You are on page 1of 19

# TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS

## After deriving a mathematical model of a system, the system performance analysis

can be done in various methods. The time-domain approach is a unified method for
analyzing and designing systems modeled by either modern or classical approach.
Time response analysis
It is an equation or a plot that describes the behavior of a system and contains
much information about it with respect to time response specification as overshooting,
settling time, peak time, rise time and steady state error. Time response is formed by the
transient response and the steady state response.
Time response = Transient response + Steady state response
In time-domain analysis, the response of a dynamic system to an input is
expressed as a function of time. It is possible to compute the time response of a system if
the nature of input and the mathematical model of the system are known.
Time response
Time response c(t)is the variation of output with respect to time.

Types :
Transient Response :The part of time response that goes to zero after large
interval of time is called transient response ctr(t).
Steady state Response:The part of time response that remains after transient
response is called steady-state response css(t).
Typical Test signals:
The dynamic behavior of a system is compared under application of standard test
signals an impulse, a step, a constant velocity, and constant acceleration.
Test signal Graph R(s)
Step signal: The step signal imitate the sudden A
change characteristic of actual input signal. S
A t0
u (t )
0 t0

## Ramp signal:The ramp signal imitate the A

constant velocity characteristic of actual input S2
signal.
At t 0
r (t )
0 t0

## If A=1, the ramp signal is called unit ramp

signal
Parabolic signal: The parabolic signal imitate A
3
the constant acceleration characteristic of actual S
input signal.
At 2
t0
p (t ) 2
0 t0

.
If A=1, the signal is called unit parabolic signal.

## Impulse signal: The impulse signal imitate the 1

sudden shock characteristic of actual input
signal.
A t0
(t )
0 t0
.
If A=1, the impulse signal is called unit impulse
signal.
Order and Type of the Control System
Consider a feedback control system as shown in figure

## The closed loop transfer function is given by

C (S) G(S)
=
R (S ) 1+G ( S ) H (S)

## The denominator is known as the characteristic function .If this function is

equated to zero ,then it is known as the characteristics equation .

## (i.e) 1+G ( S ) H ( S )=0

This decides the poles of the system. The highest power of s in the
characteristics equation is known as the order of the system.
The number of poles present at the origin is known as the Type number of the
system.
Steady state error and error constants:
Steady state error ess is the difference between the input value and the actual output
response. The steady state error is the important aspect of system behavior by which
system accuracy can be measured.
Expression for steady state error:
Consider a close loop system as shown in below figure .

## From figure , E(S) =R(S) B(S) ------------------------------

But the feedback signal B(S) = H(S) X C(S)----------------
And C(S) = E(S) X G(S)----------------------------------------
Substitute equation 2 &3 in 1.
E(S) = R(S) - E(S) X G(S) X C(S)
(i.e) E(S)+ E(S) X G(S) X C(S) = R(S)
E(S)[1+G(S)C(S)]=R(S)
R (S)
E(S) = [1+G ( S ) C(S)]

lim ( e(t ) )
The steady state error ess = t

## lim ( e(t ) )=lim ( SE (S) )

t s0

So
R (S)
lim S
Steady state error ess = s 0 [1+G ( S ) C (S )]

Step Input
For step input,

## The steady state error becomes

Kp is called as positional error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 0 system.
Ramp Input
For Ramp input ,

## So the steady state error

Where
Kv is called as velocity error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 1 system.

Parabolic Input
For a parabolic signal ,

## So the steady state error

Where

KA is called as Accelaration error constant and this will occur commonly in Type 2 system.

## Types of input and steady-state error are summarized as follows.

Example Problems:
1. Determine the type and order of the given system
2. Find the steady state-error for a unity feedback system that has T(s) = 5/(s2+7s+10) and the
input is a unit step.

3. For each system shown, evaluate the static error constants and find the expected error for the
standard step, ramp, and parabolic inputs.
FIRST ORDER SYSTEM
Step response :
Consider a first order control system whose block diagram is shown in figure

## The transfer function function of the system is given by

1
C (s) G(s) Ts
= =
R (s ) 1+G ( s ) H (s) (1+ 1 X 1)
Ts

C (s) 1
=
R (s ) (1+Ts)

1
The output response C(s) =R(s) X (1+Ts)

1
For a step input ,R(s) = S

By partial fraction,
A B
C ( s )= +
s (1+Ts)

So ,

A(1+Ts)+Bs =1
Sub s=0,
A(1+T *0)+B(0)=1
A =1.
1
Sub s=- T , B = -T.

1 (T )
Thus C ( s )= +
s (1+ Ts)

1 T

s (1+Ts)

## Take Inverse Laplace Transform of C(s),

1 (T )
-1 -1 +
L (C(s)) =L ( s (1+Ts)

C(t) = 1 - eT , fort 0.

The step response of the first order system is shown in below figure.

Performance analysis
1. Time Constant(T) : Time constant is the time it takes for a step response to rise to 63% of
its final value.
2. Rise time (Tr) : Time for the response to go from 10% to 90% of its final value. The
formula to find Tr is Tr = 2.2 T.
3. Settling Time(Ts): time for the response to reach, and stay within 2% of its final value.
The settling time formula is Ts = 4T.

