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ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

Keum-Shik Hong* and Quang Hieu Ngo**

*

Dept. of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering and School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University

**

School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University

30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 609-735, Korea.

E-mails: {kshong, }@pusan.ac.kr

port, and then load all the containers scheduled for leaving

Abstract this port. Containers will be carried between the QCs and

the yard by AGVs or trucks. An increasing number of

The container crane is a key machine in ports. Over the past trucks or AGVs will catch of the unloading/loading

15 years, modeling and control of quay cranes for container demand. Because of the space limitation, the QCs

automating ports has been the main research issue. In this cannot be assigned more to serve the vessel. Thus, the

paper, crane models and control methodologies appeared in unloading/loading efficiency depends on how fast the

the literature are reviewed. A generalized formulation of container is unloaded/loaded by QCs. However, the fast

the most widely used crane model is introduced. Various trolley movement of the QC sways the container during its

control techniques are briefly discussed. In conclusion, an movement, the main issue in a crane system is the quick

amenable control strategy as well as a plausible model is suppression of vibrations caused by the trolley motion. In

recommended. addition, a residual sway occurs at the end of the trolley

movement due to crane dynamics and disturbances like

Keywords: crane, dynamics, control, pendulum motion, winds. Thus, researchers working in the area of crane

port automation. control have always targeted sway suppression. More

generally, payload oscillations and the need to suppress

1. Introduction them have been identified as a bottleneck in the operations

of the transportation and construction industries even

Since containers were introduced to the world-trade where relatively simple gantry crane are concerned. The

industry, an increasing number of goods are being put into control methods developed for the conventional cranes can

these containers and loaded onto vessels to be carried to be applied to container cranes as well.

their respective destinations over the world. When a vessel

arrives at a port, containers destined for this port must be The paper is organized as follows: The modeling of crane

unloaded and new containers which are bound for other systems is addressed in Section 2. The control strategies for

ports must be loaded before the vessel can resume its trip. cranes are described in Section 3. In Section 4, the

Demands on container ports to perform the loading and development of the container crane in the future is

unloading process with maximum efficiency will become introduced. Conclusions are given in Section 5.

greater as transport companies continue to increase both the

size of their fleets and also the capacity of the vessels. The 2. Modeling crane systems

problem with this increase is that port authorities are

predicting that they will run out of space to expand their In modeling crane dynamics, two approaches are used. The

operational areas and the option of developing on first approach is the lumped-mass approach, in which the

surrounding land is often hampered from local residents.

Therefore, the only remaining solution will be the reduction

of the amount of time that the vessel needs to remain in

dock. The way to do this is to ensure that the container

unload/load process is done as rapidly as possible, and this

can be achieved by ensuring that the equipments in the port

such as quay cranes (QCs), automated guide vehicles

(AGVs), automated lift vehicles (ALVs) and so on, must be

operated at their maximum efficiencies (Thurston et al.,

2002).

The unloading/loading container process from/to the vessel

to/from yard is performed by QCs, trucks or AGVs. One to

six QCs are assigned to pick up containers depending on

the vessel size. Each crane will be responsible for several

rows of container storage slots along the ship. For each row, Fig. 1. Loading/unloading process (Hamburg Port

the QC must first unload all the containers destined for this Consulting GmbH)

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

hoisting rope is modeled as a mass-less rigid rod and the Liu et al. (2005) derived the equations of the motion of a

payload is modeled as a lumped point mass. The sway two-dimensional overhead crane. System linearization

motion is modeled as a pendulum motion in two or three transformed the two-dimensional system to two

dimensional space. Therefore, an ordinary differential independent systems: X-direction transport system and

equation (ODE) model is used in deriving the control laws. Y-direction transport system. Both the two systems were

Another approach is the distributed parameter system the same dynamic models; each of them was described by

approach, in which the hoisting rope is considered as a the simple pendulum model.

