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3/14/2017 Dr.

Ismail Mahmoud Metwally El_Semary 1


WHY GASOLINE INJECTION?

To have uniform distribution of fuel in a multicylinder engine.


To improve volumetric efficiency.
To reduce or eliminate detonation.

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Advantages of the fuel injection systems over the
carburettor systems

Lower exhaust emissions (pollution)

Better fuel consumption

Smoother engine operation and greater power

Automatic adjustment of the air/fuel ratio to keep the vehicles

emissions (pollution) to a minimum.

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Fuel Injection Methods

Electronic fuel-injection (EFI) systems are named by the position and


operation of the fuel injectors.

1. Throttle-body injection (TBI) or Manifold Injection


2. Port fuel Injection (PFI)
3. Direct fuel injection (DI)

Another Classification of Injection Systems


Multi-Point Injection (MPI)
(a) Gasoline direct injection into the cylinder (GDI).
(b) Port injection.
Single-Point Injection (SPI)
(c) Throttle body injection

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a. Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

Fuel is injected directly into the cylinder during the intake stroke or the
compression stroke
High pressure injector required, 5-10 MPa
Need bowl in piston design to direct the fuel spray towards the spark plug

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During intake stroke air enters the cylinder

Near the end of the compression stroke fuel is injected and directed by the
piston head bowl towards the spark plug

The mixture at the spark plug is rich in fuel thus easy to ignite but the
amount of fuel injected results in an overall lean fuel-air mixture

Lowers heat transfer to the walls but increases thermal cyclic load on the
spark plug, and standard catalytic converter doesnt work

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Benefits of GDI system:-
Operate at optimum compression ratio (12-15) for efficiency by injecting
fuel directly into engine during compression (avoiding knock associated with
SI engines with premixed charge)

Control engine power by fuel added (no throttling no pumping work)

Increasing the engine volumetric efficiency.

Create easily ignitable fuel-air mixture at the spark plug and a leaner fuel-air
mixture in the rest of the cylinder.

Lean burn results in lower emissions and higher energy efficiency.

Manifold wetting is eliminated due to the fuel being injected' into or


close to the cylinder and need not flow through the manifold.

Formation of ice on the throttle plate is eliminated (Carburetor Icing).

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Example:

Mitsubishi GDI engine achieves complete combustion with an air-fuel


ratio of 40:1 compared to 15:1 for conventional engines

This results in a 20% improvement in overall fuel efficiency and CO2


production, and reduces NOx emissions by 95% with special catalyst

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b. Port Injection (Semi direct injection)
In this type of system each cylinder has its own injector discharging
fuel into the area directly in front of the intake valve.

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c. Single-Point Fuel Injection (SPFI) system Throttle Body
Injection System
Regardless of name, the injector is positioned in a housing fitted on the inlet manifold.
This is where the carburetor was traditionally fitted

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Fuel Injection System
Air intake
manifold

Throttle

Fuel tank
200 KPa

During start-up the components are cold so fuel evaporation is very slow, as a result
additional fuel is added through a second injecting valve
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Multi point fuel injectors

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Problems associated with injection systems

High maintenance cost,


Difficulty in servicing,
Possibility of malfunction of some sensors.

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Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system main components

Modern gasoline injection systems use:

1. Solenoid Operated Fuel Injectors


2. An Electronic Control Unit (ECU)
3. Sensors

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1. Fuel Injectors

The fuel injector is a solenoid switch thats either on (fuel flows) or off
(fuel doesnt flow). (Courtesy Kawasaki Motor Corp., U.S.A.)

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Typical sensors for an electronic fuel injection system
Exhaust gas or oxygen sensor -
Engine temperature sensor -
Air flow sensor -
Air-inlet temperature sensor -
Throttle position sensor -
Manifold pressure sensor -
Camshaft position sensor -
Knock sensor -

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Electronic fuel injection system

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