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53(075)
22.37
64

.., .., ..
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: / . .. . .: , 2008. 248 .

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ISBN 978-5-7262-0912-8 .. , .. , .. , 2008

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( ), 2008

...........................................................................................4

1.
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. .......5 14 112
2. .
.......................................................17 22 120
3. .......28 33 134
4. . ........................37 41 141
5. :
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...........................45 58 149
6.
....................64 66 165
7.
: ,
, .......70 76 173
8. .
...........................................................80 87 180
9.
.
...................................................91 100 193
10.
105 205

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5
-
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- , ,
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, NA = 6 1023 ,
, ,
, NA
.
. ,
.
,
-
. .
, -

, (
) . ,
X Y :
X NAmX mX
= = , (1.1)
Y N A mY mY

X Y X Y; mX mY -
. X Y -
, mX mY ,
(1.1) . (1.1) ,
, , -
,

*
moles .
6
, (...).
.

( ...), -
, ,
. , ,
mH 1 ..., , -
(
) H 1 /, 2
H 2 2 /. mO 16 ..., -
O 16 /,
O2 O 2 32 /.
H2O H 2O 18 /.
,
:
He (): He 4 /;
C (): C = 12 /;
N (): N 14 /;
Fe (): Fe 56 /
( , . 1.4).
.
-
,
,


( , -
/3).
,
.
-

7
. m -
,
m N
= = , (1.2)
N
N , m.
-
, , -
.
.*
1.1. : 4,5
23 ? ?
. -
, -
.
,
.
, ,

m H 2O 4,5
= = 0,25 , (*)
H 2O 18 /

, , -
:

N H 2O = 0,25 N a = 1,5 10 23 .


m Fe 23
= = 0,5 , (**)
Fe 56 /
, , ,
NFe = 0,5 NA = 3 1023 .

*
, .. , .
8
, 23 -
, 4,5 .
1.2 (, 2005)*.
m = 1 m = 4
. -

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O (*)
, -
. -
?
. .
. ;
.
. ,
; -
( ). -

.
. ,
; .
, -
, , (*) -
,
. -
, -
,
. -
, , -
.
O 2 = 32 /, H 2 = 2 /, -

mH 2 N
N H2 = = 3 10 23
H2

*
, , -
, .
9

mO 2 N
N O2 = = 0,75 10 23
O2
.
, , -
, -
2 N O 2 = 1,5 10 23 ,
N H 2 = N N 2 2 N O 2 = 1,5 10 23
.
(*), -
, -
, . -
N H 2O = 2 N O 2 .
,
mH 2 N
N H 2 + N H 2O = N H 2 2 N O 2 + 2 N O 2 = N H 2 = = 3 10 23
H2

.
XIX . . , -
, ..
,
,
-
. ,
, ,
-
. . ,
, ..
m 2
= 3 kT , (1.3)
2
2

(m 2 / 2)
; T ; k , -
10
, k = 1,38 1023 /. (
3/2 (1.3) .
(1.3),
3/2. -
2/3.)
(1.3) , T -
T = 0,
. -
(1.3) T (..
), -
t
T [K] = t [C] + 273 C. (1.4)
*.
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , () .
. -
, 1 = 1 / 2 = 2 /. -
? ,

1 + 2
= = 1,5 /. (1.5)
2
, .
,

12 + 22
= = 1,581 / (1.6)
2
1 2 . ,
. -

13 + 23
= 3 = 1,6509 /. (1.7)
2
(1.5) ,
, (1.6) ( ) -

*
, , -
.
11
, (1.7) . -
, , - . -
?
, -
(1.5), (1.6), (1.7) .
,
, .
-
.
,
.

(1.3) -
( )
() , -
,
. .
1.3.
t = 27 C = 515 /. -
m = 10 -
?
. -
, , m,

m
N = N . (*)

. -
(1.3)
m0 2 3
= kT , (**)
2 2
m0 ; T .
(**) ,
m 0 N = ,
3kN T 3kN (t + 273 C)
= = =
2 2
= 0,028 / = 28 / . (***)

12
,
. (*) (***), ,
m 2 N m 2
N = = = 2,1 10 23 .
3kN T 3k (t + 273 )
,
,
, (1.3),

, . -
n (
) T, t
S
n St nSt 3kT
N= = []. (1.8)
6 6 m
k ; T ; m
. (1.8) .

2m , p -

2
N 2m nm 2
p= = = n( E ) = nkT . (1.9)
St 3 3
(1.9) .
(1.9), , p = (2/3)nE,
- . -
(1.9) .
.
1.4. -
(.. -
p = 1 = 1 105 t = 0 , T =
= 273 ).
. (1.9)
p
n= .
kT
13
n ,

1 kT
V1 = = .
n p
V1, ,
, a :
kT
a = 3 V1 = 3 = 3 10 8 .
p

1.1. , -
, .
1.2. V .
. .
1.3 (, 2004). = 0,9 /3.
( )
n = 27 1025 1/3. ?
1.4. ?
? , -
,
NA = 6 1023 1.
1.5. : -
? ?
: H 2O = 1 /3, Hg = 13,6 /3; -
: H 2O = 18 /, Hg = 208 /;
V = 0,2 .
1.6. m = 10 ?
?
1.7. -
C2H5OH? H2
?
14
1.8. O3.
. -
, , ?
1.9. , -

? -
(p = 1 = 1 105 ,
T = 273 ).
1.10. -
(T = 273 ). , -
= 29 /.
1.11. -
. -
( ) -
?
1.12. -
, 1, 1 .
, 2, -
?
1.13 (, 2006 2007). T -
.
, -
? .
1.14.
t1 = 30 t2 = 40 ?
1.15.
S = 1 2 -
t = 1 . t =
= 27 , n = 2,4 1025 3.
1.16. (
)

(p = 105 , T = 273 ), d =
= 3 1010 , n = 3 1025 3.
1.17. (
)
(p = 105 , T = 273 ), -
15
1
= 9 109. = 44 /.
1.18. , , -
, ?
1.19 (, 2003, 2006). , -
R, , -
. ,
n .
? .

16
2
.

, -
, .

,
.
, -
( ),
(
, , ,
; , -
). ,
, ,

.
,
,
, -
, , , , .
.

m
pV = RT = RT , (2.1)

,
. (2.1) p
, V , m ,
, T , = m/ (-
). (2.1) R=
17
= 8,3 /( ) , -

k NA : R = kNA.
(2.1) -
, (2.1), :
pV = NAkT = NkT, p = nkT, (2.2)
N ; n = N/V
, .
(2.1) (2.2)
(,
p) ( V, T
) - ,
, , .
, , ,
,
-
. -
(, V
N), : p
, T -
p, V N .
.
2.1. -
S m -
. -
, -
h . p0.
. -
,
( ),
( ) p.
, , -
, -
. ,
r
. : mg , -
r
F , ,
18
- r
r
F0 , - F1

(. ). -

r r r r
mg + F + F0 = 0 . (*) mg
r
(*) F0
-
F0 F -

p0
p,
mg
p = p0 + , (**)
S
S .
-
. , V = Sh -
(**),
pV p 0 Sh + mgh
T= = .
R R
2.2 (, 2004 2006). -
, ,
m = 1 , V = 1 3
t = 27 , p = 5,6 104 .
.
, -
,
. -

m
pV = RT ,

p ; V ; m
; ; R -
; T ,
19
mRT
= . (*)
pV
(*) , ,
, R=
= 8,3 /( ), , -
-
T = t + 273, , -

= 44 /.

CnOk, n k ,
. C =
= 12 /, O = 16 /, n k

12n + 16k = 44. (**)
(**) -
n k: n = 1, k = 2 (
). CO2, .. -
.
(2.1) (2.2) -
.

, , -
, . -
, ,
, , , ,
, .
,
, .
- , -
: -
, ( ), -
( ).