string (distributed-mass). A typical assumption in the

second approach is that the rope is perfectly flexible and Hong et al. (2000) introduced a simple model with an

inextensible. In this case, the dynamics of the crane system equation describing the dynamics of the cable hoisting. The

is expressed as a coupled ODE and partial differential container was lifted using the hoist motor, while it was

equation (PDE): the trolley motion is given in the ODE lowered by the total weight of the spreader and the

form and the rope dynamics is given in the PDE form. By container. By winding the trolley rope around trolley drum,

using the PDE form, the payload as well as the rope motion the trolley was pulled to a desire spot. During the trolley

is described exactly, especially when the rope length is very movement, the container was swayed and it was suppressed

large and the payload is very heavy. In addition, the by controlling the trolley motion.

vibration of the rope that affects the payload motion during Takagi et al. (2003) dealt with modeling and control of a

the trolley movement is also more accurately suppressed. crane mounted on a tower-like flexible structure. A fast

2.1. Lumped-mass models transfer of the load can sway of the load and vibration of the

flexible structure. Controlling both the sway and the

The most popular model of gantry cranes augments the vibration by the inherent capability of the tower crane was

planar version of the pendulum model with the motion of objectives of the paper. Their paper described the design of

gantry in the horizontal direction as shown in Fig.2. a centralized control system considering coupling of

between the up-and-down direction and the rotational

The (simplest) linear equations of motion of the gantry direction. The comparison of experiments and analysis

crane are as follows. showed that the decentralized control system had almost

M&x& mg = F , (1) the same performance and stability as the centralized one.

2.2. Distributed-mass models

&x& + l&& + g = 0 , (2)

The model available in this category is the planar model for

where M and m are the masses of the trolley and the load, a gantry crane linearized around the cables equilibrium

respectively, l is the rope length, x is the trolley position and position as shown in Fig.3.

is the sway angle. It is noted that the linear natural

The governing equation and boundary conditions are

frequency of the pendulum is dependent on the trolley and

following.

the payload masses.

2 w( y, t ) w( y, t )

(M + m)g P( y, t ) = 0 ,0< y <l , (4)

= . (3) t

2

y y

Ml

2 w(0, t ) w(0, t )

P(0, t ) = f g (t ) ,

Omar et al. (2005) further augmented this model with a (5)

M

friction force affecting the trolley motion. The friction was t

2

y

estimated and cancelled by applying an opposite control

action.

Fig.2. Schematic diagram of a gantry crane with the Fig. 3. Schematic diagram of a gantry crane with the

lumped-mass model. distributed-mass model.

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

2 w(l , t ) w(l , t ) a specified value using the sway angle based on a linear

m + P(l , t ) =0, (6) time invariant system.

t

2

y

Sorensen et al. (2007) developed a combined feedback and

where M and m are the masses of the trolley and the load, input shaping controller enabling precise positioning and

respectively, fg is the input force applied to the trolley, w(y,t) sway reduction in bridge and gantry cranes. The first

is the transverse motion of the cable around its equilibrium feedback module detected and compensated for positioning

position, y is a curvilinear coordinate representing the error. The second module detected and rejected

arc-length along the cable, is the mass per unit length of disturbances. Input shaping was used in a third module to

the cable, P(y,t) is the tension in the cable, mitigate motion induced oscillation.

P( y, t ) mg + g (l y ) . (7) Al-Garni et al. (1995) developed a nonlinear dynamic

model of the overhead crane. The optimal control scheme

d'Andrea-Novel et al. (1994, 2000, 2002) used this model was applied to control the overhead crane to satisfy the

for overhead cranes and provided the asymptotic stability minimize sway and final time.

