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SECTION -1

CONTENT

SECTION NO TITLE PAGE NO

1. CONTENT 1

2. DISTRIBUTION LIST 2

3. GENERAL
3.1 Introduction 3
3.2 Scope 3
3.3 Definitions 4

4. MATERIAL SELECTION &


DESIGN
4.1 Basic considerations 6
4.2 Insulation material selection 6
4.3 Corrosion considerations 9
4.4 Outer sheeting & Ancillary 9
materials
4.5 Calculation of heat loss & 13
economic thickness

5 APPLICATION PROCEDURE
5.1 Standard procedure for 17
installation of insulation
5.2 Insulation procedure for 20
specific cases
5.3 Insulation procedure for Austenitic 24
stainless steel surfaces
5.4 Application of Calcium Silicate 25
Insulation

6. INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE


6.1 Inspection of new Insulation 26
6.2 Inspection of Existing Insulation 28
6.3 Standard Insulation Maintenance 29
Procedure.
6.4 ANNEXURE A 30

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SECTION - 2

DISTRIBUTION LIST

COPY NO ISSUED TO

1. DGM (MAINTENANCE)
2. DGM (PROJECTS)
3. DGM (TECH)
4. DGM (E&C)
5. DGM (CPO)
6. DGM (MANUFACTURING)
7. GM (OPS)
8. GM (TECH)
9. CHIEF MANAGER - ADVISORY SERVICES

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SECTION - 3

GENERAL

3.1 INTRODUCTION

The need for efficient thermal insulation has become more important with
increasing energy costs & higher operating temperatures. Liquids lose their
heat energy through metal surfaces in which they are contained or flowing.
As this heat loss amounts to the loss of energy, methods to minimise
these losses need attention. The prevention of heat leakage/loss can be
achieved by judicious application and maintenance of thermal insulation.

Thermal Insulation may be classified as hot insulation and cold insulation


based on the purpose and operating temperatures. Hot insulation used on
Piping, Equipment or Storage tanks is required for any of the following
reasons-

a) To achieve Heat conservation of Equipment and Piping.

b) Maintaining Temperatures for the purpose of process requirements.

c) Maintaining flow characteristics of the fluid. e.g. to avoid


condensation of steam, or solidification of liquids etc.

d) For personnel protection. Applicable when exposed surface


temperatures exceed 65 0C and unknowingly the Operations &
Maintenance personnel coming in contact with these surfaces while
performing duties.

Cold insulation is used to prevent condensation on the outside surface of the


insulating system, conserve low temperature or control heat input to the
contained fluid within a temperature range of ambient and below.

3.2 SCOPE

This Engineering Manual covers the Design and Material requirements for
above ground , external insulation for Piping, Equipment and Storage Tanks
operating between ambient temperature and 760 0C in normal process plant
atmosphere in BPCL / NRL / BORL. It also describes the methods of
Application of insulation on Piping, Equipment & Storage Tanks. In this
manual , unless otherwise stated the term insulation shall mean hot
insulation.

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Cold insulation and insulation by refractories have not been covered in this
manual .

This manual has been prepared based on the study of existing


standards related to the subject, availability of material in Indian market and
recommended practices of other reputed engineering consultants. Latest
technological development taken place in manufacturing of insulation by
various manufacturers has been considered. Feedback and data received
from technical staff of reputed Insulation Manufacturers have also been
taken into consideration.

BPCL specification no. AE-S-3611 Rev.3 and AE-S-3613 Rev. 4 shall be used
for procurement of insulation at BPCL / NRL / BORL, and shall continue to
be guiding factor. This Engineering manual is intended to cover all technical
aspects of standard as an explanation and reference only.

This Engineering Manual shall be taken up for revision by Advisory Engg


section after every 5 years.

3.3 DEFINITIONS :

i. Hot & Cold Insulation :


For the purpose of this Engineering Manual , insulation material used at
services temperature of 5 0C and below are termed as "Cold Insulation"
whereas, insulation material for service temperature of 65 0C and above
are termed as "Hot Insulation".

ii. Preformed Insulation :


Thermal insulating material which is prefabricated in such a manner that
at least one surface conforms to the shape of the surface to be covered
and which, when handled, will maintain its shape without cracking,
breaking, crumbling or permanent deformation.

iii. Blanket Insulation :


A flexible insulating material composed of felted fibering material
without binder, but reinforced with confining media.

iv. Block Insulation :


Straight or segmental blocks of board insulation with or without
facing and with or without attachment for application purposes.

v. Vapour barrier :
Material used to restrict the transmission of vapour, generally water
vapour.

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vi. Thermal conductivity :
The quantity of heat flow per unit time (in the steady state) through
one square centimetre cross-section of an infinite piece of material, when
the temperature difference between two planes normal to thermal flux
and one centimetre apart is one degree unit.

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SECTION - 4

MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN

4.1 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS

Following shall be considered while designing insulation system.

A) Selection of suitable insulation material


B) Calculation of insulation thickness
C) Selection of protective outer covering.
D) Evolving correct application techniques.

Out of the above four areas, the first three areas are discussed in this section
while Application Technique has been discussed in Section - 5.

4.2 INSULATION MATERIALS SELECTION

There is a wide range and choice of insulation materials used for


thermal insulation. In general the insulating material selected shall have
adequately low thermal conductivity and sufficient physical / mechanical
integrity for the installation envisaged compatible with economic
considerations. The availability of material and overall economics guides the
final selection for a given application.

The advantages/limitations of commonly used materials are listed below.

Mineral wool (Rock Wool)

Mineral Wool is made from molten mineral rocks by centrifugal


spinning process. They are suitable for the intended operational temperature
range from ambient to 550 0C. both as blanket and preformed sections.

Mineral Wool insulation on Piping is also available in prefabricated forms.


Prefabricated pipe sections are made by precision moulding of wool
and then bonding it with a high temperature resin binder. Because of
controlled thickness and uniform density, uniform fibre distribution is
ensured, resulting in superior thermal efficiency and better temperature
control. The pipe sections are available in standard sizes and
installation is neat, faster and trouble free. Due to bonding, the sections
have better cross sectional strength. Use of preformed insulation must be
given first preference for every upcoming project .

