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INTERNATIONAL CODES

Dayang Afiqah Binti Awg Othman1, Syahrul Fithry Bin Senin2

Abstract

The manual approach to perform an automated program for concrete mix design based on international codes which

includes British Standard (BS)and American Concrete Institute(ACI) . This approach requires interpolations on

determining the intermediate values of the variables for the concrete mix design, which is prone to human errors when

tracing out, estimating and recording values. In this work mathematical equations for concrete mix design in

accordance to the guidelines of British Standard(BS) and American Concrete Institute(ACI) were formulated to replace

the tabulated data, figures and graphs in the DOE concrete mix design charts. .This application was developed as a tool

for automated concrete mix design according to BS and ACI. The application was developed by using the tool of

WEBPLOTDIGITIZER , MICROSOFT EXCEL and MATLAB as programming language. When executed and used

for concrete mix design, the application is able to reduce the computation time ,human error and energy which were

inherent in the manual process. The developed application was intended to ensure a user friendly environment and do

a proper adjustments for the final mix proportions. This application is useful to produce an optimum of a normal

concrete mix design that served the required compressive strength.

(ACI 211), DOE (British) Mix Design Method and

1. Introduction Australian Standard to mention but a few. Mix design

is needed to minimize the cost and produce the most

In construction sector, concrete is the primary material

practical of concrete mix design, to achieve the

in the construction industry along with steel. Concrete

desired workability in the plastic stage, to achieve the

is the second largest material used after food and water

desired minimum strength in the hardened stage and to

(Adegbola and Dada, 2012). It is made by mixing

produce a concrete with the desired durability in the

cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates and

given environment conditions. If the property of

sometimes admixtures in their right proportions to

workability is not achieved, it cannot be properly

obtain the specified property. Concrete mix design is

placed and compacted.

the process of selecting the appropriate ingredients

such as water, cementitious material and aggregate On the other hand, improper concrete mix design may

along with the correct proportions using suitable lead to design proportion issues, material issues and

method according to each standard that has been external issues. This is because when the concrete mix

selected by each country. However to achieve an is being made, the concrete mix will be assessed and

optimum design is something that need proper tested based on its slump. However , these inspection

method, wide knowledge and with the help of good may face failure in trial mix, where it need to be

calculator or software that can produce an optimum designed and mix again which lead to high cost of

design. Optimum means economical such that cost of labour and issues of material. Thus, most of the

all ingredient of concrete mix design is to be construction process the engineers will skip this step

minimized but has a good workability and desired or continue with the mix design even though the

strength. There are several methods that has been desired workability is not achieved. This is the reason

produced and improvised to meet the desired aspects why software is needed to aid the user so that the user

such as Concrete mix proportioning guidelines can use less time, less cost and labour.(Gendaij &

(Bureau of Indian Standards -I.S.10262-2009), Juris,1998)

There are few cases of structure failure in Malaysia developing mathematical nonlinear regression

due to poor concrete mix design. Though most failure equations relating concrete properties parameters fck,

in the building caused by various factors, wrong w/c/ slump, etc to facilitate the prediction process of

concrete mix design also may contribute to the failure. concrete properties using MATLAB. Specific

When the concrete mix design does not achieve it commands and method on designing the programming

compressive strength, this directly cause the concrete code for concrete mix design will be applied based

cannot accommodates the strength which it supposed upon the guidelines and procedure for each design

to resist. codes. In this research, the most crucial stage is during

the determination of free water cement ratio as it

There are few failure cases in the world that resulting affects the whole concrete mix design calculations.

from improper concrete mix design such as

Bangladesh Building Collapse in Dhaka and 2000 The developed nonlinear regression equations will be

Commonwealth Avenue in Boston. (Norbert,2009) fitted by power law function and compared with the

stated that improper concrete mix design and not manual calculation. Using the

prequalified concrete mix design were one of the WEBPLOTDIGITIZER software, the points that lies

significant findings done by a commission that had on the curves can be digitized.

been appointed by the mayor of Boston which the

components used were not allowed by the designers This steps is focused finding the relationship which

specification such as calcium chloride as accelerator includes relationship between compressive strength

and the result from the chemical analysis were low of and free water cement ratio ,estimated wet density of

cement content .Poor quality concrete is one major fully compacted concrete and recommended

reason to low strength of concrete .(Okoloekwe & proportions of fine aggregates according to percentage

