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ES1 PLATE NO.

Parallel Lines and Planes

Parallel lines appear parallel in all views.


Therefore, you need ONE view showing non-
parallel lines to prove that the lines are not
parallel.

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

Lines that appear parallel in two


consecutive views which are at an
M
angle with respect to the RP are
parallel.
E F

HRP J
FRP

F
SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0
ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

J
If two lines appear parallel to two
E
ADJACENT views, we can conclude that
these lines are parallel.

M An exception is the case where the lines


F
HRP are PERPENDICULAR to the RP in
FRP between. In this case, you should draw
J
additional view to verify if the lines are
E indeed parallel.

F
M

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

J
In this particular example, lines JF and EM
E
are not parallel.

M
F
HRP
FRP J
J

E E

F F
M
M
PRP
FRP

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

E
Another example, lines ES and 12 are not
1
parallel.

2
S
HRP
FRP
E E

2 2

S S
1
1
PRP
FRP

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes
E
J
Still, there is a chance that these lines are
parallel.

M
F
HRP
FRP J
J

E E

F F
M
M
PRP
FRP

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

Another case that you should look after is


when the given views are NOT ADJACENT
and the lines given are PARALLEL to their RP
J F as shown.
E M
HRP
FRP J

M
PRP
FRP

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

The lines here are not parallel. Obviously!

J F
E M
HRP
FRP J
J

E E

M M
PRP
FRP

F F

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

A line is parallel to a plane if the line


appears parallel to, at least, one line in
F that plane.

J In this example, JF||CB in both top view


B
and front view. Therefore, JF ||CB.
A Ultimately, JF ||ABC.
HRP C
FRP B
F

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

You are not limited to the sides of the


plane. You may use any convenient line in
your plane to determine if the line is
F
parallel to the plane.
J

B
A
HRP C
FRP B

F
A

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

Since there is no recognizable line in the


plane parallel to the line, you should
construct a line parallel to JF as shown
F
here.
J

x B
A
HRP C
FRP B

F
A

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

If the projection of the constructed line in


the adjacent view is still parallel to the
line JF, then the line and the plane are
F
parallel to each other.
J

x B
Note: Always remember the exceptions
A stated in the first few slides regarding
HRP C parallel lines.
FRP B
x
F
A

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

J
F
B
A
HRP C
FRP
A B F
Another way is to check if the line is parallel
to the EV of the plane.

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

J F
F AB
B
A C
HRP C
FRP
A B F
Inspect if the line and the EV of the plane are
parallel to each other. If parallel, then the
line and plane are parallel to each other,
otherwise, they are non-parallel.
C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

PARALLEL PLANES

Two planes can be determined to be parallel


N if, at least, two non-parallel lines from the
E first plane are shown to be parallel to two
J non-parallel lines from the second plane.
B
A
In this example, AC||EJ and CB||EN on both
HRP C TV and FV. Therefore the two pairs of lines
FRP
A B N are parallel and the planes are also parallel.

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

PARALLEL PLANES

Do not limit yourself with the sides of your


N planes. You may use other lines in the plane
E
as demonstrated in this example.
J
x B AC||NE and Cx||JN.
A
HRP C
FRP B
x N
A

E
C J
SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0
ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

PARALLEL PLANES

N N E J
E
J
AB
B
A C
HRP C
FRP
A B N
If the EV of two planes are parallel, then the
planes are parallel.
E

C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0


ES1 PLATE NO. Parallel Lines and Planes

NON-PARALLEL PLANES

N N
J
E E
J
AB
B
A C
HRP C
FRP
A BN E
Create a view where one of the planes is EV.
If on that same view, the other plane is not
shown as EV, therefore the planes are not
parallel.
C J

SECTION: THWX NAME: JUAN FIDEL B. CALAYWAN GRADE: 10.0