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For application at location with service temperature below 125 0C,
chemically treated water repellent category insulation must only be used.

Material shall confirm to BPCL specification no. AE-S-3613 Rev. 4.

Calcium Silicate

Calcium Silicate block & pipe thermal insulation are composed


principally of hydrous calcium silicate reinforced with mineral fibres
(except slag wool). The approximate maximum operating temperature
limit of 760 0C depends on density and composition of the blocks.

Calcium Silicate is good for high temperature service , for fire protection and
in areas of high maintenance traffic. Calcium Silicate shall be used for
temperatures above 125 0C to ensure that it remains moisture free. In any
isolated case of application at location with service temperature below 125
0C, chemically treated water repellent category insulation must only be

used.

The main advantages of Calcium Silicate Blocks are longer life due to high
mechanical strength and resistance to vibrations. Presently these are used in
a limited way as Refractory Material (rather than Insulation) in Furnaces and
Boilers due to difficulty in handling and site erection.

Ceramic Fibres

Ceramic fibres are made by spinning or blown process by making fibres out
of molten Aluminium Oxide and Silica (Ceramic). They can be pressed into
a blanket. They are suitable for use at comparatively higher temperatures.
The maximum operating temperature depends on density and composition
of the fibres. They are suitable for the intended operational temperature
range from 551 to 760 0C. Ceramic fibres have excellent heat resistance
upto this temperature. Also the thermal conductivity is lower than
mineral wool at higher temperatures. They have better integrity and
enhanced life compared to mineral wools.

Material shall confirm to BPCL specification no. AE-S-3611 Rev. 3.

Asbestos

Asbestos is a natural mineral consisting of a variety of Silicate compounds.


Asbestos is available in the form of fibrous blanket, rope and strips but
generally used in form of rope or strips. It is suitable upto temperature of 350
0C. However it is recommended to eliminate the use of Asbestos due to

health hazards caused by Asbestos dust.


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Refer Table 1 , which gives properties of various insulation materials. It must be
noted that -

1. The figures in Table- 1 are based on data collected from vendors for the
materials currently available in the market. The figures are indicative and
shall not be taken as standard figures.

2. The figures for maximum operating temperatures listed below are indicative
and the same may be reduced based on the density and composition of the
Insulation material. Also the same may be reduced due to chemicals in the
insulation environment. e.g. ceramic fibre may be affected by some alkalis.

3. Where shown to be more economical or technically advantageous, the


insulation shall consist of two or more layers of dis-similar materials ,
provided their respective temperature limits are appropriate for the duty.

TABLE - 1 : PROPERTIES OF INSULATION MATERIALS

Insulation Type Availabilit Density Thermal Max.


y in form kg/cu. m Conductivity Operating
mW/cm 0C Temp. 0C

Mineral Fibrous Slab, 140-160 For Lightly Bonded 550


Wool Preformed Mattress and 120
(Rock Wool) sections, kg/m3 density,
Loose fill, 0.400 at 50 0C
Mattress 0.850 at 300 0C

Calcium Granular Slab, 160-320 Calcium Silicate 760


Silicate section, Blocks - 260 kg/m3
Brick density,
0.78 at 300 0C
1.12 at 500 0C

Ceramic Fibrous Bulk 64-128 Ceramic Wool 551 - 760


Fibre Fibres, Gr. 4 - 64 Blanket - 128
Mattress kg/cu.m kg/m3 density
Gr. 6 - 96 0.60 at 300 0C
kg/cu.m 1.0 at 540 0C
Gr. 8 - 128 1.6 at 760 0C
kg/cu.m

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4.3 CORROSION CONSIDERATIONS

Corrosion under wet thermal insulation is a serious and costly problem and
hence it needs specific attention . The corrosion of carbon steel under wet
thermal insulation is non uniform general attack or highly localised pitting
or both. On austenitic stainless steel , it is pitting or the more serious
Chloride Stress Corrosion Cracking . The problem can be controlled by use
of suitable Insulation Materials confirming to BPCL specification no.
AE-S-3611 Rev. 3 and AE-S-3613 Rev. 4 . The parameters viz. Shot content,
Moisture content and Moisture absorption, Chloride content and Sulphur
content are particularly important. Following are the recommendations to
minimise the corrosion problem -

Wet or damaged Insulation shall not be used under any circumstances.

For application at location with service temperature below 120 0C,


chemically treated water repellent category insulation must only be
used.

Installed Material awaiting its protective cover shall be adequately


protected from damage, rain and contamination.

Vapour Barrier shall be provided to avoid ingress of atmospheric


moisture. Refer para 5.1.5.

All Carbon Steel Piping and Equipment shall be protected from


Corrosion by painting with a specified paint before applying Insulation
as per Annexure A of this manual.

The Chloride content in Insulation Material intended for use on


Austenitic Stainless Steel surfaces shall not exceed 10 ppm.

For Insulating Austenitic Stainless Steel surfaces procedure as given


para 5.3 shall be followed.

4.4 OUTER SHEETING AND ANCILLARY MATERIALS

Chicken Wire Mesh is used to maintain the required shape of


Blanket/ Mattress of Insulation material. This shall be of 22 SWG
galvanised steel wire netting with 20mm / 25mm hexagonal wire mesh
stitched through with 22 SWG galvanised lacing wire.

Binding Wire is used for securing Insulation in position . This shall be

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18 SWG soft annealed galvanised steel. For rigid insulation such as
Calcium Silicate blocks 16 SWG annealed galvanised steel wire shall
be used.

Strapping Bands are fastened for securing Insulation material in place


and shall be as ;

For securing fibrous insulation.

A On Piping - Band 24 SWG thick stainless steel x 12mm (min) wide.

B On Equipments Band 24 SWG thick stainless steel x 20mm (min)


wide.
C On Vertical storage tanks and Columns Band 24 SWG thick stainless
steel x 25mm (min) wide.

For securing rigid insulation.