Okafor,2007). However an inspection conducted passing a 600m sieve The data points will be

showed that the concrete amount was sufficient but the adjusted so that it will follow the curve of the graphs

amount of water ratio is too high leading to high and the gap of each points are adjusted so the accuracy

workability property. From the authors point of view, will be improved. This step will only be applicable for

Bangladesh Building Collapse in Dhaka collapsed graph that possessed nonlinear relationship. Even

may be attributed to low amount of cement though estimated wet density of fully compacted

(Gavin,2013). These two failure cases are enough to concrete graphs and recommended proportions of fine

prove that how important is concrete mix design to aggregates according to percentage passing a 600m

achieve structural safety and integrity. This is crucial sieve graphs are nonlinear graphs, points are digitized

as it will determine the life span of the elements, fire to be used for further coding in the MATLAB.T he

resistance and serviceability of the concrete upon the decimal points of the output are set to 4 decimal places

purpose of the building to be built which directly to on obtaining a better precision interpolated values by

save budget and time. Thus, this application will allow MATLAB. The first step is to convert the actual

the user to design concrete mix based on the graphs into digital image before being analyzed by

international codes with less errors, less time and cost Microsoft Excel. The format of the graph must be in

savings. It is important to aid the professionals and image format. The picture will be converted into jpg

the researchers in the process of designing the format after taking a screenshot of the graph. The

concrete mix. The trend on using the computer for scale is set for y and x axis. In this software the points

most computations, a computer-aided approach to the must be draw over the curve in order to digitize the

design of concrete mixes is becoming a welcome data. These data points will be used to develop a

practice.(Okoloekwe & Okafor,2007) mathematical equations by using EXCEL.

2. Methodology

relationship compressive strength and free water

This section will focus on the activities planned for cement ratio will be saved in EXCEL. A scattered

this work from the preliminary stage to the final stage graph will be chosen as this points produced a

of concrete mix design software application based on nonlinear graph. The data points of the graphs plotted

international codes. The approach adopted for this with EXCEL were selected by right-clicking on them.

study is by accumulation of data from the literature The Add Trendline, Display Equation and

review and self conducting of proportioning concrete Correlation (R-square) Values option was then

mix design. The software that be used for conducting selected to generate and display the equations.

this study is using MATLAB, WEBPLOTDIGITIZER Exponential equation is chosen as it has the best curve

and EXCEL . This study focuses on the method of fit.

ACI is a standard that has many tables and has no content

graphs while BS has many graphs and tables to

produce a proportion of concrete mix design.There are

ACI standards are simpler compared to BS standard as

many commands will be required in MATLAB which

it has many tables which will only requires simple

will determine the proportions of concrete mix

interpolation and a few data are standard. Thus the

designs. The input command for strings can be used to

values taken are already stated and ready to be used

allow any valid combination of letters, numbers, and

such as estimation of mixing water and air content.

symbols. Therefore input command to obtain titles of

The command will be frequently used in this standard

plots, file names, and other words or collections of

is conditional statement, interpolation, simple

characters which may want to be used later. Each

mathematical equation and input. ACI standard has 9

conditional statement requires the end keyword. Non

simple steps that will be used to develop code in the

linear equation which will be used to solve free water

MATLAB which are material information, choice of

cement ratio will use eval command. The eval

slump, maximum aggregate size, estimation of mixing

command is one of the most powerful and flexible

and air content, water cement ratio, calculation of

commands in MATLAB. eval is short for evaluate,

cement content, estimation of coarse aggregate

which is exactly what it does; it evaluates MATLAB

content, estimation of fine aggregate content and

expressions. Any command can execute from the

adjustment for moisture in the aggregate.

MATLAB prompt, eval can be used to execute the

command from an M-file. Some of the more common In order to validate the developed program, five

uses for eval are to load and save files with variable examples for each of the BS concrete mix design code

filenames, shell out (!, not supported on the and ACI standard. Each example will be done for

Macintosh) to the operating system, and concatenate different strength class which are 25 MPA,30 MPA, 35

strings. MPA,40 MPA and 50 MPA with changes made in the

surface condition of the aggregate, were run separately

BS standard required user to input characteristic

both manually (using the BS and ACI code) and the

strength of concrete, days of the cement strength,

generated equations program. The time taken for each

proportion defective, margin if required, standard

concrete mix design examples were recorded and

deviation if specified, cement strength class, aggregate

analyzed for determining the effectiveness in terms of

type for fine and coarse aggregate, maximum water

time reduction of the program.

cement ratio, cement content, maximum size of

aggregate, relative density of aggregate and per trial 3. Results And Discussion

mix.

