 163007 13

Table 6: Stochastic variable assumptions

Name Worksheet Cell Graph Function Min Mean Max

Recovery factor F10 6),RiskStatic(0.35),RiskName("Recovery 10% 35% 60%

STOIIP RiskLognorm(247.5,247.5,RiskShift(2475),R
FIELD SIZE H9 2475 2722.5 +!
INPUT iskStatic(2475),RiskName("FIELD SIZE"))

INPUT RiskNormal(1000,100,RiskStatic(1000),Risk
Initial Prod.rate C8 -! 1,000 +!
PROD. Name("Initial Prod.rate"))

Peak capacity G7 0004),RiskStatic(0.0004),RiskName("Peak 0.040% 0.044% +!

TOTAL CAPEX C1 RiskTriang(0.2,0.25,0.3,RiskStatic(0.2)) 20% 25% 30%

Category: OIL PRICE, $/STB

OIL PRICE, $/STB / NOMINAL C6 RiskTriang(60,80,100,RiskStatic(80)) 60 80 100

Category: Production before decline

Production before decline / Ur=N*Er STOIIP RiskLognorm(0.0327,0.0327,RiskTruncate(0

E15 20.0% 26.0% 50.0%
= INPUT .2,0.5),RiskStatic(0.327))










$!#!" $!#$" $!#&" $!#(" $!#*" $!$!" $!$$" $!$&" $!$(" $!$*"

,-./010234"" 56.178/49:" 537;/09:"

Figure 1: The typical production Profile

14 SPE 163007

25.0% 50.0% 25.0% 25.0% 50.0% 25.0%

224 286 14.44%15.25%
0.010 70

0.007 50


0.003 20

0.000 0

















Figure 2: NPV @ 12.5% for PIB 2009 Exponential UOP Figure 3: GRR for PIB 2009 Exponential UOP

25.0% 50.0% 25.0%

24.8% 50.1% 25.1%
7.682 7.826
TOTAL CAPEX -0.57 4.0

Recovery factor 0.52 3.5

FIELD SIZE 0.47 3.0

Peak capacity 0.37
Production before decline / 2.0
Ur=N*Er = <0.=>"
Initial Prod.rate 0.03 ?198=44"
OIL PRICE, $/STB / 1.0
















NET PRESENT VALUE @ 12.5% Regression Fit Comparison for Payout Period,
Chart Years

Figure 4: Typical Tornado chart for PIB 2009 NPV Figure 5: Payout period for PIB 2009 Exponential UOP
SPE 163007 15

25.0% 50.0% 25.0% 25.0% 50.0% 25.0%

238 317 14.47% 15.22%
0.007 80

0.006 70

0.005 60


0.000 0


















Figure 6: NPV for 2005 PSC Exponential SLD Figure 7: GRR for 2005 PSC Exponential SLD

25.0% 50.0% 25.0%

OIL PRICE, $/STB / 7.925 8.212
0.49 2.5

Peak capacity 0.48

Recovery factor 0.43

FIELD SIZE 0.39 1.5


Initial Prod.rate 0.06
Production before decline / 0.5
Ur=N*Er =









NET PRESENT VALUE @ 12.5% Regression chart PAYOUT PERIOD, years

Figure 8: Typical Tornado chart for 2005 PSC NPV Figure 9: Payout period for 2005 PSC Exponential SLD