The first order system has no overshooting .but it can be stable or unstable
depends on the pole location .If the pole lies in negative side of the plane ,it will be a
stabe.If the pole presents in the positive side of the plane ,the system is an unstable
system.

Impulse Response :
In this case, for an unit impulse input of magnitude r(t) = (t) and R(s) = 1.
So
1
The output response C(s) =R(s) X (1+Ts)

1
C(s) = (1+Ts)

## Taking inverse Laplace transform, we get

1 t T
c (t ) e
T
The response of a first order system for unit impulse signal is given in below figure.
Time constant: It is the time to decay to 37% of its final value.

## Second order system

The order of a differential equation is the highest degree of derivative present in that
equation. A system whose input-output equation is a second order differential equation is called
Second Order System.
Standard form of second order system is given by:

s 2 +2 w n+ w2n

2
C (s ) w n
=
R (s)

Where:
n is the natural frequency

## If >1, system is named as Over Damped System.

Response of second order system for step and Impulse response.
There will be different behaviors of output signal, depending upon the value of damping
ratio.
Step Responses:
Under damped System : The response of underdamped second order system oscillates before
settling to a final value.the oscillations depends on the value of damping ratio.
Critically damped system
The response of critically damped system have no oscillations.
Over damped System:
The response of over damped system has no oscillations but it takes longer time to reach the final
steady state value.

## Impulse Response of second order system:

Normalized impulse-response of a second-order system with different damping factors
are shown graphically as follows.
The responses for the step and impulse signals are given in the below table for all three
cases of damping (like under damped ,critically damped and over damped) systems.
Damping ratio Type of Response of the System
Input

Step signal wd t
0< <1 (+)
(1 2)

C(t) = e
w t n ,where =
1 sin
(12 ) tan 1

Impulse wd t
signal ()
C(t) = e
w n t ,
1 sin
(12 )
Step signal w n t
C(t) = 1e (1+ wn t)
=1

Impulse C(t) =t ew tn

signal

Step signal wn e e
s1 t s2t

>1 C(t) =
1 (
) ,where
2 ( 1 )
2 s 1 s2
21 21
and
s 1= wn wn s 2= wn + wn

Impulse wn es t es t
1 2 21
signal C(t) =
( ) where
2 ( 21 ) s 1 s2 s 1= wn wn

21
and
s 2= wn + wn

## Time domain specifications of second order system.

The transient response of a system to a unit-step input depends on the
initial conditions. For convenience in comparing transient responses of various systems,
it is a common practice to use the standard initial condition that the system is at rest
initially with the output and all time derivatives thereof zero. Then the response
characteristics of many systems can be easily compared. The transient response of a
practical control system often exhibits damped oscillations before reaching steady state.
Time Response Specifications with step-input for under-damped case

## In specifying the transient-response characteristics of a control system

to a unit-step input, it is common to specify the following:
1. Delay time, td
2. Rise time.tr
3. Peak time, tp
4. Maximum overshoot, Mp
5. Settling time, ts .
These specifications are graphically shown in figure
Figure Time Domain Specifications

td
1. Delay time, : It is the time required for the response to reach 50% of the final value
in first attempt.
1+0.7
t d=
n

tr
2. Rise time, : The time required by the system response to reach from 10% to 90% of the
final value for over-damped case, from 0% to 100% of the final value for under-damped case
and from 5% to 95% of the critically value for over-damped case.

t r=
d

1
1
( 2)
Where (2 ) =
d n

=tan1

tp
3. Peak time, : It is the time required for the response to reach the peak of time
response or the peak overshoot.

t p=
d
4. Maximum Peak Overshoot: It is the normalized difference between the time response
peak and the steady output and the amount of max over shoot directly indicates the
relative stability of the system.

2
X 100
(1 )
M p=e

5. Settling time: It is the time required for the response to reach and stay within a
specified tolerance band ( 2% or 5%) of its final value.
For 2% error band,
4
t s=
n

## For 4% error band,

3
t s=
n

Example Problems:
1. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
K
G ( s )=
s (sT +1) , where K and T are positive constant. By what factor should the

amplifier gain K be reduced, so that the peak overshoot of unit step response of the
system is reduced from 75% to 25%.
2. The open loop transfer function of a unity feedback system is given by
K
G ( s )=
s (sT +1) , where K and T are positive constant. Determine the value of K and

## T,where the Maximum Peakovershoot of the system is 25.4% corresponding to =0.4.

3. Determine the time specifications and output response for an unit step input applied to the

2
d y dy
system described by the equation 2
+ 5 +16 y=9 t .
dt dt
4. A unity feed back is characterized by an open loop transfer function
10
G ( s )=
s +2 s+6 .Find all the time domain specification
2

## 5. A unity feed back is characterized by an open loop transfer function

K
G ( s )=
s ( s+10 ) , Determine the value of K so that the system will have damping ratio
of 0.5. Also determine setting time, peak overshoot for a unit step input.

## 6. A unity feed back is characterized by an open loop transfer function

K
G ( s )=
s ( s+10 ) , Determine the value of K so that the system will have damping ratio
of 0.5. Also determine setting time, peak overshoot for a step input of 4.

7.