A On Piping up to 16 OD - Wire 16 SWG thick stainless steel .

B On Piping 18 OD & Larger Vertical & Horizontal equipments Band


24 SWG thick stainless steel x 20mm (min) wide.

For securing cladding on insulation (all types).

A For Piping Band 24 SWG thick stainless steel x 12mm (min) wide.

B On Equipment Band 24 SWG thick stainless steel x 20mm (min)


wide.

C On vertical storage tank - Band 24 SWG thick stainless steel x 25mm


(min) wide

Aluminium Sheeting shall be used as Weather protection over


Insulation surface. Aluminium sheeting used shall be ASTM B209
alloy 3003 H16 or IS:737 designation 31000 (Old NS3) condition H3 for
flat sheets and designation 31500 / 51300 condition H4 for corrugated
sheets. For stainless steel cladding, the materials shall be in accordance
with ASTM A167 or A240, type 304 or 316. For aluminized steel
cladding, the material shall be in accordance with ASTM A463 type 2,
coating designation T2-100. Galvainsed steel shall be as per IS:277 /
ASTM A526 with 275 gms/m2 of coating. Cladding (other than

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galvanised steel) shall be coated on the side in contact with the
insulation with a Bitumen anti-corrosive paint. Thickness of the
cladding shall be as mentioned below;

Fibrous material (Rock wool & Ceramic Fibre)

Application Thickness for Thickness of


Aluminium cladding Stainless steel /
(other than grade Aluminized steel
piping in offsite) cladding
Shell of vertical 0.71mm (22 SWG) 0.56mm (24 SWG)
storage tanks & corrugated. The corrugated. The
vessels including profile of corrugated profile of corrugated
columns sheet shall be 32mm sheet shall be 32mm
5mm. 5mm.
Tank roof 1.22mm (18 SWG) 0.91mm (20 SWG)
Flat. Flat.
Horizontal vessel 0.71mm (22 SWG) 0.56mm (24 SWG)
shell and heads; Flat Flat
vertical vessel heads
Removable covers 1.22mm (18 SWG) 1.22mm (18 SWG)
Flat Flat
OSBL (Outside 0.71mm (22 SWG) 0.56mm (24 SWG)
Battery Limit) and Flat Flat
Offsite piping.

Rigid material - Calcium Silicate

Application Thickness for Thickness of


Aluminium cladding Stainless steel /
Aluminized steel
cladding
Piping, horizontal 0.56mm (24 SWG) 0.46mm (26 SWG)
vessel heads and tank Flat Flat
roofs.
Vertical vessel, 0.56mm (24 SWG) 0.46mm (26 SWG)
column shells & corrugated. The corrugated. The
vertical portion of circular profile of circular profile of
storage tanks corrugated sheet shall corrugated sheet shall
be 32mm 5mm. be 32mm 5mm.

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Application Thickness for Thickness of
Aluminium cladding Stainless steel /
Aluminized steel
cladding
Removable covers 1.22mm (18 SWG) 1.22mm (18 SWG)
Flat Flat
OSBL (Outside 0.56mm (24 SWG) 0.46mm (26 SWG)
Battery Limit) and Flat Flat
Offsite piping.

Self Tapping screws are used for fixing outer Aluminium sheets and
joining two Aluminium sheets. These shall be Parker screws with no.
8 or no. 10 with length 1/2 or 3/4 (depending on application)

Plug type inspection windows of ellipsoidal shape shall be provided on all


the insulated pipelines having diameter 2 and above. One inspection
window shall be provided at a distance of every 20 meters of straight length
of pipe. It should be provided at the bottom i.e. at 4 - 6 8 oclock position
which ever is convenient. There must be at least one inspection window
between two bends which are minimum 10 meters apart. At least 50% of the
bends shall be provided with inspection windows. The sheet metal of the
inspection windows shall be of same thickness as that of the sheet metal
cladding on insulation. The size of the inspection windows shall be as
follows :

Pipe dia. 2 35mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.


Pipe dia. 3 45mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.
Pipe dia. 4 75mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.
Pipe dia. 6 100mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.
Pipe dia. 8 100mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.
Pipe dia. >8 120mm minor dia. x 120mm major dia.

Exchangers All the heads shall be provided with one inspection window
each. Minimum two inspection windows shall be provided on the shell.

Columns & Vessels Heads shall be provided with one inspection window
each. One inspection window shall be provided at every platform. Minimum
two inspection windows shall be provided on shell portion.

Tanks One inspection window shall be provided at each course of the tank
and also at the top.

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4.5 CALCULATION OF HEAT LOSS AND ECONOMIC THICKNESS.

Thickness of insulation is decided on two factors, viz.,

To achieve maximum savings on heat loss, and,


To limit cost of insulation to a minimum.

As these two factors are having reversing effect on each other, a break
even thickness has to be found, below which heat losses will be higher and
above which savings on heat loss may be offset by higher insulation cost.
This break even thickness is called "Optimum Economic Thickness".

The procedure for arriving at the Economic Thickness of an insulation takes


into account the optimisation of the total cost viz. cost of providing
insulation plus cost of heat Loss.

Calculation of Heat Loss for single layer insulation on cylindrical surface is


based on the following formula-

Th - Tc
Q = ------------------------------------- -----------------------(I)
(d/2k) * log (d1/d) + (d/fd1)

Where

Th = Temperature of hot surface deg C


Tc = Temperature of exterior (cold) surface deg C
Q = Heat Loss through Insulation in mW/cm2
d = Outer diameter of pipe (cm)
d1 = outer diameter of layer of insulation in contact with pipe (cm)
k = Thermal Conductivity of Insulation (mW/cm deg)
f = Surface coefficient (mW/cm2 deg)

The value of Thermal conductivity (k) varies with Temperature and in


the above formula , the value of k is taken at arithmetic mean of Th and
Tc. It is necessary to assume a figure for the cold surface temperature (Tc)
in the beginning . The following empirical formula is suggested -

Tc = Ta + 0.1 (Th-Ta), where Ta = Ambient Temperature deg C.