20

( ) -
.
T = onst
:
pV = const. (2.3)
(2.3) .
V = const -
:
p
= const . (2.4)
T
(2.4) .
p = const -
:
V
= const . (2.5)
T
(2.5) -.
.
2.3 (, 2005 2007).
p1 T1.
,
T2 -
? S.
. -

p1V = RT1, (*)
V ,
. -
.
;
.
p2V = RT2, (**)

21
p2 .
(*) (**), :
p1 T1
= (***)
p 2 T2
(, -
).
. -
, -
, -
. -
, -
( -
) .
,
, -
:
p2S p1S = mg,
m ; g .
p2, (***)
m,
p1 S (T2 T1 )
m= .
gT1

2.1. . -
, -
. ?
2.2. (p =
= 105 , T = 273 ). ,
= 29 /.
2.3 (, 2007). T -
. -
.
22
2.4. , -
, T = 1 -
, -
( = 0,004).
2.5. T =
= 250 = 1/7,
= 1/2 . -
?
2.6. , , , -
S = 2,5 2. -
, ,
, F = 12 ? -

p = 100 , T =
= 270 .
2.7. .
:
) ,
15 % ;
) -
, 30 %;
) ,
25 %?
2.8 (, 2005).
V = 3 n = 40 ,

= 150 3. pa = 105 . , -
.
2.9 (, 2007). -
V1 V2, -
p. .
2.10.
T1. -
T2? -
.
2.11. . m.
, -

23
k ,
n . ?
2.12 (, 2005, 2007). -
. V1 -
1 T1.
V2 -
T2, .
2.13 (, 2004 2006).
V1 = 2 V2 = 7 .
, , ,
p1 = 1 105 p2 = 0,52 105 ? .
.
2.14.
, . 1
, 2 ,
. -
,
.
p. -
. .
2.15. -
,
.
m1 = 3 , m2 = 21 . -
? .
2.16 (, 2006).
. -
, ( )
, -
. , -
. l = 32 .
2.17 (, 2003).
V -
T, T0.
? -
. p0, .
2.18. m = 716 ,
(C3H6O)n,
V = 243 3. t = 200
24
p = 105 . n. ,
, , : H = 1 /, C =
= 12 /, O = 16 /. , .
2.19 (, 2003 2006). -
, , m = 1
, V = 1 3
t = 27 , p = 5,6 104 .
2.20 (, 2006 2007).
S
V p (p > p0).
, -
? , p0,
.
2.21 (, 2005, 2007). -
,
. -
p1 p2 (p2 > p1) -
,
V1 V2. .
2.22 (, 2007). -
V = T2.

V1 V2?
2.23 (, 2007). -
P = T2.
V1 V2?
2.24 (, 2006 2007).
-
, -
. -
p. , -
p. , -
. ,
, . -
. .
2.25. -
, .
-
25
p. , -
p. ,
, .
.
2.26 (, 2004).
.
n = 2 ,
m = 1 . , -
k = 3 ?
.
2.27 (, 2005).
S1 S2
(S2 > S1) . -
,
T0
. -
.
? -
?
2.28. , -
r -
F ,
.

. -
F.
? l. T.
.
.
2.29. , -
l. ,
. -
, .
.
. .
2.30. l -
l/2, -
. ,
26
x. -
. .
2.31. -
l, -
(-
),

( ).
-
. pa.
.
2.32 (, 2003). -
.
-
,
. T1.

T2?
.
2.33. - -
. p1 -
p1 (.. p1 / g , -
). p2
p 2 ,
l? .
2.34 (, 2006). -
l
n
, n + 1
(. ). -
T0, . -
T1, -
T0.
?

27
3

-
-
, -
-
.
, -
, . -
, - , -

. -
(
),
. .
3.1. , -

p T, V T p V. -
, ?
. -
: T = const, .
-
p T V T -
.
.
,
pV = RT, (*)
, , -
. . 1, ,
p T V T
28
,
( ).
,
, -
p T V T .
. 1, , . ,
V T T, -
.
p T -
, .

p V p

T T V

. 1
p V, ,
(*) , -


p= , (**)
V
= RT = const . -
(**) p V .
, ,
, , ,
. . 1,
p V
. -
( ).
, .

(V = const),
V T p V , -
, .
(*) , -
29
, -
. V T
p V . 2, , ( , -
).

p V p

T V

. 2
p T .
(*), -

p = T, (***)
= R/V = const .
(***) , -
.
. ,
, -
.
p T -
, , , -
(. 2, ).

p V p

T T V

. 3
, ,
, (***)
. , ,
, , -

30
.
p T . 2, (
, ).
-
(p = const) (
), . 3.
,
.

, .. ,
. -
. .
3.2. ,
V = /T,
,
.
,
.
. ,
-

RT RT 2
p= = = T 2 , (*)
V
. ,

RT R
p= = 2 = 2 , (**)
V V V
. (*), (**) ,

p T, p V V T : -
,
(
). .

31
p p V

T V T


, (
-
). -
.
,
,
-
.
3.3.
,
p2
-
( 2
1 3 3 , . 1).
V
p T V T
. 1 .
.
: 1 2, 2 3 3 1.
, 1 2
. p
T V T : , -
(. 3.1), -
, , -
( 1 2 . 2).

p 2 V 3
1 3 1 2 . 2
T T

32
2 3 (
) (.
. 1). p T V T -
: p T
V T ( 2 3 . 2).
. 1, 3 1 -
, (. . 1).
: p T ,
,
V T. , 1 2
3 1, ,
. , -
1 (-
3 1 . 2).

3.1. -
p
,
. -
, V
? -
,
?
3.2. -
- p
, -
. -
, T
? -
,
?
3.3. -
- V
, -
. -
T
,
33
?
, ?
3.4.
p ,
np 2 3 - .


p 1 V . -
V kV -
, k n .
3.5. -
V 2 ,
-
1 3 .
T
-
. 3,
1 p1, 2 V2.
.
3.6. -
p 1 2 3 1,
2 3 p T . -
p V V T
1 T . ,
, T3 = nT1. ,
0,
V0.
3.7. -
p , -
2 3 - -
( 3 4 ).
1 4V , , -
-
0, p0 T0 ,
-
p n .
2 3 .
3.8 (, 2007).
1 p V 1
V 34
2 3 1, .
1 T1, 3 T3.
2? -
.
3.9 (, 2003 2004). -
, p

.
. - T
V(T) .
.
3.10.
, - p
, . ,
. 1
,
? T

1?
3.11 (, 2003 2004). -
, V

. -
T
? -
p V .
.
3.12. ,
p = V, -
, . -
, -
.
3.13. p V -
, - p 2
. , 3
2 3 1 4 . 1
V T. - 4 V
, 1 V1,

35
3 V3, 2 4 .
2 4. .
p 2 3.14 (, 2003).
2 p0

1 3 .
p0
V .

V0 2V0 .
.

36
4
.


,
. .
,
, , -
,
.
.

( , -
V) ,
p
1 RT 2 RT 3 RT
p = p1 + p 2 + p3 + ... = + + + ... =
V V V
RT
= (1 + 2 + 3 + ...) , (4.1)
V
R ; T -
; 1, 2, 3
. p1, p2, p3, ...
(4.1) .
(4.1) , ( ,
)
: , -

pV = RT, (4.2)

37
. -
,
, -
.
(4.1)
. (4.1)
, R = NAk, NA
( ), k , (4.1)
pV = (1 N A + 2 N A + 3 N A + ...) kT . (4.3)
iN -
i- Ni, (4.3)

pV = ( N1 + N 2 + N 3 + ...)kT = NkT , (4.4)


N .

, ,
. -
, , -
-
.
.
4.1. p = 105 -
t = 27 , -
. .
.
m m
pV = RT + RT , (*)
O2 N2

V ; m ;
R ; T -
, T = t + 273 . (*)

38
pV O 2 N 2
m= . (**)
( O 2 + N 2 ) RT
, 2m, -
= 2m/V:
2 p O 2 N 2
= . (***)
( O 2 + N 2 ) RT

(***) -
, O 2 = 32 /, N 2 =
= 28 /, :
= 1,2 103 /3.
4.2 (, 2004). , -
, -
t1 = 727 . ,
( )
( ) , -
t2 = 127 . -
, O 2 = 32 /.
. , -
-
.

m RT1
p0 = , (*)
O2 V

p0 ; m -
; O 2 = 32 / -
; V ; T1 -
(T1 = t1 + 273 ).
,
,
p0.

