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Geometric Construction 2

Circles
Arcs
Polygon
DETERMINING THE CENTER
Arc
Circle
DETERMINING THE CENTER OF
AN ARC/CIRCLE
Given: an arc
DETERMINING THE CENTER OF
AN ARC
1. Draw an arbitrary line with endpoints on the
circumference of the circle. Label the
endpoints of the chord as A and B.
A

B
DETERMINING THE CENTER OF
AN ARC
2. Draw another arbitrary line, connected to
point B with the other endpoint on the
circumference labeled as C.
A

C
DETERMINING THE CENTER OF
AN ARC
3. Using the method outlined for bisecting a
line, bisect lines A-B and B-C.
Center at B
Center at B
Center at A Radius greater
A Radius greater
Radius greater than one-half BC.
than one-half AB.
than one-half B
AB

Center at C
Radius greater
than one-half
C
BC.
DETERMINING THE CENTER OF
AN ARC
4. Locate point X where the two extended
bisectors meet. Point X is the exact center of
the circle.
A

C
X
Drawing a circle/arc
through three points
DRAWING A CIRCLE/ARC
THROUGH THREE POINTS
Given: Three points in space at random: A, B,
and C.

C
DRAWING A CIRCLE/ARC
THROUGH THREE POINTS
1. With straight lines, lightly connect points A
to B, and B to C.

C
DRAWING A CIRCLE/ARC
THROUGH THREE POINTS
2. Using the method outlined for bisecting a
line, bisect lines A-B and B-C.

C
DRAWING A CIRCLE/ARC
THROUGH THREE POINTS
3. Locate point X where the two extended
bisectors meet. Point X is the exact center of
the arc or circle.

C
X
DRAWING A CIRCLE/ARC
THROUGH THREE POINTS
4. Using X as center and radius equal to XA (or XB
or XC), draw a/an circle/arc. The circle/arc
drawn passed through the three given points.

C
X
RECTIFYING AN
ARC LENGTHS
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS

Given: an arc
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS
1. Find the center of the arc (see procedure for
finding the center of a circle).

A
B

X
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS
2. Form the longest chord and divide it into two (see
procedure on how to bisect a line). Connect
either of the arcs endpoints to its center.

A
1
B

C
2
X
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS
3. Extend the chord. The length of the extension
must be equal to O2 or one-half of the chord 12.

A
1
B

C
2
Line O2 = Line 23
X
3
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS
4. Draw a line perpendicular to the line connected to
the arcs center and tangent to the circle.

A
1
B

C
2
X
3
RECTIFYING AN ARC LENGTHS
5. Using point 3 as center and radius equal to line 13, strike
an arc intersecting the tangent line at point 4.
4

A
1
B

O
Line C4 is the rectified
C length of arc 12.
2
X
3
setting off a given length
along an arc
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
Given: Line AB and an arc JF

A B

F
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
1. Find the center of the given arc (see steps in
finding the center of an arc).

F
X
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
2. Connect the center to either of the endpoints. Draw line
perpendicular to line XF and tangent to the given arc.

F
X
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
3. Layout the length of line AB in the tangent line (recall
steps in transferring a line). Label the intersection as A.

A
Length of line AB

F
X
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
4. Divide line AF into four equal segments. Label the
points as 1, 2, and 3.

3
J
2

F
X
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
4. Using point 1 as center and radius equal to line
1A, strike an arc intersecting the given arc. Label
the intersection as C.
A

3
C
J
2

F
X
SETTING OFF A GIVEN LENGTH
ALONG AN ARC
4. Arc FC is approximately equal to line AB.

3
C
J
2

F
X
triangles
DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE
Given: length of the sides

A B

Location of the triangle


DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE
1. Copy the given length.

A B
DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE
2. Using point A as center and radius equal to
the length of the given side, draw an arc.
Repeat the step, using B as center.

Center at A
Radius equal to AB Center at B
Radius equal to AB

A B
DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE
3. Locate Point 1 where the arcs intersect.
Connect the endpoints to Point 1.

A B
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
HYPOTENUSE AND A GIVEN LEG
Given: - length of one side
- length of hypothenuse
C B

A Hypotenuse B

Location of the triangle


DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
HYPOTENUSE AND A GIVEN LEG
1. Using the length of the given hypotenuse as
diameter, draw a semi-circle.

