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International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

Port Automation: Modeling and Control of Container Cranes


Keum-Shik Hong* and Quang Hieu Ngo**
*
Dept. of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University
**
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University
30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 609-735, Korea.
E-mails: {kshong, }@pusan.ac.kr

port, and then load all the containers scheduled for leaving
Abstract this port. Containers will be carried between the QCs and
the yard by AGVs or trucks. An increasing number of
The container crane is a key machine in ports. Over the past trucks or AGVs will catch of the unloading/loading
15 years, modeling and control of quay cranes for container demand. Because of the space limitation, the QCs
automating ports has been the main research issue. In this cannot be assigned more to serve the vessel. Thus, the
paper, crane models and control methodologies appeared in unloading/loading efficiency depends on how fast the
the literature are reviewed. A generalized formulation of container is unloaded/loaded by QCs. However, the fast
the most widely used crane model is introduced. Various trolley movement of the QC sways the container during its
control techniques are briefly discussed. In conclusion, an movement, the main issue in a crane system is the quick
amenable control strategy as well as a plausible model is suppression of vibrations caused by the trolley motion. In
recommended. addition, a residual sway occurs at the end of the trolley
movement due to crane dynamics and disturbances like
Keywords: crane, dynamics, control, pendulum motion, winds. Thus, researchers working in the area of crane
port automation. control have always targeted sway suppression. More
generally, payload oscillations and the need to suppress
1. Introduction them have been identified as a bottleneck in the operations
of the transportation and construction industries even
Since containers were introduced to the world-trade where relatively simple gantry crane are concerned. The
industry, an increasing number of goods are being put into control methods developed for the conventional cranes can
these containers and loaded onto vessels to be carried to be applied to container cranes as well.
their respective destinations over the world. When a vessel
arrives at a port, containers destined for this port must be The paper is organized as follows: The modeling of crane
unloaded and new containers which are bound for other systems is addressed in Section 2. The control strategies for
ports must be loaded before the vessel can resume its trip. cranes are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the
Demands on container ports to perform the loading and development of the container crane in the future is
unloading process with maximum efficiency will become introduced. Conclusions are given in Section 5.
greater as transport companies continue to increase both the
size of their fleets and also the capacity of the vessels. The 2. Modeling crane systems
problem with this increase is that port authorities are
predicting that they will run out of space to expand their In modeling crane dynamics, two approaches are used. The
operational areas and the option of developing on first approach is the lumped-mass approach, in which the
surrounding land is often hampered from local residents.
Therefore, the only remaining solution will be the reduction
of the amount of time that the vessel needs to remain in
dock. The way to do this is to ensure that the container
unload/load process is done as rapidly as possible, and this
can be achieved by ensuring that the equipments in the port
such as quay cranes (QCs), automated guide vehicles
(AGVs), automated lift vehicles (ALVs) and so on, must be
operated at their maximum efficiencies (Thurston et al.,
2002).
The unloading/loading container process from/to the vessel
to/from yard is performed by QCs, trucks or AGVs. One to
six QCs are assigned to pick up containers depending on
the vessel size. Each crane will be responsible for several
rows of container storage slots along the ship. For each row, Fig. 1. Loading/unloading process (Hamburg Port
the QC must first unload all the containers destined for this Consulting GmbH)