39
(m / 2) (m / 4) RT2
p0 = + , (**)
O V
2 x
m/2 m/4 -
; x ; T2
,
T2 = t2 + 273 . (*)
(**) V m,
R,

T1 T T
= 2 + 2 . (***)

O 2 2 O 2 4 x

(***), -

O 2 T2
x = .
2(2T2 T1 )
-
, x = 4 /. -
, .

-
.
, -
-
.

. -
:
-

(, -
). .
4.3 (, 2002). X
Y . p0, -

40
T0. -
nX + mY XnYm
XnYm. -
T1 = 3T0 X Y . -

p1 = (3/4)p0.
XnYm (.. n m). -
.
.
-

p0V = (NX + NY)kT0;
p1V = NkT1, (*)
V ; NX, NY N X, Y
XnYm.
XnYm
nX + mY XnYm (**)
XnYm n
X m Y. NX = nN, NY = mN,
-

p0V = (n + m)NkT0. (***)
(***) (*)
-
,
n + m = 4.
,
X Y:
XY3, X2Y2, X3Y.


4.1. m1 = 4 m2 = 32
t = 7 p = 105 .
4.2 (, 2006). , -
n = 3 . -
p = = 105 , T = 300 . .
41
4.3. V0 = 60 3
k = 5 : 1 -
p0 = 800 .
, V = 2 .
p1 = 6670 , p2 = 2670 .
? ,
.
4.4. V = 10 T = 300 -
: 1 = 0,2 (H2),
2 = 0,3 (O2), 3 = 0,4 (CO2).
.
4.5.
V = 0,5 .
. ,
(N2) 1 = 76 %, -
(O2) 2 = 23 % (Ar)
3 = 1 % ( -
). Ar =
= 40 /. t = 27 , p = 105 .
4.6 (, 2006 2007).
. p1 p2,
N1 N2 . .
, , .
4.7. -
V1 V2. 1
, 2
.
. -
. .
4.8. .
,
. -
.
,
. -
. .

42
4.9 (, 2005 2006).
.
1 1,
2 2 1.
, -
.
2. -
? .
4.10 (, 2004 2005). V = 0,5 3
m = 1 . t = 1000
p = 105 .
J2 . -

. J2
= 254 /.
4.11 (, 2003 2005).
. = 3
= 3,15 . -
?
4.12 (, 2003). V = 1 103 3 -
N2 m = 0,28 . -
T = = 1500 . = 0,3
. .
4.13. . -
- , -
p1. n ,
-
( > ). .
4.14 (, 2005, 2007). 1 = 2
2 = 1 T1 = 300
p1 = 103 . T2 = 10000 ,
.
T2. .
4.15 (, 2007). V0 T0 -
p0 ,
O3. -
. T
V p0,
. .
43
4.16 (, 2005). .
T1, ,
, -
p1. T2 (T2 > T1), -
, p2.
.
4.17. 1 2
T1 p1. -
T2, .
. .
4.18. (O3). -
(O2), p.
,
- .
.
4.19. p0 -
.
. ,

. .
.
. .
4.20 (, 2005). , ,
m1 = 2 (H2) m2 = 32 (O2)
t0 = 27 . -
,
H2O, t = 127 p = 105 .
.
. .
4.21. V = 1 CO2
m = 0,1 . T = 2500 -
CO2 O2
CO:
2CO2 2CO + O2
p = 5,5 104 .
CO CO2 .

44
5
:
, ,

- ,
, -
,
, .


.
-
,

.
(, , ),
-
.

m12 m 22 m32 m 2
U= + + + ... = N , (5.1)
2 2 2 2

1 , 2 , 3 , ... ; (m 2 / 2)
; N .
(1.3) (5.1)
N = N (N ),
3 3
U= NkT = RT , (5.2)
2 2
45
k ; R = Nk -
.


. - -
. -
-
.
, , ...
(-, -, ... ), -

.
-, -, ... -
( (5.2)),
. ,
-
. 100 -
(, , -
) (5.2),
, (5.2), 5/2, -
1500 (
) , (5.2), -
7/2. -
, , (5.2) -
5/2.
,
.
. -, -
.

.
, . ,
,
Q, .

U = Q, (5.3)

46
U ( ) ,
*.
U
( ), -
( ), -

Q > 0, , Q < 0, . (5.4)
.
,
, , -
, -
A ,
,
. , -
(.. ), -
. :
U = A , (5.5)
A , .
A , :
A > 0, , A < 0, . (5.6)

( , - ,
),
U = Q A , Q = U + A . (5.7)
(5.7),
, (
) .
-
( ).
. -
, , .. ,

*
-
( !) .
47
(5.2) (
, ). ,
, , . -
,

U = U U.
, -
. , -
- ,
, . -
, . -
Q A -
, ( )
- , -
. -
, , , -
Q A.

(5.7) -
U,
Q, , A,
.
-
. ,
(5.2) :
3
U = RT , (5.8)
2
T ( , -
). , -

-
. .
5.1.
, V p.
.
, T1
T2?
. U

48
3
U= RT , (*)
2
; R -
; T .
(*) -
pV = RT, p V -
.
3
U= pV . (**)
2
( )
, , -
(**), 5/2.
(
)
( ), -

U = 0. (***)
-
, -
, RT -
.

. -
. ,
, p.
x;
V = Sx (S , +
, ). , -

.

A = Fx cos = pSx cos = pV , (5.9)

49
, -
, ( cos = 1 ,
cos = 1 ).
.

V1 + V2 + V3 + ... ,
A = p1 V1 + p 2 V2 + p3 V3 + ... , (5.10)

p pi
,
Vi.
pi (5.10) -
. -

Vi V

. 5.1 (
. 5.1). -
,
(5.10),
. Vi -
( ,
). pi -
, Vi.
pi Vi -
Vi (
. 5.1). -
, -
(
+ , ). -
, , , , .. -
,
, -
p(V). ,
, . ,

50
A = pV, (5.11)
p ( -
); V = V V (V V
).
-
, -
, . .
5.2.
V1 V2
, , -
. ?
?
. -
, - p
, - 1
-
-
2

3
-
. - V1 V2 V
-
, -
p(V) (-
1 ).


p= , (*)
V
= RT. (*) ,
, 1,
-
( 2 ).
,
. , -

( 3 ).
.
51
,
( ), , -
, . -
. ,
p V , -
( ) ,
(. . 2),

p(V) , ,
(.. 2 ).
, -

( -
):

p= , (**)
V 5/3
= const. (**) ,
, (*) ( 3 -
).
(. ) -
, ( )
( -
), (
)
Ap > AT > A, (***)
Ap, AT A , -
, . ( -
-
. ,
- , -
, ,
. , Cp -
, ;
CV ..
.)

52
,
. -
.
, -
UT . -
,
QT = AT,

, AT QT .
, -
( pV, -
-
). Up > 0. -
(. (***)),

Qp = Up + Ap > QT = AT.
,
(Q = 0), , , -
,

Qp > QT > Q.

. -, , ,
-
. -,


. -
-
-
. .
5.3. -
, -
n = 2 ,
k = 3 . -
?
53
p0 = 105 V0 = 100 -
.
. -
:
Q = U + A.
(5.2) -
,
3 3
U = RT = (RT1 RT0 ) , (*)
2 2
; T0 T1
. -

p 0V0 = RT0 , nkp 0V0 = RT1 (**)
( (**) , -
n -
, k ). (**) -
(*),

3
U = p 0V0 (nk 1) .
2

p
np0

p0
V0 kV0 V

, -
p V.
.

54
, .. , -
.
A = np 0 (kV0 V0 ) = np 0V0 (k 1) .
U -
A ,
,
3
Q= p 0V0 (nk 1) + np 0V0 (k 1) =
2
5 3
= p 0V0 nk n = 115 .
2 2
-
, -
:
Q
C= , (5.12)
T
Q , -
; T -
Q.
, , -
( - -
),
(, -
, , -
). Q T (-
, )
. Q T (5.12) -
, : T
(5.12) ,
Q,
. Q, -
, , T ,
. ,
Q T, .

55
-
. ,
m T Q, -
(, , 2m)
T 2Q, -
2m
m. -
,

Q
c= . (5.13)
mT
,
. ,

.
-
,
. :
1) Q ( -
, -
); 2) A, -
; 3)
T; 4)
(5.12), Q .
-
.
,
.
-
() .
.
5.5 (, 2004).
, -
P = V. -
.