of a closed-loop system under the assumption that the rope

length was constant. Baicu et al. (1998) extended this Hong et al. (2000) proposed a two-stage control of

model and applied to a gantry robot for flexible link. The container cranes. The first stage control was a modified

electrical subsystem dynamics for a permanent magnet time-optimal control with feedback for the purpose of fast

brushed DC motor coupled with the link dynamics to form trolley traveling. The second stage control was a nonlinear

a hybrid system of partial and ordinary differential control for the quick suppression of the residual sway while

equations. Rahn et al. (1999) also used the simple PDEs lowering the container at the target trolley position. The

model and applied control law to stabilize the gantry crane secondary control combined the partial feedback

system. linearization to account for the unknown nonlinearities as

much as possible and the variable structure control to

Kim et al. (2009) augmented the simple model with an account for the un-modeled dynamics and disturbances.

axially moving system concept. Because the load was

hoisted up and down during the trolley motion, the crane Klosinski (2005) developed a mathematical model included

was modeled as an axially moving string system. The a crane model and a control system. A desired input signal

dynamics of the moving string were derived using consisting of three phase which were able to change depend

Hamiltons principle for systems with changing mass. on the rope length was applied to control system.

Terashima et al. (2007) presented an open-loop control

3. Controlling crane systems strategy for sway-free, point-to-point motion of a load mass

in the three-dimensional motion of a rotary crane. In order

Researchers in the crane control area have developed many to suppress the sway of the load during transfer and the

methods to control the sway motion of the load. Two residual sway after transfer, an optimal control method was

popular categories in crane control are open loop control applied. The minimum time-control problem was

such as input shaping control, optimal control and so on, considered in case of the rope length was varied. The

and close loop control such as state feedback, nonlinear minimum time control was also compared to the

control, fuzzy control, adaptive control and so on. pre-shaping control, which effectively controls vibration.

3.1. Input shaping and optimal control Singhose et al. (2000) presented the dynamic behavior of a

The command shaping is a reference signal modification planar gantry crane with hoisting of the load. The command

technique that is implementable in real time. However, generation method of input shaping was proposed for

command shaping does not have closed-loop mechanisms reduction of the residual vibration. Several versions of

of feedback control. Therefore, it must be used in input shaping were evaluated and compared with

conjunction with a feedback control if it is used for time-optimal rigid-body commands over a wide range of

disturbance rejection. parameters. Input shaping provided significant reduction in

both the residual and transient oscillations, even when the

Hong et al. (2003) introduced a path planning for the hoisting distance was a large percentage of the cable length.

purpose of facilitating understanding of the semi-

automatics modes. In actual semi-automatic operation Borsc et al. (2008) introduced a control strategy based on

mode, the four paths were continuous (AB hoisting up, the changing structure of a control system, ie, on controlled

manual mode, BC hoisting up and travelling of the trolley, jump changes of the control system parameters, ensures

auto mode, CD traveling of the trolley, auto mode, DE more rapid stabilization than a control system with constant

hoisting down, manual mode). A modified input shaping parameters. An algorithm of the time-optimal stabilization

control methodology had been presented to restrict the was designed in accordance with the Pontriagins

swing angle of the pay load within a specified value during maximum principle in such a way that the resulting

the transfer to minimize the residual vibration at the end behaviour was non-periodic. The designed control

point. The conventional method was enhanced by adding algorithm divided the state space into segments in which

one more constraint to limit the transient sway angle within the parameters took their limit values. The control problem

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

was resolved for third-order and higher linear systems. This the support describing a circle at constant speed. They also

control strategy was applied to gantry crane to demonstrate found steadily rotating solutions, discuss their stability and

the system robustness. bifurcations, and provide a partial characterization of

global orbit structures.

Optimal control and input shaping techniques are limited

by the fact that they are extremely sensitive to variations on Moustafa et al. (1988) derived a nonlinear dynamical

the parameter values about the nominal value and changes model for an overhead crane. The model took into account

in the initial conditions and external disturbances. simultaneous travel and transverse motions of the crane.