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 19


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

hoisting rope is modeled as a mass-less rigid rod and the Liu et al. (2005) derived the equations of the motion of a
payload is modeled as a lumped point mass. The sway two-dimensional overhead crane. System linearization
motion is modeled as a pendulum motion in two or three transformed the two-dimensional system to two
dimensional space. Therefore, an ordinary differential independent systems: X-direction transport system and
equation (ODE) model is used in deriving the control laws. Y-direction transport system. Both the two systems were
Another approach is the distributed parameter system the same dynamic models; each of them was described by
approach, in which the hoisting rope is considered as a the simple pendulum model.
string (distributed-mass). A typical assumption in the
second approach is that the rope is perfectly flexible and Hong et al. (2000) introduced a simple model with an
inextensible. In this case, the dynamics of the crane system equation describing the dynamics of the cable hoisting. The
is expressed as a coupled ODE and partial differential container was lifted using the hoist motor, while it was
equation (PDE): the trolley motion is given in the ODE lowered by the total weight of the spreader and the
form and the rope dynamics is given in the PDE form. By container. By winding the trolley rope around trolley drum,
using the PDE form, the payload as well as the rope motion the trolley was pulled to a desire spot. During the trolley
is described exactly, especially when the rope length is very movement, the container was swayed and it was suppressed
large and the payload is very heavy. In addition, the by controlling the trolley motion.
vibration of the rope that affects the payload motion during Takagi et al. (2003) dealt with modeling and control of a
the trolley movement is also more accurately suppressed. crane mounted on a tower-like flexible structure. A fast
2.1. Lumped-mass models transfer of the load can sway of the load and vibration of the
flexible structure. Controlling both the sway and the
The most popular model of gantry cranes augments the vibration by the inherent capability of the tower crane was
planar version of the pendulum model with the motion of objectives of the paper. Their paper described the design of
gantry in the horizontal direction as shown in Fig.2. a centralized control system considering coupling of
between the up-and-down direction and the rotational
The (simplest) linear equations of motion of the gantry direction. The comparison of experiments and analysis
crane are as follows. showed that the decentralized control system had almost
M&x& mg = F , (1) the same performance and stability as the centralized one.
2.2. Distributed-mass models
&x& + l&& + g = 0 , (2)
The model available in this category is the planar model for
where M and m are the masses of the trolley and the load, a gantry crane linearized around the cables equilibrium
respectively, l is the rope length, x is the trolley position and position as shown in Fig.3.
is the sway angle. It is noted that the linear natural
The governing equation and boundary conditions are
frequency of the pendulum is dependent on the trolley and
following.
the payload masses.
2 w( y, t ) w( y, t )
(M + m)g P( y, t ) = 0 ,0< y <l , (4)
= . (3) t
2
y y
Ml
2 w(0, t ) w(0, t )
P(0, t ) = f g (t ) ,
Omar et al. (2005) further augmented this model with a (5)
M
friction force affecting the trolley motion. The friction was t
2
y
estimated and cancelled by applying an opposite control
action.

Fig.2. Schematic diagram of a gantry crane with the Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a gantry crane with the
lumped-mass model. distributed-mass model.