56
. Q.
T. -

3
Q = U + A = RT + A , (*)
2
. -
T (*), .

V1
V0

V0 V1 V



, T. -
, -
, -
.
, , -
, . -
V0, V1.
p0 p1
,
(. )
p0 = V0, p1 = V1.
( -
V0 V1
V1 V0), T:

V0 + V1 V12 V02
A= (V1 V0 ) = . (**)
2 2

57
-
( V0) ( V1)
.

RT0 = p 0V0 = V02 , RT1 = p1V1 = V12 ,


T0 T1 -
.
(**),
1
A= R T . (***)
2


. (***) (*), -
T
Q
Q
T =
2 R
( , T -
Q). T
C = Q/T,

C = 2R.

5.1 (, 2006 2007). -


PV2 = const. -

n = 2 . T0 = 300 .
5.2. -
PVn = const (n
). ,
?
5.3. -
S = 100 2 h = 10 -
58
m.
. P0 = 105 .
. -
.
5.4 (, 2006). -
T.
n .
, .
5.5.
V = 10 p = 105 .
n = 1,5 .
?
5.6. T1
T2 (T2 > T1) , ,
( -
). -
? ?
5.7. -
: ,
. , -
.
5.8. , -
, -
. -
.
5.9.
T ,
. , -
.
5.10 (, 2003). -
n , -
. -
, .
5.11.
,
Q = 30 ?
5.12 (, 2003). -
. -
59
A = 103 . ,
n = 2 . -
?
5.13. ,
,
T.
5.14. m = 6 ,
t1 = 5 t2 = 155 ?
5.15. = 1 -
t = 27 . -
,
n = 3 ?
5.16. = 2 -
, ,
q = 2 ,
T1 = 300 .
5.17. -

p0 = 105 , V0 = 3 3
T0 = 300 .
A = 90 (, , -
, .. A ). -
.
5.18 (, 2005).
T0.
m. , -
n ? .
5.19. -
1 2 ,
n = 1,5 .
T. A = 0,83 . -
T.
5.20. -
T1 T2, -
T2 T3. -
, , -
c.
60
5.21. -
. -
1
T1, 2 -
T2 (T1 < T2).
?
, ?
5.22. V1 V2
-
n. T1, T2.
, -
? ? -
.
5.23.
P/V = const. , -
n ? p0 V0
.
5.24. -
, ,
.
5.25. cV -
cp 1 2 .
-
U = (5/2)RT.
5.26.
,
V = f(T), f .
, T0.
5.27. -
CV,
, :
) V = T2;
) p = /T3;
) p = V.
p, V, T , ( -
) ; -
.

61
5.28. ,
p = V.
.
5.29 (, 2003 2004). -
r r
2
m . -

T. -
2 (. ).
. .
. , -
.
.
5.30 (, 2005).
1 -
T,
. -
. ,
. -
. , -
.
5.31 (, 2007). -
p.
. -
.
. T. -
(5/2)RT.
5.32 (, 2007).
. T1 ,
T2. -
. -
.
. -
(5/2)RT.

62
5.33 (, 2005, 2007). -
S
h .
. -

V0 ,
.
, -
,
? p0.

63
6


, .. ,
, -
.
-
-
.
: -

, -
-
, .
, -
- .
.
6.1. . 1
-
V 3 4 -
1 2 3 1 4 3 2 4, -
.
1 2
-
T ?
. 1 . -
,
(
).
1 2 3 1 1
64
2, 2 3
3 1 ( , 3 1
V T ,
). 1 2 3 1 -
p V . 2, . 4 3 2 4
4 3, 3
2 ( 2 3
) 2 4 ( -
, V
T, ). 4 3
2 4 p V . 2, .

p p 2 4
2

1 3 3

V V

. 2

1 2 3 1.
1 2 , -
. 2 3
, . 2,
2 3, .
3 1
, . 2,
3 1, .
-
1 2 3 1
1 2 3 1 p V.
4 3 2 4 -
4 3 2 4 p V.
1 2 3 1 4 3 2 4
,
65
P p V ,
2 4
1 2 3 1 (. 3),
1 2 3 1
1 3 4 3 2
4, , ,
V
. 3 .

6.1. ,
(,
3 ). ,
, ;
, -
; , .
p p p

V V V

1 2 3
6.2. ,

. ,
, ; -
, ; -
, .
p p p

T T T

1 2 3

66
6.3. ,

. ,
, ; -
, ; -
, .
V V V

T T T

1 2 3
6.4 (, 2003 2006). -
, ,
Q A, Q
A -
.
6.5 (, 2003 2006). -
, ,
U A, U
A -
.
6.6 (, 2003 2006). -
, ,
U Q, U
Q
.
6.7 (, 2005). p
, - 2 3
p V (1 2
3 4 , 2 3 4 1 ).
1 3 T1 1 4V
T3, 2 4 .
, , ,
1 2 3.

67
p 6.8. -
,
( 0 3).
0
1
3 ( 1),
2 ( 2).
V -
0 3? -
?
?
6.9. -
p , -
2
,
. T1
1 T2 . -
V
?
6.10. ,
p
5 4 1
2 2 3 4 5 6 1, -
3
( 1 2, 3 4 5 6 -
1 6 , 2 3, 4 5 6 1
V ). , p5 p2 =
= p2 p1, V3 V6 = V6 V1.
6.11. -
p 1 2 3 1,
p2 2 -
( 2 3 -
, 3 1 , -
p1 1 3 1 2
). p1 p2 -
V1 V2 V V1 V2 .
, .
6.12. 1 -
p 4 -
1 2 ,

3 4 T
68
( 1 2 3 4 ). -
, , , -
1 3, 2 4 .
, T4 T1 = T.
6.13. 1 - V 1
4 - 2
, -
- 3 4 T
(
1 2 3 4 ). , -
, ,
1 3, 2 4 . -
, T4 T1 = T.
6.14 (, 2005, 2007).
, -
. -
3 1 , p
1 2

. 1 2 , 2
3 . - 3
, ,
1 2 3 1 A, V
1 T1?
6.15. -
1 2 3 1 (. ),
1 2, -
2 3 p
3 1. , - 1

A21 .
2 3 V
?

69
7
:
, ,

-
. ,

.

,
-
.
,

. (
) Q,
T, Q:
Q = CT, (7.1)
C ,
. , -
. ,
m T Q,
2m
.

C = cm, (7.2)
c , -
. c,
, ,
70
,
.
() -
. (6.2)

Q = cmT. (7.3)
(7.3) ( -
) ,
, ,
, -
.

,
,
, . -
, , , -
. -

.
, ,
. , -
.
, -
, , ,
,
. .
7.1. T1, -
m1 , m2 T2. -
. C.
c. .
. Tx. (7.3)
, ,
(7.1)
Q1 = cm1(Tx T1), Q2 = cm2(Tx T2), Q3 = C(Tx T1) (*)

71
( (*) ,
). (*)
,
, .
(Tx > T) ,
(Tx < T) . -
( )

Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 0. (**)
(**) , -
(*),
Tx:
cm1(Tx T1) + cm2(Tx T2) + C(Tx T1) = 0. (***)
(***), -

cm T + cm 2T2 + CT1
Tx = 1 1 .
cm1 + cm2 + C
,
, -
, . -
:
, -
. -

( , , ),

*.
-
: -
, ,

*
, , -
. ,
, -
, .
.
72
,
. -
-
, . ,
, , -
,
Q = m, (7.4)
m ; , -
. (6.4)
, -
. -
(7.4).
(
). -

Q = rm, (7.5)
m ; r -
.
. -
(7.5).
, -
, -
. -
,
( . . 7). -
.
T T

t t

7.2. ,
. -
.
73

, ?
. , -
, -
, , -
, -
, -
, . -
, , -
-.
: -
-
, , -
, , .
, -
, ,
, .

. -
, , .
, -
.
, -
. ,
, ,
.
7.3. ,
T1, m2 T2.
m3 , .
m1. c1 c2
. . -
.
. , ,
, .

, ,
T0 = 0 .