With the assumed value of Tc , the Heat Loss (Q) is calculated. Tc is then
calculated using following formula -
Q * d
Tc = Ta + --------------- ----------------------------------(II)

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f * d1

The value of Tc as calculated above is compared with the assumed value of


Tc . If the values do not tally then Tc should be taken nearer to the value
obtained in (II). Q and Tc are then calculated . The same process is
repeated unless the difference in assumed value of Tc and the Tc value as
calculated in (II) is less than 1 deg C.

The Cost of Heat Loss is then calculated as under -

Cost of Heat Loss = R * H* (3.14 * d * Q) --------------------(III)


per mtr length of Pipe

Where R = Cost of heat for 1 mW sec of energy , which in turn will be


calculated using cost of fuel per kg and efficiency of energy
conversion .

H = Evaluation period in seconds.

The Calculation as shown in (III) can be made for different thickness of


given Insulation material and plotted against thickness for given Th and Ta
values.

The cost of Providing Insulation consists of cost of materials plus cost of


Installation . Typically , the cost of providing Insulation per mtr of pipe
length is calculated in following steps -

a) Determine the quantities of Insulation, Aluminium sheet, Chicken wire


mesh , Galvanised wire and no. of screws etc based on the thickness
and application method.

b) Based on the above quantities and latest price lists from manufacturers,
the cost of materials may be calculated.

c) Installation cost may be calculated based on the mandays required.

The cost of providing insulation per mtr length as above may then be calculated
for different thickness of a given Insulation material and plotted against thickness
values.

The summation of Cost of Heat Loss and Cost of providing Insulation is the Total
Cost. The Total cost values can be tabulated and plotted for different thickness
for given Insulation material . The Thickness at which Total Cost in minimum is
the Economic Thickness.

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For given values of Th and Ta the same calculations for Total Cost can be repeated
for different Insulation materials and Economic thickness obtained for various
materials. The comparison of Total Cost figures will dictate the selection of
materials, if Economics is the sole consideration.

For the purpose of standardisation / controlling the inventory of insulation


materials , the thickness values are specified in steps of 25 mm . It is
recommended to maintain inventory of insulation materials in two thickness viz.
25 and 50 mm. With this it is possible to provide higher insulation thickness
such as 75, 100 , 125 , 150 and so on.

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TABLE -2

RECOMMENDED DENSITIES & THICKNESS OF MINERAL WOOL


INSULATION FOR VARIOUS TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

DENSITY OF --------> 120 KG/ M 3 150 KG/ M 3


INSULATION

TEMP. < 200 201- 251- 301- 351- 401-


RANGE 250 300 350 400 450
IN 0C

PIPE DIA THICKNESS IN MM ---- >


IN MM
25 (1) 25 25 25 50 50 50

50 (2) 25 25 50 50 75 75

75 (3) 25 50 50 75 75 75

100 (4) 25 50 50 75 75 100

150 (6) 50 50 50 75 75 100

200 (8) 50 50 75 75 100 100

250 (10) 50 50 75 75 100 100

300 (12) 50 50 75 75 100 125

400 (16) 50 50 75 75 100 125

450 (18) 50 50 75 75 100 125

500 (20) 50 50 75 100 100 125

600 (24) 50 50 75 100 100 125

1200 (48) 50 50 75 100 100 125

2400 (96) 50 75 75 100 125 125


& Above

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SECTION 5

APPLICATION PROCEDURES

5.1 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR INSTALLATION OF INSULATION

Effectiveness and better operational life of an insulation very much


depend on the way it has been installed. An improper installation may
not only lead to higher heat losses and reduced life, but also it may lead to
corrosion of insulated surface.

Following minimum standards are recommended for installation of


insulation on equipment, storage tanks and pipelines.

5.1.1 Surface Preparation

All surfaces to be insulated shall be shot blasted as per Annexure A of this


manual .

Where Blasting is not possible due to safety/ operational reasons, power


tool cleaning shall be resorted to. Hand Cleaning shall be avoided. In case
of offsite piping , surface preparation and primer application shall be
carried out prior to laying pipes in Pipe tracks.

Immediately after surface preparation, the surface shall be applied with


primer/painting coats depending on the service temperature of the
equipment. Primer/paint shall be applied within 4 hours of surface
preparation.

Surface preparation, primer/paint and process of application shall be as per


Annexure A of this manual (Reference - BPCL specification no. AE-S-5430
Rev 0 Technical Specification of Paint Coating) .

In case of repairs of thermal insulation limited to a small area, thorough


manual cleaning may be resorted to.

5.1.2 Insulation Fixing Arrangements

Insulation shall be properly held in position by welding lugs or


supporting rings at suitable intervals; by the use of binding /strapping
materials like binding wire or band strips; and by the use of fastening
materials like self tapping screws.

For horizontal pipelines, support rings shall be provided at 0.9 m spacing


using 20 x 3 mm support strips.

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For vertical pipelines, support rings shall be provided at 3.0 m spacing.
Support rings shall be provided only when the vertical height exceeds
3.0 m. For vertical pipes since support rings is being provided at interval of
every 3.0 m, hence only two spacer rings shall be provided in between the
support rings mainly at ends of elbow / flanges etc.

For sizes above 500 mm dia., additional aluminium band at an interval of


300 mm shall be provided in addition to the binding wire.

5.1.3 Wrapping Of Insulation Blankets

Insulation wool mattresses are wrapped on the surface to be insulated and


then tied with wires to hold them in place.

After making the blanket/mattress to required thickness, a chicken


wire mesh of size 22 SWG with 20 mm / 25mm Hexagonal netting shall be
placed over it to give it requisite mechanical/structural strength. This
chicken wire mesh shall be made of galvanised steel wires. While
wrapping blankets on surfaces, chicken mesh shall remain outside.

After wrapping blanket on surface and positioning it correctly, the joining


end shall be closed with stitching using galvanised wire. Similarly
circumferential joints between the blankets also shall be stitched up
suitably. The Stitching wire used shall be 22 SWG soft annealed galvanised
steel.