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 20


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

2 w(l , t ) w(l , t ) a specified value using the sway angle based on a linear
m + P(l , t ) =0, (6) time invariant system.
t
2
y
Sorensen et al. (2007) developed a combined feedback and
where M and m are the masses of the trolley and the load, input shaping controller enabling precise positioning and
respectively, fg is the input force applied to the trolley, w(y,t) sway reduction in bridge and gantry cranes. The first
is the transverse motion of the cable around its equilibrium feedback module detected and compensated for positioning
position, y is a curvilinear coordinate representing the error. The second module detected and rejected
arc-length along the cable, is the mass per unit length of disturbances. Input shaping was used in a third module to
the cable, P(y,t) is the tension in the cable, mitigate motion induced oscillation.
P( y, t ) mg + g (l y ) . (7) Al-Garni et al. (1995) developed a nonlinear dynamic
model of the overhead crane. The optimal control scheme
d'Andrea-Novel et al. (1994, 2000, 2002) used this model was applied to control the overhead crane to satisfy the
for overhead cranes and provided the asymptotic stability minimize sway and final time.
of a closed-loop system under the assumption that the rope
length was constant. Baicu et al. (1998) extended this Hong et al. (2000) proposed a two-stage control of
model and applied to a gantry robot for flexible link. The container cranes. The first stage control was a modified
electrical subsystem dynamics for a permanent magnet time-optimal control with feedback for the purpose of fast
brushed DC motor coupled with the link dynamics to form trolley traveling. The second stage control was a nonlinear
a hybrid system of partial and ordinary differential control for the quick suppression of the residual sway while
equations. Rahn et al. (1999) also used the simple PDEs lowering the container at the target trolley position. The
model and applied control law to stabilize the gantry crane secondary control combined the partial feedback
system. linearization to account for the unknown nonlinearities as
much as possible and the variable structure control to
Kim et al. (2009) augmented the simple model with an account for the un-modeled dynamics and disturbances.
axially moving system concept. Because the load was
hoisted up and down during the trolley motion, the crane Klosinski (2005) developed a mathematical model included
was modeled as an axially moving string system. The a crane model and a control system. A desired input signal
dynamics of the moving string were derived using consisting of three phase which were able to change depend
Hamiltons principle for systems with changing mass. on the rope length was applied to control system.
Terashima et al. (2007) presented an open-loop control
3. Controlling crane systems strategy for sway-free, point-to-point motion of a load mass
in the three-dimensional motion of a rotary crane. In order
Researchers in the crane control area have developed many to suppress the sway of the load during transfer and the
methods to control the sway motion of the load. Two residual sway after transfer, an optimal control method was
popular categories in crane control are open loop control applied. The minimum time-control problem was
such as input shaping control, optimal control and so on, considered in case of the rope length was varied. The
and close loop control such as state feedback, nonlinear minimum time control was also compared to the
control, fuzzy control, adaptive control and so on. pre-shaping control, which effectively controls vibration.
3.1. Input shaping and optimal control Singhose et al. (2000) presented the dynamic behavior of a
The command shaping is a reference signal modification planar gantry crane with hoisting of the load. The command
technique that is implementable in real time. However, generation method of input shaping was proposed for
command shaping does not have closed-loop mechanisms reduction of the residual vibration. Several versions of
of feedback control. Therefore, it must be used in input shaping were evaluated and compared with
conjunction with a feedback control if it is used for time-optimal rigid-body commands over a wide range of
disturbance rejection. parameters. Input shaping provided significant reduction in
both the residual and transient oscillations, even when the
Hong et al. (2003) introduced a path planning for the hoisting distance was a large percentage of the cable length.
purpose of facilitating understanding of the semi-
automatics modes. In actual semi-automatic operation Borsc et al. (2008) introduced a control strategy based on
mode, the four paths were continuous (AB hoisting up, the changing structure of a control system, ie, on controlled
manual mode, BC hoisting up and travelling of the trolley, jump changes of the control system parameters, ensures
auto mode, CD traveling of the trolley, auto mode, DE more rapid stabilization than a control system with constant
hoisting down, manual mode). A modified input shaping parameters. An algorithm of the time-optimal stabilization
control methodology had been presented to restrict the was designed in accordance with the Pontriagins
swing angle of the pay load within a specified value during maximum principle in such a way that the resulting
the transfer to minimize the residual vibration at the end behaviour was non-periodic. The designed control
point. The conventional method was enhanced by adding algorithm divided the state space into segments in which
one more constraint to limit the transient sway angle within the parameters took their limit values. The control problem