74
Q1 = c1m1(T1 T0). (*)

T2 T0
m2 m3 ,
Q2 = c2m2(T0 T2) + (m2 m3) (**)
. (*)
(**) ,
c 2 m 2 (T0 T2 ) + (m 2 m3 )
m1 = .
c1 (T1 T0 )
-
-
.

.
,
, , (
). .
7.4. , m = 200 , -
P = 50 . -

T = 55 . T = 1
? -
c = 4,2 103 /( K), -
.
. ,
. ,
, -
,
.
-
.
.
,

.
75
, -
,
, -
, .
,
P = w, (*)
w ( ,
).
-
,
( ),
, . -
, -
,
(*). -
, -
, .
t
, (*),
cmT = wt = Pt. (**)
(**) ,
T
cmT
t = = 17 .
P

7.1. ,
t = 0 . ?
7.2. , -
?
7.3. t = 36,6 .
25 C 37 ?

76
7.4. ,
5 10 , -
.
?
7.5. -
?
7.6. , -
, -
. -
-
(. ) ,
.
.
7.7. m = 100
T0 = 10 T1 = 90 t = 5 . -
. -
. c=
= 4,2 103 /( K).
7.8. -
T0 = 300
m = 0,2 T = 500 .
p0 = 105 , V = 1000 3.
c = 450 /( ). .
.
7.9. ,
m = 100 t = 20 . -
c = 4,2 103 /( ),
q = 4,6 107 /.
= 10 %.
7.10 (, 2007). -
: m1 t1,
m2 t2 m3 t3. .
7.11 (, 2004). m1 -
t = 0 m = 1,5 -
t = 30 , ? -
c = 4,2 103 /( ), -
= 3,35 105 /.
77
7.12. ,
m = 50 , ,
t1 = 32,4 . t, -
C = 2,8 / -
t2 = 17,8 ?
c = 4,2 103 /( ).
7.13. , m = 10
t1 = 10 ,
t2 = 100 . ,
, t3 = 60 .
,

t4 = 50 ? c = 4,2 103 /( ),
r = 2,3 106 /.
7.14 (, 2007). , -
T0 = 0 , ,
t = 10 . ? -
c = 4,2 103 /( K). -
r = 2,3 106 /.
T1 = 100 C. ,
.
7.15. m1 = 0,5
m2 = 2 t1 = 20
= 30 %.
P = 5 103 .
m = 100 ? c1 = 9
102 /( ); c2 = 4,2
103 /( );
r = 2,3 106 /.
7.16. , m = 575
t = 0 , ,
. .
r = 2,5 106 /, -
= 3,4 105 /.
7.17. , m1 = 100 t1 = 0 ,
m2 = 100 t2 = 100 . -
78
?
c1 = 4,2 103 /( K), r =
= 2,5 106 /, = 3,3
105 /. -
?
7.18. m1 = 2 t1 = 5 -
m2 = 5 t2 = 40 . -

. -
. c1 = 4,2
103 /( K), c1 = 2,1 103 /(
K), = 3,3 105 /.
7.19 (, 2005).
P = 50 .
T = 1 C t1 = 100 . -
, T
t2 = 200 . ?
c = 4,2 103 /( K), .
7.20 (, 2005).
P. -
T
t1 = 10 . -
P/2, T
t2 = 21 .
T,
2P?

79
8
.

, , .
,
( ),

. , , ,
, -
, -
. -

, -
*.
-
, , ,
-
.
.
8.1.
?
. , , , -
-
.
, ,
,
. -

*
, , , -
., -
, -
, .
80
,
, -

. -
-
. , -
V, -

pV = NkT, (*)
N ; T . -
-

pV = (N1 + N2)kT, (**)
N1 ; N2 .
(*) (**) , , -
-
.
-
. ,
, , - ,
, -
, , -
. ,
,
29 /. , -
29 ... -
18 ... , -

.
-
, -
.
. ,
, -
. -
(, ,
) -
81
. -
, -
. ,
, -
.
( ) -
-
, , , -
,
, . ( ) -
,
. -
, ( )
( ,
) . ( )
.
, ,
. -
, -
(, ,
),
,
,
.

,
.
.
( )
( )
. -

, -

p:
p
= = . (8.1)
p

82
. -


. .
8.2. V = 120 3 -
t = 15 = 60 %. -

,
p = 1,7 103 . -
, -
, t1 = 10 ? -
t1 = 10
p ,1 = 1,2 10 3 . t2 = 2 ? -
t2 = 2
p ,2 = 0,7 10 3 . -
.
. -
-
. ,
,
m
p V = RT , (*)

m ; ,
= 18 /; T , T = t + 273 K.
(*) -
, m/V:
p V
m= = 920 ,
RT
p
= = 7 ,7 3 . (**)
RT
-. -
,

83
, ,
, -
,
. ,
(**) -
.
,
.
, -
,
. -
,
, (

), ,
-
. , -
, -
100 %. (
,
.)

, -
, , ,
. -
,

.
,

, .
t = 10
(
p - ):
p T1
p ,1 = 1,2 10 3 > p = = 1,0 10 3 . (***)
T

84
,
(**). -

( (***)) -
, ..
p T1
1 = = 83 % .
p ,1T

t2 = 2 . -
, -
:
p T2
p ,2 = 0,7 10 3 < p = = 0,97 10 3 .
T
(
) ,
. , -
t2 = 2
2 = 100 %.
,
,
p ,2 p ,2V
2 = = 5,3 3
, m2 = = 636 .
RT2 RT2
,
t2 = 2 m = 284
.
,
, ,
, .. -

. ,
v = m/ = 2,84 104 3 -
V = 120 3.

85
( ) -
,
, -
. -
. - -
-
, .
, -
, p
,

p = p. (8.2)

, -
p, -
, (8.2) .
,
, -
. -
, ,
,
. -
,
( ), .. . -
,
p = p. (8.3)
, -
, -
-
,
.
100 ,
t = 100 -
, .. p (t = 100 C) 105 .

86

8.1. -
?
8.2. ?
?
8.3. , -
,
, . .
8.4. .
, .
, ?
8.5. , ,
?
8.6.

t1 = 0 1 = 95 %
t2 = 35 -
2 = 40 %? -
p ,1 = 4,6 . .
p ,2 = 42 . . .
, -
t3 = 20 ?
t3 = 20 p ,3 = 17,5 . .
8.7. T p -
.
, -
.
p.
8.8. V = 10 3, -
, m = 1 .
t = 20 , -
p = 2,3 103 . -
?
8.9. V = 1 3 t = 20 -
= 30 %.
87
-
m = 5 . .
t = 20 p =
= 2,3 103 .
8.10. V
T 1.
,
2? .
8.11. V1 V2 ,
. -
1,
2. . -
. .
.
8.12.
t = 100 = 40 %.
V = 1 . t1 = 20 .
, ?
t = 20 p =
= 2,3 103 .
8.13. 1
T1. V1.

T2 V2?
T1 T2 p ,1 p ,2 .
8.14.
V = 10 3 , m = 10 .
t = 100 ,
. ?
8.15. -
p = 100 t = 0
, -
, , -
. ,
V = 1 3 , t1 = 82 ,
p1 = 180 .

88
8.16. -
. = 2 -
, -
, ,
n : m (n = 4, m = 3). -
,

. ?
. ,
.
8.17.
.
8.18.
m = 5 . S = 600 2,
pa = 105 . , -
. ?
8.19. l = 100 ,
,
. , -
H = 45 . -
, p0 = 105 ,
= 103 /3. .

l/2

8.20.
T. m
. ?

89
x 8.21. , -
,
x = x0
, -
.
x=0 .
x(T). ,
, x = x0
(. ).
8.22. -
pa = 105 t0 = 0 . -
,
t = 100 . , -
. :
) V = 20 , m = 19 ;
) V = 30 , m = 15 .

90
9

. .

,
, (-
) - .
, () ,
,
A,
(..
: U = 0). -
, ,
-
Q,
:
Q = A. (9.1)
, (9.1) -
,
, (, -
, ).
, , , -
. .
- ,
,
- , -

.
,
,

91
, -
. -
. -

.

, -
, , -
, ,
,
.
,
, , -
*. -
-
, -
,
, , -
.
-
p 3 .
-
,
2 4 (
1 1 . 9.1).
V ,
-
. 9.1 ( 1 2
. 9.1).
.
, -
,
1 2 .

