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EXPERIMENT 9: DETERMINATION OF ELECTRODE

POTENTIALS

B.F. SOSA and G.P. FORTU


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INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE


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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY 1101, PHILIPPINES


DATE SUBMITTED: 27 APRIL 2016
DATE PERFORMED: 22 APRIL 2016

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ! ( "#$$ 0 ! ( "*+,(&# = ! ( *.(&# ' (3)'

1.! Discuss the differences between 3.! Compare the calculated !%#&
for each
galvanic and electrolytic cells. half-cell with their literature value.
Both galvanic and electrolytic cells are
The calculated !%#& for zinc half-cell is -1.04V.
electrochemical cells but there are differences
Comparing it from the literature value which is -
between these two cells and these are the
0.763V, it gave a percentage error of 36.304%. For
following: In a galvanic or voltaic cell which
the iron half-cell, the computed value is 0.32V
batteries are made of, stores electrical energy. It
that gave a percentage error of 58.50% comparing
has a reaction between an anode to a cathode
through a spontaneous flow of electrons. It has a it to its literature value which is 0.771V. For Br#
negative electrochemical reaction in Gibbs free |Br2|C' half#cell' the' computed' value' is' 0.3273V,'
energy but a positive cell potential. While in an comparing' it' to' the' literature' value' which' is'
electrolytic cell, which is the reverse of the 1.09V,' it' gave' a' percentage' error' 69.97%.' Lastly'
galvanic cell, is in need of an outside source of
electrical energy for it to operate. Electricity is for' I |I |C half-cell, the calculated value is
-
2

consumed by the system. It has an endothermic 0.3027V. Comparing it to its literature value
chemical reaction which is not spontaneous. which is 0.54V, it gave a percentage error equal to
43.96%.
2.! What is the measured value of !"#$$ for

4.! Based on your observations, what are the
each cell and its relevance to the !%#& for half reactions which occur at the anode
the iron half-cell and halogen half-cells? and cathode during the electrolysis?

The measured !"#$$ for Fe |Fe half-cell is 0.66V;


3+ 2+
During electrolysis the the half-cell that occurred
for Br#|Br2|C'it'is'0.33'V'and'for'I |I |C it is
-
2 in the anode is the oxidation of halides, this
reaction is between bromine and iodine. This
0.30V. From these data, with the given !%#& of

Cu |Cu, !%#& of for the iron half-cell that works
2+
resulted in a change from a colorless solution to
as a cathode and halogen half-cell that works as a brown colored solution while in the cathode,
an anode, can be calculated with the use of the reduction of water happened showing
equation 1. bubbles that means effervescence.

5.! Based on the calculated values, what are


! ( "#$$ = ! ( "*+,(&# ! ( *.(&# ' (1)' the most effective reducing and
' oxidizing agents?
For'iron'half#cell,'! ( %#& 'can'be'computed'using'
equation'2.' When a reduction potential of a species is more
positive then it is more reduced in the reaction
' that makes it a more effective oxidizing agent
! ( "#$$ + 0 ! ( *.(&# = ! ( "*+,(&# ' (2)' while if the species has a more negative reduction
' potential then it is more oxidized in the reaction
For'halogen'half#cell,'! ( %#& 'can'be'computed' that makes it a more effective reducing agent.
Based on the calculated values from this
using'equation'3.'
experiment, the most effective reducing agent is
Br because it gave a reduction potential equal to
2 a negative standard potential reduction value
0.3273V that is the most positive of the four results to a positive 12 that indicates a non-
values while the most effective oxidizing agent is spontaneous reaction.
zinc which is the only half-cell that gave a
negative reduction potential which is -1.04V. 7.! What are the possible sources of errors
6.! Are the values of standard reduction and their effect on the calculated
potentials helpful in determining the parameters? Rationalize.
spontaneity of a reaction?
Possible errors in the experiment can be in the
In a reaction that gives a more positive standard solution preparation. The molarity of the
reduction potential, it favors the direction of the solutions should be equal to 1M because if not,
formation of products while in a more negative the equation E = E will not be valid for
cell
0
cell