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 21


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

was resolved for third-order and higher linear systems. This the support describing a circle at constant speed. They also
control strategy was applied to gantry crane to demonstrate found steadily rotating solutions, discuss their stability and
the system robustness. bifurcations, and provide a partial characterization of
global orbit structures.
Optimal control and input shaping techniques are limited
by the fact that they are extremely sensitive to variations on Moustafa et al. (1988) derived a nonlinear dynamical
the parameter values about the nominal value and changes model for an overhead crane. The model took into account
in the initial conditions and external disturbances. simultaneous travel and transverse motions of the crane.
Therefore, they require highly accurate values of the The aim was to transport an object along a specified
system parameters to achieve satisfactory system response. transport route in such a way that the swing angles were
Moreover, a couple of the feedback control and input suppressed as quickly as possible. An anti-swing control
shaping or optimal control should be used to improve the system which adopts a feedback control to specify the crane
control performance of sensitive systems. speed at every moment was adopted. The gain matrix was
chosen such that a desired rate of decay of the swing angles
3.2. Linear and nonlinear control was obtained.
Kim et al. (2004) designed a state feedback controller with Messineo et al. (2008) proposed a novel feedback
an integrator to control a real container crane. The controller for cranes employed in heavy-lift offshore
inclinometer was used instead of a vision system, while marine operations. The control objective was to reduce the
providing almost the same performance. A number of hydrodynamic slamming load acting on a payload at
observers to estimate the angular velocity of the load and water-entry of moonpool operations; at the same time the
the trolley velocity were presented. values of the wire tension must be kept within acceptable
Park et al. (2007) developed a nonlinear anti-sway bounds.
controller crane with hoisting. The container crane Hicar et al. proposed robust control by Ackermann to
involved a planar motion in conjunction with the hoisting ensure crane robustness against the burden weight and rope
motion. A novel feedback linearization control law length variation, which provides sharp positioning and
provided a simultaneous trolley position regulation, sway forbidden swinging of the burden in the final position. The
suppression and load hoisting control. The advantage of the real crane will be connected to a distributed control system
proposed control law lay in the full incorporation of the (DSR). An analysis of the working place was performed
nonlinear dynamics by partial feedback linearization. with accent on the measurable units of burden swinging,
Neyfeh et al. (2008) developed a nonlinear model of the and the results of robust controlling were described.
crane system by modeling the crane-hoist-payload Yoshida et al. (1992) designed a saturating control law
assembly as a double pendulum. They derived a linear which satisfied a constrained input condition and gave an
approximation specific to this model and a cubic model of upper bound of a given quadratic performance index, using
the dynamics for nonlinear analysis. Using linear analysis, a unique guaranteed cost control method. This controller
the gain and time delay factors for stabilizing controllers was applied to a crane system to show the practicability of
were determined. Also, they showed that the controller the control law.
underwent a Hopf bifurcation at the linear stability
boundary. Using the method of multiple scales on the cubic Wahyudi et al. (2007) developed a sensorless automatic
model, the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation was gantry crane control strategy using reference modifier. A
determined. The controller underwent a supercritical reference modifier was introduced to produce antiswing
bifurcation that helped explain the robustness of the cart motion.
controller.
3.3. Boundary control
Schaub (2008) proposed a method used two active ship
motion compensation strategies to stabilize the payload Rahn et al. (1999) developed a proportional, derivative, and
during perator-controlled at sea cargo transfer scenarios coupling amplification control law that applied to the
using ship-based cranes. A new ship motion sensing system boundary (gantry motion) to stabilize the flexible
strategy was developed using only inertial measurement cable gantry crane. A root locus analysis based on
unit (IMU) information to reduce the cost and complexity Galerkins method for tuning control gains was another
of the ship motion sensors, while improving the overall interesting feature of their work.
crane performance. A new rate-based control strategy was Baicu et al. (1998) used backstepping boundary control to
developed which directly computed required crane joint drive a flexible-link gantry robot as a gantry crane by using
rates to isolate the payload from the ship motion. a brushed DC motor. The electrical subsystem dynamics
Ghigliazza et al. (2002) considered the dynamics of a tower for a permanent magnet brushed DC motor coupled with
crane: a point mass suspended by a light cable (itself the link dynamics to form a hybrid system of partial and
assumed massless) from a horizontally moving support. ordinary differential equations. A boundary voltage control
They derived general equations of motion, and analyzed law was developed based on Lyapunov theory for
two cases in detail: the linearly accelerating support, and distributed parameter systems. Through an embedded