*
, ,
,
.
92
( 2) . -
;
.
, , , -
( 2 3 . 9.1).
-
, ,
. -
,
-
( 3 4 . 9.1).
, -
, -
, .
.
-
. -
: -
, -
( 4)
. -
, ( 4
1 . 9.1). ,
, *.
, -
-
,
(. 9.1). 2 3 , -
4 1 , -
.
(, ,
) ? -
3 4 ( , -

*
1876 . -
.. .
93
, ).
4 1 , .. *!
? -
, . -
,
. -

, .. -
. ,
,
, , -
. -
():
A
= , (9.2)
Q
A , ; Q -
, . -
-.
, , , -
, .. A = Q Q,
Q Q Q A
= =1 = (9.3)
Q Q A + Q
(, , , Q
, ,
, -
, , , ).
.
9.1. , -
, (. ).
Q1, Q2, -
Q3. .

*
, - , -
. -
.
94
. - p 3
, -
1 2 2
2 3
Q > 0. , 1

, , , V
, .
A > 0, -
U > 0, -
. ,
1 3 ,

( ).
,
3 1 (Q < 0), ..
, .
, ,
,
Q = Q1 + Q2, (*)
, ,
Q = Q3 . (**)
-
,
: U = 0. Q1 +
+ Q2 + Q3 .

Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = A, (***)
A ,
. (9.2) -
:
A Q1 + Q2 + Q3
= = .
Q Q1 + Q2

95
-
, , -
, , -
, , ,
.
.
1. -
, ,
, .
, ,
p V.
2. , .
, -
p V, ,
. (9.2)
(9.3) .
.
9.2.
p
-
2p 2 1 2 3 1, -
-
-
p 1 3
( 2 3 -
, 3 1 -
V 2V V , 1 2 -
,
1 2 -
). .
. , -
,
. 1 2 , , -
, : A12 > 0 .
(
1
2), U 11 > 0 . -
,

96
Q1 2 = U 12 + A12 > 0 ,
, , .
2 3 , ,
: A23 = 0 . -
, U 23 < 0 . , -
2 3
Q2 3 = U 2 3 + A2 3 < 0 ,
.. .
3 1 -

Q31 < 0
, .
,
. -
,
Q = Q1 2 = U 12 + A12 . (*)
1 2 -

3 3
U 1 2 = RT = (RT2 RT1 ) =
2 2
3 9
= (2 p 2V pV ) = pV ,
2 2
; R
; T2 T1 2 1.
1 2
p V. -
, ,
p + 2p 3
A1 2 = (2V V ) = pV .
2 2

97
(*)
9 3
Q = pV + pV = 6 pV .
2 2
. -

-
V p,
1
A= pV .
2

A 1
= = .
Q 12
,
, 1 2,
,

.

p 1
. , ,

2 , -
4
3
V . -
. 9.2 ( 1 2
3 4 . 9.2)
( 2 3 4 1 . 9.2)
.
K,
T T T
= =1 , (9.4)
T T

98
T T . -
, , (9.3) (9.4), -
: (9.3) -
; (9.4)
(, ) ,
, , .
,
, (9.4). -
.
9.3. ,
(. . 9.2). :
A, , -
1 2, Q12 , T1.
.
. ,
A
= , (*)
Q
A Q ,
. A , Q .
,
1 2, Q = Q ( 2 3 4 1
, 3 4 ).

A
= . (**)
Q
, (9.4)
T
=1 1 , (***)
T2
T1 T2 . -
(**) (***) -
,
A
T2 = 1 T1 .
Q

99

p 9.1.
, -
p2 p V -
,
(. ). -
p1 ,
-
V1 V2 V Q, -

( ). -
.
. ab, a b
.
9.2. , ,
, n -
. .
9.3. , , -
, n ,
. .
9.4. , , ,
, A.
T. -
. .
9.5. ,
, :
T
T?
9.6. , -
p 2 , ,
,
, ,
2 1, n:
1
A / Q21 = n .
V 9.7 (, 2007). -

100
1 2 3 4 1 ( 1 2, 3 4 -
, 2 3, 4 1 ),
-
. - p
2p 2 3
- 0

.
p0
, - 1 4 V
, V0 2V0

p
.
2 3
9.8. 1 2 3 kp0
4 1, -
, - p0
(. ). - 1 4 V
,
V0 nV0
n , k . -
.
9.9. V T
, - V
- 4 3
(1 2 3 4 - 1
, 2 3 4 1 ). 2
1 T1, T
3 T3. .
9.10.
1 2 3 1, p
2 3
( 1
2 , 2 3 ,
3 1 - 1
). , -
, 2 3, n V
,
3 1. .
9.11.
1 2 3 1,
101
9.10 ( 1 2 -
, 2 3 , 3 1 -
). ,
n . .
9.12 (, 2004). -
p 2 -
1 2 3 1, -

1 3 ( 3 1 ,
V 1 2 2 3 -
V nV nV , -
2 1 2
). .
9.13 (, 2004). -

p 2 3 1 2 3 1,
-
( 2 3 -
1 , 1 2 3 1
V ,
V0 2V0 3V0 1 3 -
).
-
. .
9.14 (, 2004). -

1 2 3 1,
p
2 -
3p0
( 2 3
, 1 2 3 1
2p0
3
p0 1 , 1 2 -
V ).

. .
9.15 (, 2006 2007). -
1 2 3 4 2 5 1, -
p V ( 1 5 2
102
4 , 3 4 2 5 - p
3
). , -
2
n 2 1 3 . 4
. 1
5 V
9.16 (, 2005 2006).

, ( 1 2
), ( 2 3) P
( 3 1). , 1 2
. -

, . 3 V
9.17. -
,
( 1 2 9.16), (
2 3) ( 3 1). ,
.
.
9.18 (, 2006). -
, p 1
,
( 1 2 ),
( 2 3) ( 3 1). - 3
2
, ,
2 3, A, V
T.
9.19.
1 2 3 4 1 . p
5 6 7 8 2p 2 3 6 7
5.
- p
, - 1 4 5 8
. V
V 2V 3V 4V
.

103
p 9.20 (, 2005). -
3 1 2 3 4 1,
2 -
(. -
1 4 ), .
1 2 3 1.
V

104
10

10.1. -
H -
.
x x y
, , -
,
, ,
-
y (y < H)? -
p0, .
. -

. ,
.
10.2 (, 2004 2006). -
r1 ,
r2 . .
. -
. , -
, : p = /r.
10.3. U- -
, (. ). -
,
.
m, , -
S,
h. p0.
. .
105
10.4. U- -
, (. 10.3).
,
.
m, , S,
h. p0.
. , -
.
. -
: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.5 (, 2003). ,
3 -
1 2 l
S S ( > 1), -
.
, -
,
.
,

p3/p1 = . Q , ,
.
?
10.6 (, 2003).
,
p = V2, .
. , ?
10.7 (, 2006 2007). -

-
T0, . -
, -
. -
, . -
, ?
.

106
10.8 (, 2006 2007).

x h

. h ,
-
. , -
. x

, ?
. .
10.9 (, 2005 2007).
m S -
. h
.
, . -
-
h. -
,
2h? pa.
10.10 (, 2004). m -
,
T1 T2 .
. -
-
T1 ( T1 < T1 ) T2 ( T2 < T2 ).
? c.
10.11 (, 2003). , -
, , -
T1.
, T2.
,
n ? -
.
10.12. t0 = 100 ,
t1 = 20

107
t2 = 30 . ,
?
10.13 (, 2003 2004). t1 = 20 . -
, -
t 2 = +16 . -
t 3 = 24 , -
P = 0,5 .
. . ,

.
10.14 (, 2005 2007). -
R, -
-
T. -
2R. -
,

, -

.
10.15. ,
p = f(V), f
. -
, V.
10.16. ,
p = V2,
. .
10.17 (, 2003 2005).
,
.
-
, . -
, -
. .
, .
10.18. -
, -
108
C = R (T02 / T 2 ) , ;
T0 . -
?
10.19 (, 2006).
H - h
- H
.
, -
(. ),
.
, - p
h = 11H/24. 2p0 2
.
10.20 (, 2004).
p0 1 3
-
1 2 3 V
1, p
V0 2V0
V .
. -
.
10.21. p 1
, - 2
. 1 2 3 4 - 4
, 2 3 4 1 , 1 3 -
. 1 2 3 1 1, 3
1 3 4 1 2. V
1 2 3 4 1?
10.22 (, 2005). ,
p 2
1 2, 2 3
3 1, 1, ,
3 1, 3 4 4 1
1, 2. , 3
1 2 3 4 1. 4 V
.