standard reaction potential, it favors the direction


calculating the !%#& of the electrodes. This is
of the reactants which is the reverse reaction of (
because ! "#$$ is concentration dependent.
the first. Relating the spontaneity of a reaction, Another is when the multimeter is not checked
the Gibbs free energy equation is essential. before performing the experiment and it gives a
wrong voltage reading that will affect the
12 = 0 34! (4)
calculations since all !%#& is based from the
Relating equation 4, a positive standard measured voltage reading of the ! ( "#$$ .
reduction potential means that the electrode on
the right is positive with respect to the electrode REFERENCES
on the left. This results to a negative value of 12
that corresponds to a spontaneous reaction while [1] Skoog, D. (2014). Fundamentals of Analytical
if the standard reduction potential gives a Chemistry. (p. 448-449). Belmont, CA: Brooks
negative value, it indicates that the electrode on Cole, A Part of Cengage Learning.
the right is negative with respect to the electrode [2] Zumdahl, S.S., & Zumdahl S.A. (2012).
on the left. Therefore this reaction states that Chemistry. (pp.840-841, p.845). Belmont, CA:
oxidation happens on the left and reduction Brooks Cole, A Part of Cengage Learning.
happens on the right that states a non- [3] Silbeberg, M. (2010). Principles of General
spontaneous reaction. This is the reverse of the Chemistry. (p.709, p.716). New York, NY: The
first reaction. Relating this to Gibbs free energy, McGraw- Hill Companies, Inc.
APPENDIX A: SAMPLE CALCULATIONS

Galvanic cell

Concentrations are 1.0M


0.0592 1.0>
! ( "#$$ = !"#$$ + log '
3 1.0>
(
! "#$$ = !"#$$

Half-cell: Zn2+|Zn&
?@AC1D?: FG HI (*K) + 2M N FG(P) '
@3C1D?:0Q3(P) Q3HI (*K) + 2M N '
FMRR0SM@?ADC3:0Q3(P) + FG HI (*K) Q3HI (*K) + FG(P) '
( ( (
! "#$$ = ! "*+,(&# ! *.(&# '
! ( "*+,(&# 0 ! ( "#$$ = 0 ! ( *.(&# '
0.340 01.38 = XY. Z[\'
|^_`a^b00`cdefd`g_^b0|
Percent'error'=' 0i0100'
+,#(%#+h"*$
(1.04) (0.763)
= 100% = no. nZ[%'
0.763
'
Half+cell:&Fe3+|Fe2+|C&
'
?@AC1D?: 20(4M pI (*K) + M N 04M HI )'
(*K)
@3C1D?:00FG(P) 0FG HI N
+ 2M '
(*K)
FMRR0SM@?ADC3:024M pI (*K) + FG(P) 4M HI (*K) + FG HI (*K) '

! ( "#$$ = ! ( "*+,(&# ! ( *.(&# '


! ( "#$$ + 0 ! ( *.(&# = ! ( "*+,(&# '
0.66q + (0.34q) = Z. nr\'
|^_`a^b00`cdefd`g_^b0|
Percent'error'=' 0i0100'
+,#(%#+h"*$
(0.32) (0.771)
= 100% = st. sZ%'
0.771
'
uvwxyz{v|y}x0~wvv&
&
Half+cell:&Br+|Br2|C&
'
mA'measured'='261'mA'='0.261'A'
Since'Br2(l)'+'2e*' 2S '*(aq),'then'
A 10CRM0H
( N)
H = 0 4 20CRM0M '
q
(.)() 00
( )
() 00
SH = 0 '='8.160010Xp 0>'
.
.H
Ecell0=0Eocell00 log0Q00
.
.H [ ][% ] .H [.]
Ecell0=00.330X0 0log0 00=0000.330X0 0log 00=00.32730V0
H 0% H 0.H00
|^_`a^b00`cdefd`g_^b0|
Percent'error'=' 0i0100'
+,#(%#+h"*$
(0.3273) (1.09)
= 100% = o. %'
1.09
0
Half-cell: I |I |C
-
2

(.)() 00
( )
( 0 ) 00
SH = 0 '='0.0123>&
.
.H
Ecell0=0Eocell00 log0Q00
.
.H [ ][% ] .H [.]
Ecell0=00.300X0 0log0 00=0000.300X0 0log 00=00.30270V0
H 0% H 0.HpHp
|^_`a^b00`cdefd`g_^b0|
Percent'error'=' 0i0100'
+,#(%#+h"*$
(0.3026) (0.54)
= 100% = [n. o%'
0.54

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