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can be done in various methods. The time-domain approach is a unified method for

analyzing and designing systems modeled by either modern or classical approach.

Time response analysis

It is an equation or a plot that describes the behavior of a system and contains

much information about it with respect to time response specification as overshooting,

settling time, peak time, rise time and steady state error. Time response is formed by the

transient response and the steady state response.

Time response = Transient response + Steady state response

In time-domain analysis, the response of a dynamic system to an input is

expressed as a function of time. It is possible to compute the time response of a system if

the nature of input and the mathematical model of the system are known.

Time response

Time response c(t)is the variation of output with respect to time.

Types :

Transient Response :The part of time response that goes to zero after large

interval of time is called transient response ctr(t).

Steady state Response:The part of time response that remains after transient

response is called steady-state response css(t).

Typical Test signals:

The dynamic behavior of a system is compared under application of standard test

signals an impulse, a step, a constant velocity, and constant acceleration.

Test signal Graph R(s)

Step signal: The step signal imitate the sudden A

change characteristic of actual input signal. S

A t0

u (t )

0 t0

constant velocity characteristic of actual input S2

signal.

At t 0

r (t )

0 t0

signal

Parabolic signal: The parabolic signal imitate A

3

the constant acceleration characteristic of actual S

input signal.

At 2

t0

p (t ) 2

0 t0

.

If A=1, the signal is called unit parabolic signal.

sudden shock characteristic of actual input

signal.

A t0

(t )

0 t0

.

If A=1, the impulse signal is called unit impulse

signal.

Order and Type of the Control System

Consider a feedback control system as shown in figure

C (S) G(S)

=

R (S ) 1+G ( S ) H (S)

equated to zero ,then it is known as the characteristics equation .

This decides the poles of the system. The highest power of s in the

characteristics equation is known as the order of the system.

The number of poles present at the origin is known as the Type number of the

system.

Steady state error and error constants:

Steady state error ess is the difference between the input value and the actual output

response. The steady state error is the important aspect of system behavior by which

system accuracy can be measured.

Expression for steady state error:

Consider a close loop system as shown in below figure .

But the feedback signal B(S) = H(S) X C(S)----------------[2]

And C(S) = E(S) X G(S)----------------------------------------[3]

Substitute equation 2 &3 in 1.

E(S) = R(S) - E(S) X G(S) X C(S)

(i.e) E(S)+ E(S) X G(S) X C(S) = R(S)

E(S)[1+G(S)C(S)]=R(S)

R (S)

E(S) = [1+G ( S ) C(S)]

lim ( e(t ) )

The steady state error ess = t

t s0

So

R (S)

lim S

Steady state error ess = s 0 [1+G ( S ) C (S )]

Step Input

For step input,

Kp is called as positional error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 0 system.

Ramp Input

For Ramp input ,

Where

Kv is called as velocity error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 1 system.

Parabolic Input

For a parabolic signal ,

Where

KA is called as Accelaration error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 2 system.

Example Problems:

1. Determine the type and order of the given system

2. Find the steady state-error for a unity feedback system that has T(s) = 5/(s2+7s+10) and the

input is a unit step.

3. For each system shown, evaluate the static error constants and find the expected error for the

standard step, ramp, and parabolic inputs.

FIRST ORDER SYSTEM

Step response :

Consider a first order control system whose block diagram is shown in figure

1

C (s) G(s) Ts

= =

R (s ) 1+G ( s ) H (s) (1+ 1 X 1)

Ts

C (s) 1

=

R (s ) (1+Ts)

1

The output response C(s) =R(s) X (1+Ts)

1

For a step input ,R(s) = S

By partial fraction,

A B

C ( s )= +

s (1+Ts)

So ,

A(1+Ts)+Bs =1

Sub s=0,

A(1+T *0)+B(0)=1

A =1.

1

Sub s=- T , B = -T.

1 (T )

Thus C ( s )= +

s (1+ Ts)

1 T

s (1+Ts)

1 (T )

-1 -1 +

L (C(s)) =L ( s (1+Ts)

C(t) = 1 - eT , fort 0.

The step response of the first order system is shown in below figure.

Performance analysis

1. Time Constant(T) : Time constant is the time it takes for a step response to rise to 63% of

its final value.

2. Rise time (Tr) : Time for the response to go from 10% to 90% of its final value. The

formula to find Tr is Tr = 2.2 T.

3. Settling Time(Ts): time for the response to reach, and stay within 2% of its final value.

The settling time formula is Ts = 4T.