After blankets are stitched up in position, a GI wire shall be helically


wrapped over it and tightened suitably. This is to give extra strength and
uniform shape to the blankets.

5.1.4 Fixing of Outer Cover Sheets

All Insulated Equipment/Piping/Storage Tank shall be protected with


Aluminium sheets unless otherwise specified. Following requirements
must be met with while installing outer cover sheets.

i. Whether on an equipment, tankage or pipelines, external outer cover


sheet used for covering of insulation shall be of Aluminium with
specifications and thickness as given in 4.4. Aluminium Sheets shall be
fully protected on the side in contact with the insulation with Bitumen
Anti-corrosive paint.

ii. All the joints (longitudinal & circumferential) shall have minimum 50
mm overlap after wrapping of outer cover sheet.

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iii. Sheet shall be fixed using self taping screws (also known as Parker
Screws). The Pitch between two screws on longitudinal joints of outer
cover sheet shall not exceed 150 mm and on circumferential joints shall
not exceed 200 mm. Parker screws may be locked against vibration
using synthetic resins.

iv. Aluminium cover sheets wherever required shall be fixed to insulation


supports using self tapping screws. This is a must for Tankages and
Vessels.

v. In vertical equipment and storage tanks, aluminium sheets shall be


provided in such a way so as to avoid ingress of water at the joints. All
openings shall be properly sealed with Bituminous mastic to
prevent ingress of water.

vi. Aluminium cover sheets provided on offsite pipelines shall have


their longitudinal joints in such a manner so as to avoid ingress of
water into the insulation.

vii. End covers shall be provided at the end of insulation.

viii. For tall columns and vertical pipelines, where extra strengthening to
outer cover sheets is required, SS bands shall be provided.

5.1.5 Moisture Barrier

For low temperature services ( i.e. below 125 0C ) a suitable moisture


barrier shall be used since the substrata is at too low a temperature to
evaporate moisture , rain or water from any other source.

On horizontal pipelines moisture barrier shall be provided on the whole


circumferential area covering and adjoining the elbows/ bends , tee joints/
branch connections, nozzles etc.

Vertical lines shall be fully covered with moisture barrier. For other
equipment the requirement of moisture barrier shall be decided on case to
case basis by the concerned Inspection Engineer.

A 3mm thick coating of mastic shall be immediately applied to the outer


surface of the Insulation after erection, thus reducing the minimum
exposure time of the insulation to open atmosphere. While this coat is still
wet, glass cloth shall be laid over the surface and embedded in the mastic.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the Glass cloth is laid smooth and free
from wrinkles and that no pockets of air are trapped beneath the surface.

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REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
At junctions in the glass cloth , the overlap shall not be less than 75 mm. A
second coat of 3 mm mastic shall be applied after approximately 12 hrs. On
drying the coating shall be a minimum of 1.5 mm thick. Care must be taken
however to ensure that the individual coats are greater than 3 mm
(especially corners) otherwise some cracking of dried coat may result. The
mastic shall not be applied over wet insulation or until the adhesive is dry.
During the drying time , the Insulation shall be protected from the weather
by Alkathene film type tarpaulin or similar materials.

5.2 INSULATION PROCEDURE FOR SPECIFIC CASES

Procedure for application of insulation for specific cases is described below


in para 5.2.1 to 5.2.11. Following are few guidelines on application of
insulation.

1. Insulation work shall be carried out after hydrotesting of piping /


equipment.

2. Welding of supports / cleats / rings for securing insulation shall be


completed before hydrotesting of piping / equipment.

3. Thermowell bosses and pressure tappings shall not be insulated but left
accessible.

4. Multilayer structures of insulating material shall be used when total


thickness is 75 mm or more. When multilayer insulation is used the
joints must be staggered and each layer must be secured in place.

5. Equipment name plates shall remain visible after insulation has been
applied by bevelling back the insulating material and carefully sealing
the exposed edges to prevent ingress of moisture.

6. Insulation shall be finished , bevelled and weather proofed at all


terminal points where it is required to remove bolts etc. without damage
to insulation.

5.2.1 Preformed Fibrous Insulation on CS / Alloy steel Pipes (Rigid


Insulation)

Insulation material shall be applied to fit snugly against the contours by


placing the two split halves of the insulation against the pipe. The
insulation shall be carried out with the least number of material pieces as
possible. The longitudinal joints between the two segments shall be so
staggered that the included angle between segments shall not be less than 30
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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 20 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
deg. for both single and double layer insulation. When double layer is
applied , both longitudinal and circumferential joints shall be staggered .
The angle between the longitudinal joints of the inside and outside layers of
Insulation shall have an angle of over 15 deg. Circumferential joints of the
inside and outside layers shall be at least 100 mm apart.

All the circumferential joints shall be closely fitted and the gap, if any, shall
be filled with insulating material.

All the vertical pipelines of 4 inch and above, shall have support ring
welded before hydrotesting of the line at every 3 metres and at the lowest
horizontal weld seam and above each flange . The ring on the pipe shall be
50 mm away from flange to pipe joint.

The insulation shall be fastened using 16 SWG galvanised steel wire and/or
strapping bands at intervals of 500 mm . The ends of the binding wire shall
be tightly twisted together, bent under and pressed into the surface of
insulation. Strapping bands shall be crimped suitably.

The Insulation shall be covered with aluminium sheeting as detailed in 5.1.4

5.2.2 Flexible fibrous Insulation on Pipes

The blankets, cut to adequate size, shall be applied with the galvanised
chicken wire netting on the outside and be fastened into position with
strapping band as mentioned earlier or galvanised wire of 18 SWG at 250mm
interval or may be fastened helically. The chicken wire mesh shall be
stitched on to one side of insulation blankets with 22 SWG annealed
galvanised wire.

All the vertical pipelines of 4 inch and above, shall have support ring
welded before hydrotesting on the line at every 3 metres as described in
5.2.1.

On horizontal lines, loose support rings with stays of carbon steel shall be
attached to the pipe at intervals of about 900 mm to support the
aluminium sheets and to prevent sagging of the insulation.