A B
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
HYPOTENUSE AND A GIVEN LEG
2. Using one endpoint of the hypotenuse as
center and the length of the side BC as
radius, draw an arc intersecting the semi-
circle at point C.

A B
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
HYPOTENUSE AND A GIVEN LEG
3. Connecting point C with endpoints A and B
establishes the desired Right Triangle ABC

A B
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
LENGTH OF THE THREE SIDES
Given: length of three sides
Side A

1 2
Side B
1 3
Side C
2 3

Location of the triangle


DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
LENGTH OF THE THREE SIDES
1. Layout Side A in the desired position.

1 2
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
LENGTH OF THE THREE SIDES
2. Using endpoint 1 of side A as center and the
length of side B as radius, draw an arc above
side A.

Center at 1
Radius equal to side B

1 2
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
LENGTH OF THE THREE SIDES
3. Using endpoint 2 of side A and the length of
side C as radius, draw a second arc
intersecting the first arc at point 3.

Center at 2
Radius equal to side C

1 2
DRAWING A TRIANGLE GIVEN THE
LENGTH OF THE THREE SIDES
4. Connecting point 3 with points 1 and 2
establishes Triangle ABC.

1 2
INSCRIBING A CIRCLE INSIDE
TRIANGLE
Given: Triangle ABC

C
INSCRIBING A CIRCLE INSIDE
TRIANGLE ABC
1. Bisect angle A by line AD extending this
beyond the middle of the triangle.

A
Center at point 2 with 2
arbitrary radius R1 1
Center at point 1 with
arbitrary radius R1
B
D

C
INSCRIBING A CIRCLE INSIDE
TRIANGLE ABC
1. Bisect angle B by line BE intersecting line AD
at point O.

Center at point 3 with A


arbitrary radius R2

3
B E
4 D O

Center at point 4 with


arbitrary radius R2

C
INSCRIBING A CIRCLE INSIDE
TRIANGLE ABC
2. Draw line FG through point O perpendicular
to side AB at point H.

A
H

B E
D O

C
INSCRIBING A CIRCLE INSIDE
TRIANGLE ABC
3. Using point O as center and radius equal to
OH, draw the desired circle.

A
H

B E
D O

C
CIRCUMSCRIBING A CIRCLE
AROUND TRIANGLE ABC
Given: Triangle ABC
CIRCUMSCRIBING A CIRCLE
AROUND TRIANGLE ABC
1. Draw a perpendicular bisector (Line DE) to
side AB.
CIRCUMSCRIBING A CIRCLE
AROUND TRIANGLE ABC
2. Draw a perpendicular bisector (Line FH) to
side BC intersecting Line DE(first bisector) at
point O.

O
CIRCUMSCRIBING A CIRCLE
AROUND TRIANGLE ABC
3. Using point O as center and OC (or OB) as
radius , draw the desired circumscribed
circle.

O
INSCRIBING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE IN A CIRCLE OF RADIUS R
Given: Radius of circle R.

R
INSCRIBING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE IN A CIRCLE OF RADIUS R
1. Using the given radius, draw circle O.

O R
INSCRIBING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE IN A CIRCLE OF RADIUS R
2. Designate any point A in the circumference of
the circle, point D is located at the opposite
end of the diameter line.

D
INSCRIBING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE IN A CIRCLE OF RADIUS R
3. Using point A as center and radius R equal to the
radius of the circle, draw an arc cutting the
circumference of the circle at point B and at
point C.
C
A

D
INSCRIBING AN EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE IN A CIRCLE OF RADIUS R
4. Connect point D to points B and C to
complete the triangle.

C
A

D
DRAWING A SQUARE WITH SIDE
AB GIVEN
Given: Length of side AB

A B

Location of the square


DRAWING A SQUARE WITH SIDE
AB GIVEN
1. Draw side AB in the desired position.
Construct line BE perpendicular to side AB
and originating from point B.
E

A B
DRAWING A SQUARE WITH SIDE
AB GIVEN
2. Using point B as center and AB as radius, draw an arc
cutting line BE at point C.