Therefore, they require highly accurate values of the The aim was to transport an object along a specified

system parameters to achieve satisfactory system response. transport route in such a way that the swing angles were

Moreover, a couple of the feedback control and input suppressed as quickly as possible. An anti-swing control

shaping or optimal control should be used to improve the system which adopts a feedback control to specify the crane

control performance of sensitive systems. speed at every moment was adopted. The gain matrix was

chosen such that a desired rate of decay of the swing angles

3.2. Linear and nonlinear control was obtained.

Kim et al. (2004) designed a state feedback controller with Messineo et al. (2008) proposed a novel feedback

an integrator to control a real container crane. The controller for cranes employed in heavy-lift offshore

inclinometer was used instead of a vision system, while marine operations. The control objective was to reduce the

providing almost the same performance. A number of hydrodynamic slamming load acting on a payload at

observers to estimate the angular velocity of the load and water-entry of moonpool operations; at the same time the

the trolley velocity were presented. values of the wire tension must be kept within acceptable

Park et al. (2007) developed a nonlinear anti-sway bounds.

controller crane with hoisting. The container crane Hicar et al. proposed robust control by Ackermann to

involved a planar motion in conjunction with the hoisting ensure crane robustness against the burden weight and rope

motion. A novel feedback linearization control law length variation, which provides sharp positioning and

provided a simultaneous trolley position regulation, sway forbidden swinging of the burden in the final position. The

suppression and load hoisting control. The advantage of the real crane will be connected to a distributed control system

proposed control law lay in the full incorporation of the (DSR). An analysis of the working place was performed

nonlinear dynamics by partial feedback linearization. with accent on the measurable units of burden swinging,

Neyfeh et al. (2008) developed a nonlinear model of the and the results of robust controlling were described.

crane system by modeling the crane-hoist-payload Yoshida et al. (1992) designed a saturating control law

assembly as a double pendulum. They derived a linear which satisfied a constrained input condition and gave an

approximation specific to this model and a cubic model of upper bound of a given quadratic performance index, using

the dynamics for nonlinear analysis. Using linear analysis, a unique guaranteed cost control method. This controller

the gain and time delay factors for stabilizing controllers was applied to a crane system to show the practicability of

were determined. Also, they showed that the controller the control law.

underwent a Hopf bifurcation at the linear stability

boundary. Using the method of multiple scales on the cubic Wahyudi et al. (2007) developed a sensorless automatic

model, the normal form of the Hopf bifurcation was gantry crane control strategy using reference modifier. A

determined. The controller underwent a supercritical reference modifier was introduced to produce antiswing

bifurcation that helped explain the robustness of the cart motion.

controller.

3.3. Boundary control

Schaub (2008) proposed a method used two active ship

motion compensation strategies to stabilize the payload Rahn et al. (1999) developed a proportional, derivative, and

during perator-controlled at sea cargo transfer scenarios coupling amplification control law that applied to the

using ship-based cranes. A new ship motion sensing system boundary (gantry motion) to stabilize the flexible

strategy was developed using only inertial measurement cable gantry crane. A root locus analysis based on

unit (IMU) information to reduce the cost and complexity Galerkins method for tuning control gains was another

of the ship motion sensors, while improving the overall interesting feature of their work.

crane performance. A new rate-based control strategy was Baicu et al. (1998) used backstepping boundary control to

developed which directly computed required crane joint drive a flexible-link gantry robot as a gantry crane by using

rates to isolate the payload from the ship motion. a brushed DC motor. The electrical subsystem dynamics

Ghigliazza et al. (2002) considered the dynamics of a tower for a permanent magnet brushed DC motor coupled with

crane: a point mass suspended by a light cable (itself the link dynamics to form a hybrid system of partial and

assumed massless) from a horizontally moving support. ordinary differential equations. A boundary voltage control

They derived general equations of motion, and analyzed law was developed based on Lyapunov theory for

two cases in detail: the linearly accelerating support, and distributed parameter systems. Through an embedded

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

desired-current control law, the integrator back-stepping rapid and smooth transportation of a nonlinear 3-D crane.

controller generated the desired control force on the Based on the projection vectors of swing angles on 2-D

mechanical subsystem. A velocity observer estimated the plane and the remaining distance to the destination, this

gantry velocity, eliminating one feedback sensor. Modal approach was able to be easily incorporated into an

analysis and Galerkins method generated the close loop intelligent fuzzy controller.

modal dynamics.