109
p 10.23 (, 2006). -
2p0 2
(. ), (1 2),
p0 (2 3) (3 1). ,
1 3
V
. .
.
p
2
: pV 5 / 3 = const .
1 3 10.24.
V , -
4
(1 2 3 4)
V1 V2 (2 3 4 1).
.
.
. -
: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.25. -
p -
np0 2
1 2 3 4 1 (.
1 ), -
(1 2 3 4)
p0 (2 3 4 1). , -
4 3
V -
n. .
. -
: pV 5 / 3 = const .
10.26. ,

V = 100 . -
, . -
T = 373 .
, :
) m1 = 74 , m2 = 10 ;
) m1 = 74 , m2 = 74 ;

110
) m1 = 36 , m2 = 2,8 ?
: H 2O = 18 /,
H 2 = 2 /, CO 2 = 44 /,
N 2 = 28 /.
10.27 (, 2002).
- 1
. 2
- 3
. -
? 0
. -
p =
= (T T)2, T ; -
.
, , : T,1 = 300 , T,1 = 400 ,
T,2 = 300 , T,2 = 380 , T,3 = 250 , T,3 = 350 . -
, p = 105 .

111

1. - .
.

1.1. , -
, ,
( ). -
, , -
.
. -
V. N -
.
V
V1 = . (1)
N
(1) m0
NA. Nm0 m -
, m/V , m0NA -
, (1)

V1 = . (2)
N
(2),
,

d =3 , (3)
N

(3) . -
, NA = 6 1023 1/, ,
, = 1 /3, = 18 /, (3)
112
d 3 108 .
1.2.
m m0 N m0 N
= = = = ,
V V V V
m ; V ; m0 ; N
; NA ( -
); , = m/.
1.3.
NV m0 N V mN N
= m0 N = m0 N = N = N = = 2 /.
NV V N V V n
, H2.
1.4. m0 ( -
) 12 ..., -
1/12 :
mC = 12 ... (1)

:
C = 12 . (2)
NA , -
(2) -
, -
... (1) -
.

mC = C = 2 10 23 ; (3)
N

C = mC N = 7,2 10 24 ... (4)


1.5. N -
m0. -
,
V
N= . (1)
m0

113
(1)
NA , = m0NA,
VN
N= . (2)

-

H 2O Hg
. (3)
H 2O Hg

(3) -
,
H 2O Hg
= 0,055 , = 0,065 . (4)
H 2O 3 Hg 3
, 0,065/0,055 =
= 1,18 ( -
).
(2). -
,

N H 2O = 6,7 10 24 , N Hg = 7,8 10 24 .

m m
1.6. N = N = 3,3 10 23 , = = 0,55 .

1.7. NA = 6 1023 -
C2H5OH. 6 ,
3,6 1024 , -
1,8 1024 H2, ..
.
1.8. ( ) -
:
m
= .

114
, -
. ,

2O3 = 3O2
. -
, ,
1,5 .
1.9. -
-
(. (1.6)
. 1):
p
n= . (1)
kT
(1) , , -
1 3 ,
. (1) ,

n = 2,6 1019 3. (2)


-
(2) , ,
.
1.10.
:
m 2 3
= kT , (1)
2 2
m ; ; k -
, k = 1,38 1023 /; T -
. (1)
NA , = mNA,

3 N kT
= = 483 /. (2)

1.11. -
, .
115
( ) -
, .. -
, , .. , -
.
, -
.
1.12. 2 = 1 1 / 2 .
1.13. m.

T
m 2 = 3kT , m( + ) 2 = 3k (T + T ) , (1)

T. (1) ,
2m = 3kT m 2 . (2)
-
T .
m( + 2) 2 = 3k (T + T + T ) . (3)
(3) (1)
(2),
2m 2 2 2
T = T + = T +
3k 3kN
( , = mNA).
1.14. (t 2 + 273 C) /(t1 + 273 C) = 1,016 .
1.15. (1.5) -
S t
n St nSt 3kT nSt 3kN T
N= = = , (1)
6 6 m 6
n ; -
; k ; T ; m
; .

116
(1)
29 /,
N = 2 1027.
1.16. -
l
, , -

V0, V1, -
, r

- 2d
-

, l
-
.
, -
2d (d
) l (. ):
V0 = d2l. (1)
V1, ,
V 1
V1 = = , (2)
N N
V ; N ; n -
, n = N/V. (1) (2),

1
l = 2
= 1,2 10 7 .
d n
1.17. -
t,
1

1 1 3kN T
= = = ,
t l l
117
; l -
; T ; .

1 3kN T
l= = 1,4 10 8 .

1.18. , -
( 78 % , 21 %
1 % ). , -
, -
:

3kN T
= (1)

( ). ( = 2 /) -
(T = 273 ) (1)
H 2 = 1850 /; (2)


N 2 = 460 /. (3)

, -
2 =
= 11,2 /, (
, ) , .
,
, , (1). ,
,
2 , , .
2
, ,
, , -
-
.
.
118
2 = 2,4 / , . -
-
, , .
1.19.
.

.
-
S. t,
, -

N = nSt (1)
. -
m0, m, t:
m = nm0St. (2)
(2) V
h t:
m nm0 St
V = = ; (3)

V nm0 t nt
h = = = (4)
S N

( (4) , m0N = , NA -
). (4) , -
h/t ,
, ,
:
h n
= = . (5)
t N

R RN
t= = .
n

119
2. .

2.1. ,
,
l1. H , -
:
p0l0S = (p0 + gH)l1S, (1)

p0 l0
H= 1 , (2)
g l1
p0 ; l0 ;
. (2) ,
p0/g (2)
p0 = 105 10 . ,
,
10 ;
, 40 ..
2.2.
V,
m
pV = RT , (1)

m . (1)
= m/V :
p
= = 1,28 /3.
RT
2.3. -
V 2V
= . (1)
T T + T
(1), : T = T.

120
2.4. -
, .
:
p p1 p(1 + )
= = . (1)
T T1 T + T
(1),
T
T= = 250 .

2.5.
,
,
pV p1V1
= ,
T T1
p, V T , -
; p1, V1 T1 , .
T1 = T + T, p1 = p(1 + ), V1 = V(1 + ).
T
T= = 350 .
+ +
2.6. : r
r F r
F F
r
F
r r
F (. ). F
-

p0S + F = pS,
p . -
p, (V = const) -
, p = p0T/T0 -
T, ,

121
F
T = T0 1 + = 405 .
p 0 S

2.7. ) 1,18 ;
) 1,43 ;
) 1,33 .
2.8. -
, ,
m:
p
m = ,
RT
; T .

:
nm m
p= RT = = 2 10 5 .
V
2.9. p = pV2/(V1 V2).
2.10. m/m = (T2 T1)/T2, m ,
; m .
2.11. m = (n k)m/n, n > k.
2.12. , ,
, .
.
,
1 RT1 2 RT2
= .
V1 V2

T1V2
2 = 1 .
T2V1
2.13.
1 2 . :

122
p1V1 = 1RT, p2V2 = 2RT, (1)
T . (1)
p1V1 p V
1 = , 2 = 2 2 . (2)
RT RT
,
, , -
, ,
, , (2):
pV p V
p(V1 + V2 ) = (1 + 2 ) RT = 1 1 + 2 2 RT = p1V1 + p 2V2 , (3)
RT RT
p , .
(3)
p V + p 2V2
p= 1 1 = 0,63 10 5 .
V1 + V2
2.14. ,
-
2/2 . ,
-
1 + (2/2)
. -


p 2V = 1 + 2 RT , (1)
2
V ; T .
,
:
p1V = 1RT, (2)
p1 . (1) -
(2) ,
2 1 p
p1 = .