E
C

A B
DRAWING A SQUARE WITH SIDE
AB GIVEN
3. Using points A and C as centers and the
same radius in both operations, draw two
arcs intersecting each other at point D.
E
D C

A B
DRAWING A SQUARE WITH SIDE
AB GIVEN
4. Connect point C to point D and point A to
point D.
E
D C

A B
DRAWING A SQUARE INSIDE A
CIRCLE
Given: Radius of circle

R
DRAWING A SQUARE INSIDE A
CIRCLE
1. Draw the circle with point E as center. Draw
line AB through point E cutting the circle at
point G and H.
A

E R

B
DRAWING A SQUARE INSIDE A
CIRCLE
2. Draw line CD perpendicular to line AB
passing through point E and cutting the
circle at points M and N.
A C
M
G

H
N

D B
DRAWING A SQUARE INSIDE A
CIRCLE
3. Connect points G to M, M to H, H to N, and
N to G.

A C
G M

N H
D B
DRAWING A RECTANGLE

Given: length of diagonal and length of one


side

Diagonal
B D

B C
DRAWING A RECTANGLE

1. Draw the diagonal BD and bisect it at point


O. Using point O as center, draw a circle
passing through point B and point D. Line BD
is a diameter.

O
B D
DRAWING A RECTANGLE

2. Using points B and D as centers, and length


of side BC as radius, draw two arcs cutting
the circle at point C and point A.

O
B D

A
DRAWING A RECTANGLE

3. Connect point B to point C, C to D, D to A,


and A to B to complete the rectangle.

B O D

A
INSCRIBING A PENTAGON INSIDE
A CIRCLE
Given: radius of the circle

R
INSCRIBING A PENTAGON INSIDE
A CIRCLE
1. Draw two diameters of the circle which are perpendicular
to each other, cutting the circumference of the circle at
points A, L, M, N.

O
N L

M
INSCRIBING A PENTAGON INSIDE
A CIRCLE
2. Bisect radius OL at point P, from point P and using the
distance between point P and point A as radius, draw an arc
cutting radius ON at point X.

O
N L
X P
R

M
INSCRIBING A PENTAGON INSIDE
A CIRCLE
3. From point A and using the distance between point A and
point X as radius, draw a second arc cutting the circle at
point B.

B
O
N L
X P
R

M
INSCRIBING A PENTAGON INSIDE
A CIRCLE
4. Draw line AB and use its length to determine points C, D
and E around the circumference of the circle. Connect the
points.

E
B
O
N L
X P
R

D
C
M
INSCRIBING A REGULAR POLYGON
INSIDE A GIVEN CIRCLE
Given: radius of the circle
n (number of sides)
ex. n=6

R
DRAWING REGULAR
POLYGON(Method 1)
1. Draw a circle and divide its diameter, line A-B, into n-parts
(number of sides of the polygon). Label them 1-(n-1).

A 1 2 3 4 5 B
DRAWING REGULAR
POLYGON(Method 1)
2. Using A (then B) as center and radius equal to line AB, draw
an arc. Where the arcs intersect, locate point C.
C

A 1 2 3 4 5 B
DRAWING REGULAR
POLYGON(Method 1)
3. Draw a line connecting point C to point 2 and extend the
line. Locate point D where the extended line intersects the
circle. C

A 1 2 3 4 5 B

D
DRAWING REGULAR
POLYGON(Method 1)
4. Connect points A and D. Using the length of line AD draw
the other side of the polygon.
C

A 1 2 3 4 5 B

D
INSCRIBING A REGULAR POLYGON
(Method 2)
Given: length of one side

B C
DRAWING REGULAR POLYGON
(Method 2)
1. Recall method in constructing a square given side
AB.

A B
DRAWING REGULAR POLYGON
(Method 2)
2. Draw the diagonals of the square. Label the
intersection of the diagonal as 4. Point 4 is the center
of the circle that can inscribe a square.

A B
DRAWING REGULAR POLYGON
(Method 2)
3. Recall steps in constructing equilateral triangle. Label
the intersection as 6. Point 6 is the center of the circle
that can inscribe a hexagon.

A B
DRAWING REGULAR POLYGON
(Method 2)
4. Connect point 4 and point 6. Bisect line 46. Label the
midpoint as 5. Point 5 is the center of the circle that
can inscribe a pentagon with sides equal to AB.

5
4

A B