Wahyudi et al. (2007) introduced a practical and intelligent

d'Andrea-Novel et al. (1994) established the uniform control method for automatic gantry crane. The design of

exponential stability of the closed-loop system of their proposed method was based on a simple open-loop

original problem by adding an angular-velocity feedback of experiment and without the need either to model crane or

the rope in addition to the displacement feedback, the perform system identification. The effectiveness of the

velocity of the trolley and the angular-displacement of the proposed method as well as the robustness to parameter

rope. Moreover, dAndrea-Novel and Coron (2000) variations were evaluated experimentally in a lab-scale

proposed a torque control to stabilize an overhead crane gantry crane system. Its performance was also compared

with a variable-length flexible cable. with that of classical PID and fuzzy logic controllers.

Kim et al. (2009) applied the Lyapunov function method to Yi et al. (2003) proposed a new fuzzy controller for

derive a boundary control law, where the Lyapunov anti-swing and position control of an overhead traveling

function candidate took the form of the total mechanical crane based on the Single Input Rule Modules (SIRMs)

energy of the system. The boundary control law utilized the dynamically connected fuzzy inference model. The trolley

hoisting speed as well as the sway angle of the rope at the position and velocity, the rope swing angle and angular

gantry side. velocity were selected as the input items, and the trolley

acceleration as the output item. Each input item was given

3.4. Fuzzy control with a SIRM and a dynamic importance degree. The control

Benhidieb et al. (1995) described the comparison of a fuzzy system was proved to be asymptotically stable to the

logic control system with the Linear Quadratic Gaussian destination. The controller was robust to different rope

control (LQG) of an overhead crane, considering the lengths and had generalization ability for different initial

applicability of the control algorithms in real time and positions.

assuming that the model was representative of the real Ahmad (2009) presented the use of anti-sway angle control

system. A number of possible perturbations were examined approaches for a two-dimensional overhead gantry crane

in a study of the robustness of the control algorithms. with disturbances effect in the dynamic system. Delayed

Chen et al. (2009) considered a practical overhead crane Feedback Signal (DFS) and proportional-derivative

control problem of designing a fuzzy control to ensure that (PD)-type fuzzy logic controller were the techniques used

the trolley arrives precisely at its destination; the load in this investigation to actively control the sway angle of

swing angle approaches to zero, and the energy of input and the rope of gantry crane system. A nonlinear overhead

states is minimized. Furthermore, the constraints for the gantry crane system was considered and the dynamic model

overhead crane operation were also considered and of the system was derived using the Euler-Lagrange

satisfied. Those constraints were that when the crane is formulation. Performances of both controllers are

moving, the swing angle has to be small; the swing speed examined in terms of sway suppression, disturbances

has to be slow, and the moving force is limited. The fuzzy cancellation, time response specifications and input force.

descriptor system was chosen to represent the dynamics of Cho et al. proposed a new fuzzy anti-swing control scheme

the overhead crane, and a guaranteed cost fuzzy control for a three-dimensional overhead crane. The proposed

design was proposed for the fuzzy descriptor system. control consisted of a position servo control and a

Moreover, this study also illustrated why the fuzzy fuzzy-logic control. The position servo control was used to

descriptor system instead of traditional TS fuzzy system control crane position and rope length, and the fuzzy-logic

was selected here as the model of the overhead crane. control was used to suppress load swing. The proposed

Chang et al. (2008) presented a novel method that control guaranteed not only prompt suppression of load

accelerated transportation and minimized the payload swing but also accurate control of crane position and rope

swing of the overhead cranes. Based on the inertia theorem, length for simultaneous travel, traverse, and hoisting

this method did not need a complex dynamic model for a motions of the crane. Furthermore, the proposed control

crane system, but rather used trolley position and swing provided practical gain tuning criteria for easy application.