The outside diameter of these rings shall be equivalent to the outside


diameter of the insulation. In order to minimise direct heat conduction
through the stays, a packing of 2 sheets of 3 mm thk asbestos cloth shall
be provided at the joints of the stays and pipes. Joints between CS spacer
ring and stays shall be riveted by CS rivets with 2 sheets of 3 mm thk
asbestos mill board interposed.

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 21 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
The Insulation shall be covered with aluminium sheeting as detailed in 5.1.4

5.2.3 Preformed / Flexible Insulation on Elbows and Bends

Insulation material shall be mitered and shall be same as that applied on


pipe. Each mitre section shall be secured with minimum 2 wires/bands.
All the joints shall be closely fitted and the gap, if any, shall be filled with
insulating material in case of rigid insulation.

5.2.4 Preformed / Flexible Fibrous Insulation on Tees

Insulation material shall be same as that applied on pipe. Preformed pipe


sections/flexible mattress shall be carefully cut and shaped around "Tee"
junctions and applied to the parent pipe without the creation of voids
and gaps at the junction. Insulation shall be adequately secured by
wire/band.

5.2.5 Preformed / Flexible fibrous Insulation on Flanged Joints and Valves

Flanged joints and valves shall be insulated with prefabricated


removable aluminium covers, lined with preformed/flexible fibrous glass
wool insulation. The insulation shall be carried out after commissioning
and hot bolting of the system. Care shall be exercised to seal the gaps from
where rain water may ingress.

In case of valves, the stuffing box shall be kept outside to replace the
packing without damaging insulation.

Pipeline used for gases and steam service shall have 1 no. 1/2 Inch NB vent
and drain at the flanged joints in insulation. Vent shall be fitted with elbow
to avoid ingress of rain water.

5.2.6 Preformed / Flexible Fibrous Insulation on steam Traced Lines

The steam tracing that are used with main lines shall be held in position
using galvanised steel strap bands of size 25 mm x 18 SWG at 600 mm pitch.

The pipe and steam tracer shall then be wrapped with a galvanised hex
chicken wire mesh 20mm / 25mm x 22 SWG and bound with 18 SWG GI
wire at 300 mm pitch.

The insulating material, cut to adequate size, shall be provided with the
galvanised chicken wire netting on the outside. An outer insulating cover
shall be then provided and suitably fastened.

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 22 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
Special care shall be taken to ensure that insulation material do not get
embedded between the pipe and steam tracing . The section of the steam
tracer that is not required to be in touch with main line shall be wrapped
using 25 mm dia. asbestos rope. The winding shall be tight with no gap.
The grooves and notches shall be filled with quick setting plaster. After
drying of plaster, bituminous weather proofing coat shall be applied. It is
recommended that complete steam tracing line shall be insulated using glass
wool if it is open to severe weather conditions.

5.2.7 Preformed / Flexible Fibrous Insulation on Pipe Supports

Insulation at solid welded or clamped supports shall be cut and shaped to


fit around the support and bonded securely.

5.2.8 Horizontal Equipment (Carbon Steel & Alloy Steel)

The vessel shall be provided with insulation support at the horizontal


centre line and ring support at radial lines. These supports shall have 6 mm
dia. holes for insulation securement. Both the dished end heads shall be
provided with a floating central ring made of 10 mm dia. galvanised steel
rod for insulation securement. Where the total thickness of slab exceeds 75
mm, multi layer should be used and no layer shall exceed 75 mm in
thickness.

The insulation blankets, cut to adequate size, shall be applied with the
galvanised chicken wire netting on the outside. The chicken wire mesh shall
be stitched on to one side of insulation blankets with 18 SWG
annealed galvanised wire. Each layer of insulation on shell of equipment
shall be secured by bands .

In case preformed insulation is used, the insulation shall be applied with


the longer dimension parallel to the axis of the equipment. When blocks
are applied in multiple layers, all joints in successive layers shall be
parallel to the long axis and staggered. The gaps, if any, shall be filled with
insulating material. The insulation shall be properly secured using
wires/bands. The insulation shall be covered from outside with aluminium
sheeting as detailed in 5.1.4.

5.2.9 Vertical Equipment (Carbon Steel & Alloy Steel)

The vessel shall be provided with suitable insulation supports for


insulation securement.

The insulation shall be applied on the shell, top and bottom in similar

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 23 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
manner as described for horizontal equipment.

Support skirt of insulated vertical vessel greater than 1200 mm dia shall be
insulated both internally and externally for a minimum distance of 600 mm
below the tangent line . The insulation shall terminate not less than 300 mm
above support concrete or steel work.

5.2.10 Flange Nozzle Channel And Manway On Equipment

These parts shall be insulated with removable prefabricated covers


lined with preformed fibrous/flexible insulation and secured with bands
or quick release toggle clips.

Insulation shall be stopped short of uninsulated flanges and nozzles


etc., by leaving a sufficient distance to permit withdrawal of bolts
without affecting the remainder of the insulation. Insulation shall be
weather proofed and sealed.

5.2.11 Vertical Storage Tanks

Vertical storage tanks shall be provided with insulation supports.


The insulation shall be applied between rings in horizontal mode.
Mattress insulation shall be applied with joints tightly butted and laced
together with galvanised lacing wire. The outside of the insulation shall
have a galvanised chicken wire netting stitched on to one side of
insulation blankets.

The protective sheeting is to be further fastened by application of


aluminium strapping bands externally over it.

5.3 INSULATION PROCEDURE FOR AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL


SURFACES

1. Insulation shall be put on austenitic stainless steel surfaces only if


it is process requirement. Insulation for the purpose of human safety,
if not process requirement, shall be substituted by alternate
protection like safety guard, wire mesh caging, weather protector etc.

2. Inner jacketing between metal surface and insulation shall be carried


out using 0.19 mm thk aluminium foil with 50 mm overlap at
longitudinal and circumferential joints before application of insulation.

3. For operating temperatures above 450 0C , the stainless steel surfaces shall
be painted with 2 coats of heat resistant silicone based aluminium paint

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 24 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
with DFT of 20 microns minimum per coat.