The first order system has no overshooting .but it can be stable or unstable

depends on the pole location .If the pole lies in negative side of the plane ,it will be a

stabe.If the pole presents in the positive side of the plane ,the system is an unstable

system.

Impulse Response :

In this case, for an unit impulse input of magnitude r(t) = (t) and R(s) = 1.

So

1

The output response C(s) =R(s) X (1+Ts)

1

C(s) = (1+Ts)

1 t T

c (t ) e

T

The response of a first order system for unit impulse signal is given in below figure.

Time constant: It is the time to decay to 37% of its final value.

The order of a differential equation is the highest degree of derivative present in that

equation. A system whose input-output equation is a second order differential equation is called

Second Order System.

Standard form of second order system is given by:

s 2 +2 w n+ w2n

2

C (s ) w n

=

R (s)

Where:

n is the natural frequency

Response of second order system for step and Impulse response.

There will be different behaviors of output signal, depending upon the value of damping

ratio.

Step Responses:

Under damped System : The response of underdamped second order system oscillates before

settling to a final value.the oscillations depends on the value of damping ratio.

Critically damped system

The response of critically damped system have no oscillations.

Over damped System:

The response of over damped system has no oscillations but it takes longer time to reach the final

steady state value.

Normalized impulse-response of a second-order system with different damping factors

are shown graphically as follows.

The responses for the step and impulse signals are given in the below table for all three

cases of damping (like under damped ,critically damped and over damped) systems.

Damping ratio Type of Response of the System

Input

Step signal wd t

0< <1 (+)

(1 2)

C(t) = e

w t n ,where =

1 sin

(12 ) tan 1

Impulse wd t

signal ()

C(t) = e

w n t ,

1 sin

(12 )

Step signal w n t

C(t) = 1e (1+ wn t)

=1

Impulse C(t) =t ew tn

signal

Step signal wn e e

s1 t s2t

>1 C(t) =

1 (

) ,where

2 ( 1 )

2 s 1 s2

21 21

and

s 1= wn wn s 2= wn + wn

Impulse wn es t es t

1 2 21

signal C(t) =

( ) where

2 ( 21 ) s 1 s2 s 1= wn wn

21

and

s 2= wn + wn

The transient response of a system to a unit-step input depends on the

initial conditions. For convenience in comparing transient responses of various systems,

it is a common practice to use the standard initial condition that the system is at rest

initially with the output and all time derivatives thereof zero. Then the response

characteristics of many systems can be easily compared. The transient response of a

practical control system often exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady state.

Time Response Specifications with step-input for under-damped case

to a unit-step input, it is common to specify the following:

1. Delay time, td

2. Rise time.tr

3. Peak time, tp

4. Maximum overshoot, Mp

5. Settling time, ts .

These specifications are graphically shown in figure

Figure Time Domain Specifications

td

1. Delay time, : It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of the final value

in first attempt.

1+0.7

t d=

n

tr

2. Rise time, : The time required by the system response to reach from 10% to 90% of the

final value for over-damped case, from 0% to 100% of the final value for under-damped case

and from 5% to 95% of the critically value for over-damped case.

t r=

d

1

1

( 2)

Where (2 ) =

d n

=tan1

tp

3. Peak time, : It is the time required for the response to reach the peak of time

response or the peak overshoot.

t p=

d

4. Maximum Peak Overshoot: It is the normalized difference between the time response

peak and the steady output and the amount of max over shoot directly indicates the

relative stability of the system.

2

X 100

(1 )

M p=e

5. Settling time: It is the time required for the response to reach and stay within a

specified tolerance band ( 2% or 5%) of its final value.

For 2% error band,

4

t s=

n

3

t s=

n

Example Problems:

1. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by

K

G ( s )=

s (sT +1) , where K and T are positive constant. By what factor should the

amplifier gain K be reduced, so that the peak overshoot of unit step response of the

system is reduced from 75% to 25%.

2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by

K

G ( s )=

s (sT +1) , where K and T are positive constant. Determine the value of K and

3. Determine the time specifications and output response for an unit step input applied to the

2

d y dy

system described by the equation 2

+ 5 +16 y=9 t .

dt dt

4. A unity feed back is characterized by an open loop transfer function

10

G ( s )=

s +2 s+6 .Find all the time domain specification

2

K

G ( s )=

s ( s+10 ) , Determine the value of K so that the system will have damping ratio

of 0.5. Also determine setting time, peak overshoot for a unit step input.

K

G ( s )=

s ( s+10 ) , Determine the value of K so that the system will have damping ratio

of 0.5. Also determine setting time, peak overshoot for a step input of 4.

7.

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