The developed application is to be run with MATLAB

ACI standard required user to collect data such as 28

which will print the output of the concrete mix design

days characteristics compressive strength, bulk density

for BS code and ACI code.

of crushed aggregate, free surface moisture of sand,

absorption capacities of coarse aggregate, fineness The time execution is done by manually and by the

modulus of fine aggregate, proportion defective, past program approach for all five examples of each the

records of standard deviation if specified, the presence codes. It is as represented in Table 1 and Table 2.

of air entrained, slump value, maximum size of Example 1 in Table 1 which required the most time

aggregate and water cement ratio by exposure to run compared to the other 4 examples is because more

the application. input and information are required to be input by the

user which take the most time. Contrary to example 3

BS standard procedures are divided into 5 stages

which the input for the program and specified

which includes several calculations and data collection

information less. Here means that example 1 has more

which shown as below:

calculation required with more information such as

st

1 stage: margin,margin,

Characteristics strength, standard deviation, standard deviation

target mean and cement

strength, content while

cement strength

example 3 has the information of margin

class, type for fine and coarse aggregates, free water cement ratio, maximum free waterand cement

the

ratio. MATLAB will done the calculation.

2nd stage: Slump or Vebe time, maximum aggregate size, free water content

3rd stage: Cement content, maximum cement than 1 minute. Thiscement

content,minimum is because the calculation

content, run by

midified free water

cement ratio the MATLAB is much easier where it only need to do

4th stage Relative density of aggregate, concretesimple

density,interpolation from

total aggregate the tables. The most time

content

5th stage taken

Grading of fine aggregate, proportion of fineisaggregate,

from example 2. Table content,

fine aggregate 1 and Table 2 shown

coarse aggregate

that by using the program approach it is more efficient 2 7:40.58 0:48.72

with percentage error is within the permissible limit.

3 7:11.11 0:40.28

The percentage errors of the results of variables of

4 7:05.19 0:39.11

concrete mix design calculated with the program to

those of the values available in the BS concrete mix 5 7:35.04 0:47.84

design code with the highest value of 4.5627% which

is cement content occurring in application in Table

3.Contrary to ACI standard the percentage error is Table 3. Percentage Error of Program Results

very small with the highest is only 3.625% and the Compared to BS Code Values for Application of

lowest percentage error is nearly 0 %and 0.02%. The Concrete Grade 30

main reason for this difference between the results

generated by the program and those available in the

Program

Concrete

Manual

% Error

Variable

BS code is that some parameters in the code are

usually estimated in ranges and then a considerable

value within the range is picked. Also, there are

usually occurrences of double approximation or

rounding up in the manual or code method. The water Target 46 46 0

mean

content, for example, when calculated is usually

strength

rounded to the nearest 5Kg immediately. Thereafter, Free 0.46 0.468 1 .

this same value is divided by the free-water cement water/ceme 739

ratio to obtain the cement content. The cement content nt ratio

Proportion 27 26.70 -

also will be rounded up to the nearest 5kg. The

of fine 6 1.089

proportion of fine aggregate for example is usually aggregate

estimated in the range of a to b and then say c, Total 1892. 1906. 0.757

in which c is a value bounded by a and b. The aggregate 17 5 3

equations and the program, however, give exact values content

Free water 160 160 160 160 0

of these variables and parameters of concrete. content

Cement 347.8 350 342.1 340 -

Table 1. Time executed of the Generated Application content 3 9 4.562

for BS standard. 7

Fine 510.8 510 509.1 510 -

Applicati Manual Approach Automated Approach aggregate 9 4 0.342

on content 5

Example min:sec min:sec Coarse 463 465 465.7 465 0.600

aggregate 8

content(10

1 8:34.19 1:08.59 mm)

Coarse 926 925 931.5 930 1.140

2 7:53.97 0:48.72 aggregate 6 9

content(20

3 8:10.90 0:47.83 mm)

4 7:55.67 0:51.25

Table 4. Percentage Error of Program Results

5 8:27.36 0:53.85

Compared to ACI Code Values for Application of

Concrete Grade 30

for ACI standard.

ation Approach Approach

Examp

le min:sec min:sec

1 6:59.99 0:35.18

Manual (Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture)

Program(Before adjustment for water

Program(Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture)

Concrete Variable

% Error

Ce 4 4 4 4 -

me 4 4 4 4 0

nt 4 5 4 4 .