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 22


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

desired-current control law, the integrator back-stepping rapid and smooth transportation of a nonlinear 3-D crane.
controller generated the desired control force on the Based on the projection vectors of swing angles on 2-D
mechanical subsystem. A velocity observer estimated the plane and the remaining distance to the destination, this
gantry velocity, eliminating one feedback sensor. Modal approach was able to be easily incorporated into an
analysis and Galerkins method generated the close loop intelligent fuzzy controller.
modal dynamics.
Wahyudi et al. (2007) introduced a practical and intelligent
d'Andrea-Novel et al. (1994) established the uniform control method for automatic gantry crane. The design of
exponential stability of the closed-loop system of their proposed method was based on a simple open-loop
original problem by adding an angular-velocity feedback of experiment and without the need either to model crane or
the rope in addition to the displacement feedback, the perform system identification. The effectiveness of the
velocity of the trolley and the angular-displacement of the proposed method as well as the robustness to parameter
rope. Moreover, dAndrea-Novel and Coron (2000) variations were evaluated experimentally in a lab-scale
proposed a torque control to stabilize an overhead crane gantry crane system. Its performance was also compared
with a variable-length flexible cable. with that of classical PID and fuzzy logic controllers.
Kim et al. (2009) applied the Lyapunov function method to Yi et al. (2003) proposed a new fuzzy controller for
derive a boundary control law, where the Lyapunov anti-swing and position control of an overhead traveling
function candidate took the form of the total mechanical crane based on the Single Input Rule Modules (SIRMs)
energy of the system. The boundary control law utilized the dynamically connected fuzzy inference model. The trolley
hoisting speed as well as the sway angle of the rope at the position and velocity, the rope swing angle and angular
gantry side. velocity were selected as the input items, and the trolley
acceleration as the output item. Each input item was given
3.4. Fuzzy control with a SIRM and a dynamic importance degree. The control
Benhidieb et al. (1995) described the comparison of a fuzzy system was proved to be asymptotically stable to the
logic control system with the Linear Quadratic Gaussian destination. The controller was robust to different rope
control (LQG) of an overhead crane, considering the lengths and had generalization ability for different initial
applicability of the control algorithms in real time and positions.
assuming that the model was representative of the real Ahmad (2009) presented the use of anti-sway angle control
system. A number of possible perturbations were examined approaches for a two-dimensional overhead gantry crane
in a study of the robustness of the control algorithms. with disturbances effect in the dynamic system. Delayed
Chen et al. (2009) considered a practical overhead crane Feedback Signal (DFS) and proportional-derivative
control problem of designing a fuzzy control to ensure that (PD)-type fuzzy logic controller were the techniques used
the trolley arrives precisely at its destination; the load in this investigation to actively control the sway angle of
swing angle approaches to zero, and the energy of input and the rope of gantry crane system. A nonlinear overhead
states is minimized. Furthermore, the constraints for the gantry crane system was considered and the dynamic model
overhead crane operation were also considered and of the system was derived using the Euler-Lagrange
satisfied. Those constraints were that when the crane is formulation. Performances of both controllers are
moving, the swing angle has to be small; the swing speed examined in terms of sway suppression, disturbances
has to be slow, and the moving force is limited. The fuzzy cancellation, time response specifications and input force.
descriptor system was chosen to represent the dynamics of Cho et al. proposed a new fuzzy anti-swing control scheme
the overhead crane, and a guaranteed cost fuzzy control for a three-dimensional overhead crane. The proposed
design was proposed for the fuzzy descriptor system. control consisted of a position servo control and a
Moreover, this study also illustrated why the fuzzy fuzzy-logic control. The position servo control was used to
descriptor system instead of traditional TS fuzzy system control crane position and rope length, and the fuzzy-logic
was selected here as the model of the overhead crane. control was used to suppress load swing. The proposed
Chang et al. (2008) presented a novel method that control guaranteed not only prompt suppression of load
accelerated transportation and minimized the payload swing but also accurate control of crane position and rope
swing of the overhead cranes. Based on the inertia theorem, length for simultaneous travel, traverse, and hoisting
this method did not need a complex dynamic model for a motions of the crane. Furthermore, the proposed control
crane system, but rather used trolley position and swing provided practical gain tuning criteria for easy application.
angle data to design the proposed fuzzy projection 3.4. Adaptive control
controller. An enhanced fuzzy algorithm was also utilized
to eliminate the dead-zone problem. The feasibility and Corriga et al. (1998) considered a linear parameter-varying
effectiveness of the proposed scheme were also compared model of the crane, where the time-varying parameter was
with those of the conventional PD and nonlinear coupling the length of the suspending rope. The set of models given
methods. by frozen values of the rope length was considered to show
how all these models have been reduced to a single
Chang et al. (2009) proposed a new accelerated method for time-invariant model using suitable time scaling. The time