4. After application of insulation the joints & extreme ends of the


cladding are to be sealed properly to avoid ingress of water into the
insulation.

5. Only materials that contain less than 10 ppm of chlorides shall be


used over stainless steel surfaces.

5.4 APPLICATION OF CALCIUM SILICATE INSULATION

Calcium Silicate may be applied in the form of flat blocks, bevelled lags, pipe
sections or curved segments depending on the Piping or Equipment to be
insulated. The standard sizes, thickness and dimensional tolerance of
preformed blocks shall be in accordance with IS 8154/ IS 9428 . Curved
segments shall be used for curved surface having external radius greater than
110 mm. Hollow cylindrical shapes split in half lengthwise in a plane including
the cylindrical axis shall be used for pipes upto 14 inch size. Pieces of Insulation
with crushed or damaged ends shall not be used. Pipe sections bored or
machined out shall not be used .

For vessels installed with Calcium Silicate insulation and operating at high
temperature special care shall be taken. Calcium Silicate insulation shall be
installed in bevelled or curved segments only , to avoid voids and provide an
efficient insulation system. For equipment upto 3000 mm in diameter and
200 0C , to take care of equipment circumferential expansion , the
circumferential block is cut and fitted to be 13 mm greater in circumference
than the equipment and secured so that tension of the bands produces
compression on the butt edges rather than on the surface towards the vessel .
The little annular space and the compressiveness of the blocks would suffice to
take care of circumferential expansion of equipment.

If the vessel is above 3000 mm in diameter or if the temperature is above


200 0C or both , a 25 mm thick Rockwool fibre blanket insulation shall be
applied around the equipment prior to the application of Calcium Silicate. This
acts as an expansion area around the equipment to act as mechanical and
sometimes thermal cushions. The Calcium Silicate blocks must be cut and fitted
to the outside radius of the equipment plus the thickness of the Rock wool
spacer insulation. The insulation when installed should not compress the fibrous
blanket.

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 25 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
SECTION - 6

INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE OF INSULATION

6.1 INSPECTION OF NEW INSULATION

Inspection of insulation plays a vital role to obtain desired results out of it.
Inspection will guarantee that the work is carried out according to laid
down norms/procedures and desired quality obtained.

Inspection at following stages during installation shall be carried out to


ensure conformance to design specification.

6.1.1. Quality Assurance of In-coming Materials

Insulation Materials used in BPCL Refinery shall meet the requirements of


latest BPCL as given below-

AE-S-3611 Rev. 3 - Specification for Ceramic Fibre Insulation


AE-S-3613 Rev. 4 - Specification for bonded Mineral wool Pipe Insulation

For preformed Calcium Silicate Insulation IS 8154 / IS 9428 shall be


followed as applicable. Calcium Silicate material conforming to IS 8154 is
suitable for service temperature upto 650 0C and material conforming to IS
9428 is suitable for service temperature upto 950 0C .

All the materials used for insulation shall be inspected and checked for their
conformance to the above requirements by the manufacturers.
Manufacturers Quality Assurance Certificate must be submitted to BPCL
Inspection for every batch of insulation material received at site. BPCL
Inspection department shall review the test certificates before acceptance of
materials. If need is felt by BPCL inspection , BPCL shall have a right to
inspect any or all the tests conducted on insulation material by
manufacturer at his shop or any laboratory.

In case of new projects/ installation the insulation materials shall be


preferably ordered by BPCL / NRL / BORL and supplied to site contractor
for ensuring better quality . However , in case of small quantities and
maintenance jobs the supply of insulation materials may be included in the
scope of site contractor . The selection between these procurement options
shall be decided by the executing department in consultation with Inspection
from time to time.

Outer sheeting and ancillary materials shall be checked for conformance to


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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 26 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
material of construction and dimensions as detailed in para 4.4

6.1.2. Inspection during installation

Lugs & Its Welding

Only qualified welders and approved welding procedures shall be used for
welding of lugs. Care shall be taken not to induce any injurious defects on
the equipment during welding. Welding shall be offered to BPCL for visual
inspection.

Surface Preparation / Painting / Coating

Surface preparation, primer/paint and process of application shall be as per


Annexure A of this manual (Reference - BPCL specification no. AE-S-5430
Rev 0 Technical Specification of Paint Coating) . The painting / coating
applied after thorough cleaning shall be checked for its quality and
required dry film thickness by BPCL / NRL / BORL Inspection.

Fixing / Wrapping of Insulation

Holding arrangement as required shall be inspected prior to fixing of the


insulation. After wrapping of insulation it shall be checked for proper
fitting. Strengthening of insulation with strapping bands as required shall
be inspected.

Application of Moisture Barrier

Wherever required, moisture barrier shall be applied over the fibrous


insulation. After its application the same shall be inspected to ensure no
left out or uncovered surfaces.

Fixing of Outer Covering

Inspection of outer Aluminium cover shall be carried out after fixing of the
same on the insulated material. Following shall be checked :

- Bituminous anti-corrosive paint, where ever applicable.


- Overlapping between longitudinal and circumferential cover joint and
proper staggering of joints.
- The pitch at which the screws are fixed.

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 27 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
Sealing of Joint / Nozzles

All the seal joints as well as the sealing around nozzles and locations
where insulation ends shall be inspected and ensured that proper sealing is
achieved.

6.1.3 Temperature scanning

Immediately on commissioning of the Equipment / Pipelines on which


new insulation has been installed, detailed temperature scanning shall be
undertaken by Inspection department as a final acceptance test to verify the
quality of application.

The maximum temperature expected on outer Aluminium cover sheet is


45 0C . However in no case it shall be greater than 65 0C.

6.2 INSPECTION OF EXISTING INSULATION

6.2.1 Visual Inspection

Frequency of Visual Inspection shall be once a year . This visual inspection


shall be preferably carried out after monsoon, to check for any
damage/deterioration, and record the same. More attention shall be given
to insulation at valves, flanges , nozzle openings in case of equipment and
also at the locations where insulation ends e.g. end of piping header , top
dish end of vessels/ columns. In case of pipe tracks, insulation and outer
covering gets damaged due to walking of persons over it. The damaged
insulation shall be marked for renewal .