co . . . 1

nte 4 4 4 2

nt 4 4 4 5

8

Fin 7 7 7 7 -

e 2 3 1 2 1

ag 0 2 8 9 .

gre . . . 5

gat 8 5 3 2

e 6 3 0

absorption and free surface moisture)

co 8

absorption and free surface moisture)

Tar 3 3 - nte

get 7 7 0 nt

me . . . Co 9 9 9 9 1

an 4 3 1 ars 9 8 8 9 .

str 2 8 0 e 2 2 2 2 0

en 5 2 ag . 1

gth 2 gre 0 8

Fre 0 0 0 gat 8 3

e . . e

wa 4 4 co

ter/ 5 5 nte

ce nt

me

nt

rati 4. ConclusionAnd

o

Co 8 8 - Recommendations

ars 8 5 3

e 2 0 . Mathematical Equations for concrete mix design,

ag . . 6 adjustments and optimization in accordance with

gre 7 7 2 British Department of Environment (DOE) and

gat 5 5 5

e

American Concrete Association method have been

co coded into computer programs written in Java

nte programming language using MATLAB The

nt developed software are presented as a replacement to

Fre 2 1 2 1 0

the tabular data, figures and charts available in the BS

e 0 9 0 9 .

wa 0 9 0 9 0 and ACI concrete mix design manual usually used for

ter . . 2 conventional concrete mix design. The need to:

co 1 1 0 minimize considerably the expended human energy

nte 0 4 and computational errors; reduce the time taken in the

nt

concrete mix design process; eliminate interpolation of

data, and optimize the desirable constituents of

concrete to achieve optimum compressive strength at

minimum cost, necessitated this work. All these needs

were met in the developed programs. It is

recommended that, in future, the scope of this work be

extended from the design of normal weight concrete to

other types of concrete such as heavy weight, light

weight, pumpable concrete and to be developed with

other international codes. Also, it is desirable that a

thorough research into verification with laboratory

work to prove the reliability of this application.

5. References

1.A. A. Adegbola, M. J. D. (2012). Development of 8. JULHAS ALAM, F. H. (2013). Bangladesh building

Mathematical Equations and Programs for the collapse death toll hits 359, The Journal.

Optimization of Concrete Mix Designs. Indian

Journal of Science and Technology, 5(11). Committee, 9. M.C.Nataraja, M. A. J., C.N.Ravikumar. (2006). A

A. (2007). Aggregates for Concrete, 29. Fuzzy-Neuro Model for Normal Concrete Mix Design.

Engineering Letters, 13(2).

2. Committee, C. a. C. S. (2009). Indian Standard

CONCRETE MIX PROPORTIONING - 10. Okoloekwe, R. C., Okafor,F.O. (2007). A New

GUIDELINES. In B. o. I. Standards (Ed.), 91.100.30. Approach To Concrete Mix Design Using Computer

NEW DELHI. Techniques. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 25(1),

11.

3. D.O. Onwuka, C. E. O., O.M. Ibearugbulem, S.U.

Onwuka. (2013). Computer-Aided Design of Concrete 11. Sharandeep Singh, D. H. S. (2015). Evaluation of

Mixes. Vol. 3(2), 67-81. M35 and M40 grades of concrete by ACI, DOE,

USBR and BIS methods of mix design. 2(6), 554-560.

4. Establishment, B. R. (1997). Design of normal

concrete mixes (pp. 46): Construction Research 12. Tao Ji , T. L., Xujian Lin. (2006). A concrete mix

Communications Ltd. proportion design algorithm based on artificial neural

networks. Cement and Concrete Research(36), 1399

5. Genadij Shakhmenko, J. B. (1998). Concrete Mix 1408. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2006.01.009

Design and Optimization. Riga Technical University,

Budapest. 13. Kasperkiewicz J. (1991) Optimization of Concrete

Mix using a Spreadsheet Package. ACI Materials

6. JEEVENDRA KUMAR CHANDRAKAR, S. S. M. Journal (American Concrete Institute). 91(6), 551-

(2012). Comparison of IS,BS and ACI Method of 559.

Concrete Mix Design and Proposring Function

Equations Based Design. International Journald of 14. Hover K. (1995) Graphical Approach to Mixture

Civil,Structural Environmental and Infrastructure Proportioning by ACI 211.1-91. Concrete

Engineering Research and Developement., 2(1), 20- International. 7(9), 49-53

56.

(1999). Application of Neural Networks for

Proportioning of Concrete Mixes ACI Materials

Journal, 96(1), 61-67.

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