angle data to design the proposed fuzzy projection 3.4. Adaptive control

controller. An enhanced fuzzy algorithm was also utilized

to eliminate the dead-zone problem. The feasibility and Corriga et al. (1998) considered a linear parameter-varying

effectiveness of the proposed scheme were also compared model of the crane, where the time-varying parameter was

with those of the conventional PD and nonlinear coupling the length of the suspending rope. The set of models given

methods. by frozen values of the rope length was considered to show

how all these models have been reduced to a single

Chang et al. (2009) proposed a new accelerated method for time-invariant model using suitable time scaling. The time

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

scaling relation has been used to derive a control law for the both X-direction and Y-direction transport. According to

time-varying system that implemented an implicit gain the influences on system dynamic performance, both the

scheduling. Using a Lyapunov-like theorem, it was also slope of sliding mode surface and the coordination between

possible to find relative upper bounds for the rate of change the two subsystems was automatically tuned by real time

of the varying parameter that ensured the stability of the fuzzy inference respectively. The effectiveness of the

time varying system. proposed control approach was demonstrated.

Hua et al. (2007) proposed a nonlinear control scheme Lee et al. (2006) proposed a sliding mode anti-swing for

incorporating parameter adaptive mechanism to ensure the overhead cranes. A sliding-mode anti-swing trajectory

overall closed-loop system stability. By applying the control scheme was designed based on the Lyapunov

designed controller, the position error has been driven to stability theorem, where a sliding surface, coupling the

zero while the sway angle was rapidly damped to achieve trolley motion with load swing, was adopted for a direct

swing stabilization. Stability proof of the overall system damping control of load swing. The proposed control

was given in terms of Lyapunov concept. guaranteed asymptotic stability while keeping all internal

signals bounded. In association with a new anti-swing

Chang et al. (2007) provided an effective all-purpose motion planning scheme, the proposed control realized a

adaptive fuzzy controller for the crane. This method did not typical anti-swing trajectory control in practice, allowing

need the complex dynamic model of the crane system, but it high-speed load-hoisting motion and sufficient damping of

used trolley position and swing angle information instead to load swing. The proposed control was simple for a

design the fuzzy controller. An adaptive algorithm was real-time implementation with high-frequency sampling.

provided to tune the free parameters in the crane control

system. External disturbance, such as the wind and the hit, Bartolini et al. (2002) proposed a simple control scheme,

which always deteriorates the control performance, was based on second-order sliding modes. It guaranteed a fast

also discussed in the paper to verify the robustness of the and precise load transfer and the swing suppression during

proposed adaptive fuzzy algorithm. the load movement, despite of model uncertainties and

unmodeled dynamic actuators.

Cheng et al. (1996) developed a robust controller which

combined a feedback linearization approach and a time

delay control scheme. The time delay control was applied 4. Crane control in the future

to complete the feedback linearization for a nonlinear

system under the influence of uncertainty. In the future, the size of containers ship becomes bigger and

they may not be accessible to the port because of shallow

Johansen et al. (2003) developed a new strategy for active water. Containers will be transferred from/to larger ships

control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations by to/from smaller ships offshore. A typical arrangement is to

introducing a new concept referred to as wave place two ships side by side. A small ship has cranes. Along

synchronization. Wave synchronization reduced the one side of the crane ship is the large container ship. The

hydrodynamic forces by minimizing variations in the container crane in the smaller ship will pick up containers

relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a and transfer between the two ships. The smaller ship will

wave-amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization was move containers to the port and the crane in the small ship

combined with conventional active heave compensation to can unload the containers to the ground, by removing the

obtain accurate control. possibility of constructing an expensive port facility.

