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# Appendix C

Mathematical Formulas

## This appendixby no means exhaustiveserves as a handy reference.

It does contain all the formulas needed to solve circuit problems in this
book.
The roots of the quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 are

b b2 4ac
x1 , x2 =
2a
C.2 Trigonometric Identities

sin(x) = sin x
cos(x) = cos x
1 1
sec x = , csc x =
cos x sin x
sin x 1
tan x = , cot x =
cos x tan x
sin(x 90 ) = cos x
cos(x 90 ) = sin x
sin(x 180 ) = sin x
cos(x 180 ) = cos x
cos2 x + sin2 x = 1
a b c
= = (law of sines)
sin A sin B sin C
a 2 = b2 + c2 2bc cos A (law of cosines)
tan 1
(A B) ab
2
= (law of tangents)
tan 1
2
(A + B) a+b

## sin(x y) = sin x cos y cos x sin y

cos(x y) = cos x cos y sin x sin y
tan x tan y
tan(x y) =
1 tan x tan y
2 sin x sin y = cos(x y) cos(x + y)
2 sin x cos y = sin(x + y) + sin(x y)
2 cos x cos y = cos(x + y) + cos(x y)
sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x

859

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860 APPENDIX C Mathematical Formulas

## cos 2x = cos2 x sin2 x = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x

2 tan x
tan 2x =
1 tan2 x
1
sin2 x = (1 cos 2x)
2
1
cos2 x = (1 + cos 2x)
2
  
K2
K1 cos x + K2 sin x = K12 + K22 cos x + tan1
K1
ej x = cos x + j sin x (Eulers formula)
ej x + ej x
cos x =
2
e ej x
jx
sin x =
2j
1 rad = 57.296
C.3 Hyperbolic Functions

1 x
sinh x = (e ex )
2
1 x
cosh x = (e + ex )
2
sinh x
tanh x =
cosh x
1
coth x =
tanh x
1
csch x =
sinh x
1
sech x =
cosh x
sinh(x y) = sinh x cosh y cosh x sinh y
cosh(x y) = cosh x cosh y sinh x sinh y

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APPENDIX C Mathematical Formulas 861

C.4 Derivatives
If U = U (x), V = V (x), and a = constant,
d dU
(aU ) = a
dx dx
d dV dU
(U V ) = U +V
dx dx dx
  dU dV
d U V U
= dx dx
dx V V2
d
(aU n ) = naU n1
dx
d U dU
(a ) = a U ln a
dx dx
d U dU
(e ) = eU
dx dx
d dU
(sin U ) = cos U
dx dx
d dU
(cos U ) = sin U
dx dx
C.5 Indefinite Integrals
If U = U (x), V = V (x), and a = constant,

a dx = ax + C
 
U dV = U V V dU (integration by parts)

U n+1
U n dU = + C, n = 1
n+1

dU
= ln U + C
U

aU
a U dU = + C, a > 0, a = 1
ln a

1 ax
eax dx = e +C
a

eax
xeax dx = (ax 1) + C
a2

eax 2 2
x 2 eax dx = (a x 2ax + 2) + C
a3

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862 APPENDIX C Mathematical Formulas


ln x dx = x ln x x + C

1
sin ax dx = cos ax + C
a

1
cos ax dx = sin ax + C
a

x sin 2ax
sin2 ax dx = +C
2 4a

x sin 2ax
cos2 ax dx = + +C
2 4a

1
x sin ax dx = (sin ax ax cos ax) + C
a2

1
x cos ax dx = (cos ax + ax sin ax) + C
a2

1
x 2 sin ax dx = (2ax sin ax + 2 cos ax a 2 x 2 cos ax) + C
a3

1
x 2 cos ax dx = (2ax cos ax 2 sin ax + a 2 x 2 sin ax) + C
a3

eax
eax sin bx dx = (a sin bx b cos bx) + C
a2 + b2

eax
eax cos bx dx = (a cos bx + b sin bx) + C
a 2 + b2

sin(a b)x sin(a + b)x
sin ax sin bx dx = + C, a 2 = b2
2(a b) 2(a + b)

cos(a b)x cos(a + b)x
sin ax cos bx dx = + C, a 2 = b2
2(a b) 2(a + b)

sin(a b)x sin(a + b)x
cos ax cos bx dx = + + C, a 2 = b2
2(a b) 2(a + b)

dx 1 x
= tan1 + C
a2 +x 2 a a

x 2 dx x
= x a tan1 + C
a2 + x 2 a
  
dx 1 x 1 1 x
= + tan +C
(a 2 + x 2 )2 2a 2 x 2 + a 2 a a

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APPENDIX C Mathematical Formulas 863

## C.6 Definite Integrals

If m and n are integers,
 2
sin ax dx = 0
0
 2
cos ax dx = 0
0
 

sin ax dx =
2
cos2 ax dx =
0 0 2
 
sin mx sin nx dx = cos mx cos nx dx = 0, m = n
0 0

 0, m + n = even
sin mx cos nx dx = 2m
0
m + n = odd ,
m2 n 2
 2  
0, m = n
sin mx sin nx dx = sin mx sin nx dx =
0 , m=n

, a>0

2
sin ax
dx = 0, a=0
x

0

, a<0
2
C.7 LHopitals Rule
If f (0) = 0 = h(0), then

f (x) f (x)
lim = lim
x0 h(x) x0 h (x)

## where the prime indicates differentiation.

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