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 23


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

scaling relation has been used to derive a control law for the both X-direction and Y-direction transport. According to
time-varying system that implemented an implicit gain the influences on system dynamic performance, both the
scheduling. Using a Lyapunov-like theorem, it was also slope of sliding mode surface and the coordination between
possible to find relative upper bounds for the rate of change the two subsystems was automatically tuned by real time
of the varying parameter that ensured the stability of the fuzzy inference respectively. The effectiveness of the
time varying system. proposed control approach was demonstrated.
Hua et al. (2007) proposed a nonlinear control scheme Lee et al. (2006) proposed a sliding mode anti-swing for
incorporating parameter adaptive mechanism to ensure the overhead cranes. A sliding-mode anti-swing trajectory
overall closed-loop system stability. By applying the control scheme was designed based on the Lyapunov
designed controller, the position error has been driven to stability theorem, where a sliding surface, coupling the
zero while the sway angle was rapidly damped to achieve trolley motion with load swing, was adopted for a direct
swing stabilization. Stability proof of the overall system damping control of load swing. The proposed control
was given in terms of Lyapunov concept. guaranteed asymptotic stability while keeping all internal
signals bounded. In association with a new anti-swing
Chang et al. (2007) provided an effective all-purpose motion planning scheme, the proposed control realized a
adaptive fuzzy controller for the crane. This method did not typical anti-swing trajectory control in practice, allowing
need the complex dynamic model of the crane system, but it high-speed load-hoisting motion and sufficient damping of
used trolley position and swing angle information instead to load swing. The proposed control was simple for a
design the fuzzy controller. An adaptive algorithm was real-time implementation with high-frequency sampling.
provided to tune the free parameters in the crane control
system. External disturbance, such as the wind and the hit, Bartolini et al. (2002) proposed a simple control scheme,
which always deteriorates the control performance, was based on second-order sliding modes. It guaranteed a fast
also discussed in the paper to verify the robustness of the and precise load transfer and the swing suppression during
proposed adaptive fuzzy algorithm. the load movement, despite of model uncertainties and
unmodeled dynamic actuators.
Cheng et al. (1996) developed a robust controller which
combined a feedback linearization approach and a time
delay control scheme. The time delay control was applied 4. Crane control in the future
to complete the feedback linearization for a nonlinear
system under the influence of uncertainty. In the future, the size of containers ship becomes bigger and
they may not be accessible to the port because of shallow
Johansen et al. (2003) developed a new strategy for active water. Containers will be transferred from/to larger ships
control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations by to/from smaller ships offshore. A typical arrangement is to
introducing a new concept referred to as wave place two ships side by side. A small ship has cranes. Along
synchronization. Wave synchronization reduced the one side of the crane ship is the large container ship. The
hydrodynamic forces by minimizing variations in the container crane in the smaller ship will pick up containers
relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a and transfer between the two ships. The smaller ship will
wave-amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization was move containers to the port and the crane in the small ship
combined with conventional active heave compensation to can unload the containers to the ground, by removing the
obtain accurate control. possibility of constructing an expensive port facility.
Messineo et al. (2009) designed an adaptive controller for The sea state is a very important factor in this operation.
cranes employed in heavy-lift offshore marine operations. The sea-excited motion of the crane ship can excite large
The control objective was to reduce the hydrodynamic pendulations of the containers while they are suspended by
slamming load acting on a payload at water entry of the cables of the cranes. The large motions can be due to
moonpool operations, while letting the payload tracked a either large excitation amplitudes or small excitation
given velocity profile. The adopted solution relied upon the amplitudes near resonant conditions. Therefore, the
use of an adaptive observer and two adaptive external container cranes have to compensate for the motions
models of the disturbance, employed to recover the induced on the suspended load by the sea wave, wind and
unavailable information about the error to be regulated. As other external disturbances as the majority of crane systems
a result, the closed-loop system was rendered adaptive with used offshore.
respect to both the plant parameters and the frequencies of
the harmonic disturbances affecting the system. A
5. Conclusions
certainty-equivalence controller which made use of the
estimated parameters and the reconstructed tracking error In the literature, nonlinear control models including the
was proposed, and the performance of the overall scheme feedback linearization occupied the majority of the works
was verified experimentally on a scale-model. done on crane control. The simplified model was used to
3.5. Sliding mode control develop many control strategies, from opened loop control
to feedback control. However, this model seems not
Liu et al. (2005) proposed a sliding mode fuzzy control for sufficient when cranes become bigger: the rope length is