6.2.2 Comprehensive Inspection

All insulation within plants shall be inspected during unit shutdown.


Frequency of comprehensive inspection shall be once in 3 years for offsites.
Following procedure shall be followed for comprehensive inspection-

a. If insulation has been provided with inspection windows the cover from
inspection windows shall be opened, insulation material removed and the
surface underneath inspected for paint failure, corrosion, etc. In case of
continuous insulation outer aluminium cover sheets shall be removed at
random locations which are prone to deterioration/corrosion. The
insulation material shall be removed and the surface underneath shall be
inspected for paint failure or corrosion.

The insulation shall then be checked for variation in dimensions and


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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 28 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
physical deterioration, if any. In case of observing damaged insulation ,
damaged or missing outer cover , reduction in insulation thickness or
presence of wet insulation the same shall be marked for repairs or renewal .

After inspection and repairs if any the inspection windows shall be


refilled with insulation material and the covers fixed back securely in
position. Wherever insulation has been removed to facilitate inspection
the same shall be refixed after repairs.

b. Temperature scanning of insulation outer cover for plant and equipment


shall be carried out at least once in a year. The scanning shall be carried
out in phased manner so that all equipment are covered once in a year.
The results of temperature scanning shall be recorded for comparison and
analysis. For offsites the temperature scanning may be done once in 3
years.

6.3 STANDARD INSULATION MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES

Like equipment, insulation also shall be checked and maintained at regular


intervals. Preventive maintenance of insulation is very much necessary for
safe and economic operation. For damaged/ deteriorated insulation
observed in visual inspection , the repairs shall be carried out on timely
basis. A major thrust shall be given to replacement of detached /deformed
aluminium outer cover sheets.

It is recommended to standardise the inspection pockets on vessels and


tanks as mentioned in 4.4. It is also recommended to provide these pockets at
the time of fresh insulation.

Sometimes, it may become necessary to remove a big area of insulation to


facilitate detailed inspection of pipeline/equipment . In such cases, special
care shall be taken to remove it. Aluminium sheets should be unscrewed
and never torn out. Insulation blankets should be removed carefully and
kept on straight flat surface. After completion of inspection , same material
can be used for insulation purpose. However, if insulation blankets
removed are cut / distorted due to external loads or if these become wet ,
the same shall not be used again .

At few locations, insulation thickness may have come down due to service
over the years. In such cases, insulation thickness could be built up using
fresh required extra thickness insulation material.

This specification on Thermal Insulation AE-DEP-M-12 Rev. 03 supersedes all


other earlier specification / standards on Thermal Insulation.
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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 29 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
ANNEXURE A

A) Painting Systems Using Cu-Slag Blasting To Sa 2.5 (Min. Profile 50


microns) As Surface Preparation

FOR INSULATED EQUIPMENTS / VESSELS / COLUMNS / PIPELINES UP TO 200 0C

Generic name of the paint DFT (Microns) Method of Application

Two component high solid, high


2 x 100 Brush
temperature (up to 200 0C dry heat)
Phenolic Epoxy coating.
Total DFT 200

FOR INSULATED TURBINES, COMPRESSORS, BLOWERS, STACKS ABOVE 100 0C

Generic name of the paint DFT (Microns) Method of Application

Bituminous Stack Black (Temperature 2 x 35 Brush


Resistance : 200 0C )

OR
Zinc Dust Graphite Paint (Temperature 2 x 30 Brush
Resistance : 450 0C )

Total DFT 70/60

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 30 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
B) Painting Systems Using Manual Cleaning To St 2 OR Power Tool Cleaning
To St 3 As Surface Preparation.

FOR INSULATED EQUIPMENTS / VESSELS / COLUMNS / PIPELINES UPTO 200 0C

Generic name of the paint DFT (Microns) Method of Application

Two component high solid, high


2 x100 Brush
temperature(up to 200 0C dry heat)
Phenolic Epoxy coating

Total DFT 200

FOR INSULATED TURBINES / COMPRESSORS / BLOWERS / STACKS ABOVE 100 0C

Generic name of the paint DFT (Microns) Method of Application

Bituminous Stack Black 2 x 35 Brush


(Temp. Resistance : 200 0C )
OR
Zinc Dust Graphite Paint 2 x 40 Brush
(Temp. Resistance : 450 0C )

Total DFT 70/80

1) Two component high solid, high temperature Phenolic Epoxy coating

Colour : Buff, light grey,light red


Finish : Glossy
Type : Two pack
Application : By brush or Airless spray
Dry film thickness/coat : 100-150m
Volume solids : 66 %
Area coverage (theoretical) : 5 sq.m/litre
Surface dry : 6 hrs.
Hard dry : 16 hrs.

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 31 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :
Recoatability : 24 hours.
Full cure : 5 days.
Shelf life : 12 months
dry heat : up to 200deg c

2) Bituminous Stack Black

Colour : Black
Finish : Matt
Type : Single pack
Application : Brush
Volume solids : 40 2 %
DFT : 30-40 microns
Area Coverage (Theoretical) : 11-14 sq.m / litre
Surface dry : 4 hrs.
Hard dry : 48 hrs.
Recoatability : 24 hrs.
Full cure : 48 hrs
Shelf life : 12 months
Temperature Resistance : 200 0C

3) Zinc Dust Graphite paint

Colour : Grey
Finish : Matt
Application : Brush / Spray
Zinc dust : 31 2 % by wt.
Graphite : 24 2 %
Volume Solids : 40 2 %
DFT : 40-45 microns
Area Coverage (Theoretical) : 10-11 sq.m /litre
Surface dry : 12 hrs.
Hard dry : 12-14 hrs.
Recoatability : after 12 hrs. before 16 hrs.
Full cure : 18 hrs
Shelf life : 6 months.
Temperature Resistance : 450 0C

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DOCUMENT NO : AE-DEP-M -12 Rev. 3 PAGE : 32 OF 32
REVISION : 03 APPROVED BY :