Messineo et al. (2009) designed an adaptive controller for The sea state is a very important factor in this operation.

cranes employed in heavy-lift offshore marine operations. The sea-excited motion of the crane ship can excite large

The control objective was to reduce the hydrodynamic pendulations of the containers while they are suspended by

slamming load acting on a payload at water entry of the cables of the cranes. The large motions can be due to

moonpool operations, while letting the payload tracked a either large excitation amplitudes or small excitation

given velocity profile. The adopted solution relied upon the amplitudes near resonant conditions. Therefore, the

use of an adaptive observer and two adaptive external container cranes have to compensate for the motions

models of the disturbance, employed to recover the induced on the suspended load by the sea wave, wind and

unavailable information about the error to be regulated. As other external disturbances as the majority of crane systems

a result, the closed-loop system was rendered adaptive with used offshore.

respect to both the plant parameters and the frequencies of

the harmonic disturbances affecting the system. A

5. Conclusions

certainty-equivalence controller which made use of the

estimated parameters and the reconstructed tracking error In the literature, nonlinear control models including the

was proposed, and the performance of the overall scheme feedback linearization occupied the majority of the works

was verified experimentally on a scale-model. done on crane control. The simplified model was used to

3.5. Sliding mode control develop many control strategies, from opened loop control

to feedback control. However, this model seems not

Liu et al. (2005) proposed a sliding mode fuzzy control for sufficient when cranes become bigger: the rope length is

International Conference on Instrumentation, Control & Automation

ICA2009

October 20-22, 2009, Bandung, Indonesia

very large; the payload is too heavy, and so on. Then, the Chang, C. Y. (2007). Adaptive fuzzy controller of the

distributed-mass model can be used to design a control overhead cranes with nonlinear disturbance. IEEE

algorithm because it describes exactly the crane system. Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 3(2), 164-172.

The main difficulty is how to design control laws in a

systematic way. Chang, C. Y., & Chiang, K. H. (2008). Fuzzy projection

control law and its application to the overhead crane.

Many significant research efforts have been attemped to the Mechatronics, 18(10), 607-615.

development of control strategies to improve the efficiency

and safety of the cranes. The input shaping technique has Chang, C. Y., & Chiang, K. H. (2009). Intelligent fuzzy

shown an ability to control crane systems but it is not robust accelerated method for the nonlinear 3-D crane control.

enough to be used for many cranes. They are not robust Expert Systems with Applications, 36(3), 5750-5752.

enough to reject external disturbance and to stabilize the Chen, Y. J., Wang, W. J., & Chang, C. L. (2009). Guaranteed

payload under uncertain crane parameters. The cost control for an overhead crane with practical

combination between linear control and input shaping constraints: fuzzy descriptor system approach.

techniques are able to be a control strategy candidate. Engineering Application of Artificial Intelligence,

However, they are also not robust enough to allow for 22(4-5), 639-645.

variation in the hoisting cable length, payload mass and

high trolley speed. Fuzzy logic and adaptive control are Cheng, C. C., & Chen, C. Y. (1996). Controller design for an

plausible candidates for crane control. A combination of all overhead crane system with uncertainty. Control

these methods is also a good strategy when it allows Engineering Practice, 4(5), 645-653.

variations of the rope length, payload and trolley masses,

etc. However, it is remarked that the design of a hybrid Cho, S.K., & Lee, H. H. (2002). A fuzzy-logic antiswing

controller to produce robust and efficiency control strategy controller for three-dimensional overhead cranes. ISA

is not a trivial issue. Transactions, 41(2), 235-243.

Corriga, G., Giua, A., & Usai, G. (1998). An implicit gain

Acknowledgment scheduling controller for cranes. IEEE Transactions on

Control Systems Technology, 6(1), 15-20.

This work was supported by the Mobile Harbor Project of

the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology dAndra-Novel, B., Boustany, F., Conrad, F., & Rao, B. P.

funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and (1994). Feedback stabilization of a hybrid PDE-ODE

Technology, Korea. system: application to an overhead crane. Mathematics

of Control, Signals, and Systems, 7(1), 1-22.

stabilization of an overhead crane with flexible cable via

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