2009 ICA, ISBN 978-979-8861-05-5 24


International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation
ICA2009
October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

very large; the payload is too heavy, and so on. Then, the Chang, C. Y. (2007). Adaptive fuzzy controller of the
distributed-mass model can be used to design a control overhead cranes with nonlinear disturbance. IEEE
algorithm because it describes exactly the crane system. Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 3(2), 164-172.
The main difficulty is how to design control laws in a
systematic way. Chang, C. Y., & Chiang, K. H. (2008). Fuzzy projection
control law and its application to the overhead crane.
Many significant research efforts have been attemped to the Mechatronics, 18(10), 607-615.
development of control strategies to improve the efficiency
and safety of the cranes. The input shaping technique has Chang, C. Y., & Chiang, K. H. (2009). Intelligent fuzzy
shown an ability to control crane systems but it is not robust accelerated method for the nonlinear 3-D crane control.
enough to be used for many cranes. They are not robust Expert Systems with Applications, 36(3), 5750-5752.
enough to reject external disturbance and to stabilize the Chen, Y. J., Wang, W. J., & Chang, C. L. (2009). Guaranteed
payload under uncertain crane parameters. The cost control for an overhead crane with practical
combination between linear control and input shaping constraints: fuzzy descriptor system approach.
techniques are able to be a control strategy candidate. Engineering Application of Artificial Intelligence,
However, they are also not robust enough to allow for 22(4-5), 639-645.
variation in the hoisting cable length, payload mass and
high trolley speed. Fuzzy logic and adaptive control are Cheng, C. C., & Chen, C. Y. (1996). Controller design for an
plausible candidates for crane control. A combination of all overhead crane system with uncertainty. Control
these methods is also a good strategy when it allows Engineering Practice, 4(5), 645-653.
variations of the rope length, payload and trolley masses,
etc. However, it is remarked that the design of a hybrid Cho, S.K., & Lee, H. H. (2002). A fuzzy-logic antiswing
controller to produce robust and efficiency control strategy controller for three-dimensional overhead cranes. ISA
is not a trivial issue. Transactions, 41(2), 235-243.
Corriga, G., Giua, A., & Usai, G. (1998). An implicit gain
Acknowledgment scheduling controller for cranes. IEEE Transactions on
Control Systems Technology, 6(1), 15-20.
This work was supported by the Mobile Harbor Project of
the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology dAndra-Novel, B., Boustany, F., Conrad, F., & Rao, B. P.
funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and (1994). Feedback stabilization of a hybrid PDE-ODE
Technology, Korea. system: application to an overhead crane. Mathematics
of Control, Signals, and Systems, 7(1), 1-22.

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