1 + 2
2
123
2.15. -

.
:
m1 m2
= , (1)
H 2 V1 N 2 V 2

V1 V2 , -
. (1) ,
:
V1 m1 N 2 2
= = .
V1 + V2 m1 N 2 + m 2 H 2 3

2.16. l1 = N 2 l /( N 2 + He ) = 28 .
2.17. m = p0V(T T0)/RTT0.
2.18. , -
,
:
= (3 C + 6 H + O )n , (1)

mRT
= . (2)
pV
(1) (2),
mRT
n= = 2.
pV (3 C + 6 H + O )

2.19. = mRT/pV = 44 /
(T = t + 273 K). , -
CO2.
2.20. h = (V/S)((p/p0) 1).
2.21. V = (p2V2 p1V1)/(p2 p1), (p2V2 p1V1 > 0).
2.22.
.
124
pV = RT (1)
V T -
.
T = V / ,
R 1
p= . (2)
V
(2) (V = V1) (V = V2)
,

p2 V1
= .
p1 V2

2.23. p2/p1 = (V1/V2)2.


2.24. p,

p, -
p p. V1 -
,
:
pV
pV = (p p)V1 V1 = ,
p p
V . -
, 2.13, p1
:
pV + ( p p)V1 2 p ( p p )
p1 = = .
V + V1 2 p p

2.25. p1 = p + (p/2).
2.26. M, pa.

paS + Mg = pS, (1)

125
S ; p .
,
(1)
Mg RT
p + = , (2)
S V
T ; V -
. m,
mg/S, ,
n , -
:
Mg mg nRT
p + + = . (3)
S S V
(2) (3),
RT mg
= . (4)
V S (n 1)
, k ,
m1.
:
Mg mg m1 g knRT
p + + + = . (5)
S S S V
(3) (5) (4),

n(k 1)m
m1 = = 4 .
n 1
2.27. , -
(. ).
: ,
r r
, F,1 F,2
r r
F,1 F,2 .

126
r r r r
F,1 + F,2 + F,1 + F,2 = 0 (1)

pS1 p S1 + p S 2 pS 2 = 0 , (2)
p . (2)
p(S2 S1) = pa(S2 S1). (3)
S1 S2, (3) -
, :
p = pa. ( , (3) -
(S1 S2)
, .) -

(
), , , , -
, . , -
,
(
), .

r r r r
F,1 F,1 F,2 F,2


2S2l (l -
), S1l + S2l, -
-
S1 l + S 2 l 2 S 2 l
= (4)
T0 T1

127

2S 2T0
T1 = . (5)
S1 + S 2
T2,
,
2S1T0
T2 = . (6)
S1 + S 2
2.28.
. -

, , -
,
. ,
(, ,
), -
, -
,
.

r r r r
F,2 F,1
F,1
F,2
r
F

r
: F -
r r
F,1 F,2 (. ).
:
r
( -
F,1
r
F,1 , ),

128
r
( -
F,2
r
F,2 , -
). ( -
, )
ma = F + F,1 F,2 , ma = F,2 F,1 (1)

(m , ). -
(1) p2 p1
:
F
p 2 p1 = , (2)
2S
S .
, -
. -
l.

RT RT
p1 = , p2 = (3)
(l / 2 + l ) S (l / 2 l ) S
(,
). (3), (2) -
l:
RT RT F
= , (4)
(l / 2 l ) (l / 2 + l ) 2

:
4 RT l2
l 2 + l =0. (5)
F 4

129

2 RT 4 R 2T 2 l2
l = + + (6)
F F2 4
( (5) ). -
(6) -
: F 0

, , l 0, .. , -
, . F
-
, , l l/2. ,

,
( -
).
2.29.
r , . -
r
F2 : mg (m );
r r
F1 F2 (.
).
r
r mg p2 p1 = gl, (1)
F1
p1 p2 -
; ; l .
p1 p2 , -
.
pV pV
p1 = , p2 = , (2)
V V
p ;
V ,
; V V
. -
V = 2V. ,
. ,
130
-
-
.
2 4
V = V , V = V . (3)
3 3
(2)
p1 p2 ,
(1).
4
p= gl .
3
2.30. pa = 2gx(l x)/(l 2x).
2.31. ,
, x. -
,
x.

p = pa + gx, (1)
p , . -
p
:
px = pal. (2)
(1), (2)
pa(l x) = gx2. (3)
(3) -

p p 2 p l
x= + +
2g 4 g 2 2 g
( ,
).
2.32.
mg
+ p1 = p 2 , (1)
S

131
m ; p1 p2
. -
,
,
, (1)
mg RT1
= , (2)
S 2V
V .
T2
mg RT2 RT2
= , (3)
S V2 V1
V1 V2 -
. V1 + V2 = 3V, (2), (3)
3T1 T T
= 2 2 . (4)
2(V1 + V2 ) V2 V1
V2 -
(4)
x = V1/V2, (4)
3T1 T
= T2 2 . (5)
2( x + 1) x
(5)
x:
3T
x2 1 x 1 = 0 . (6)
2T2
(6)

V1 3T1 9T12
x= = + +1
V2 4T2 16T22
( ,
).
2.33. -
p1
132
RT
p1 = gh + p 0 = gh + , (1)
S (l h)
h , -
p1 = gh ; T -
; S . -
(1) , -
:
RTg
= ( p1 p1 )(gl p1 ) . (2)
S

p 2 (2) :
(gl p1 )( p1 p1 )
p 2 = p 2 + .
gl p 2
2.34. ,
.
, -
.
, , -
, ,
. ,
x, 2x, -
3x, ..., nx.
, ,
, Sx, -
nSx, S . -

RT RT0
= , (1)
l l
+ nx S x S
n +1 n +1
; lS/(n + 1) -
. (1),
l (T T0 )
x = .
(n + 1)(nT0 + T )
133
3.

3.1. , y = /x ( > 0)
-
y x.
(mRT / )
p=
V
, ,
, m ( -
T ),
( ).
3.2. , -
, (
) ( -
).
3.3. , -
, (
) (
).
3.4. , -
3, -
1. , -
-
. 3 -
,
, 1 , -
.
1 3
pV = RT1, npkV = RT3,
; T1 T3 1
3, , -
-

T3
= nk .
T1
3.5. 1 2 . -
,
134
,
1 2 (.
3.1). p T p V
,
(. ).
2 3 - p p3
, 3
(,
, - 1 2 1 2
). T V
p T
(. -
3.1), (. -
). p V ,
-
(. ).
3 1 , -
(, ,
). p T , -
, -
(. ). p V -
, (. ).
T3 3
. 2 3 , T3 = T2
(T2 2). 1 2 -
, 1 2: p2 = p1.
2,

p 2V2 p1V2
p 2V2 = RT2 T2 = T3 = = .
R R
3.6.
p 2 3 V 1 3
-
- 2
1 V
. T

135

V T V
m = maxVmin = 0 max 1 = 0 0 .
T3 n
3.7. = nR0T0/p0.
3.8. T2 = T1T3 .
3.9. ,
p 2 -
1 ,
2 1 . , -
3 ,
2 1 3
3 T p(T) , -
(,
1 . 1).
. 1 3.1,

, .
, , -
p(T), ,
. , -
, 2 . 1, , -
3. 1 2, 3
, V1 V2 V3 (V1, V2 V3
1, 2 3 ). 3.1 ,
, p(T), -
,
V1 < V2 < V3.
, , ( . 1
), .


, -
. -
, -
, -

p = kT + b, (1)
136
k b (
b (), k , ,
(/)). (1) -
,
RT
V= , (2)
kT + b
; R .
(2) -
. kT -
(2) b, , -
, (2)

R
V= T, (3)
b
.. , -
. , , -
b kT (2):
RT R
V= = , (4)
kT k
, , V(T)
V T -
R/k
R/k.
V(T)
T . 2 (
,
. 2 -
, -
,
p
).
y 3.10. -
1 ( -
x),
z
( -
x T ) ,
.
137
y, -
, -
. z, , -
1 ,
1.
3.11. .
3.12. p(V), V(T) p(T) -
. -
.
-
:
(V )V = RT , V = T ,
, = R / . -
p = R T -
.

p V p

V T T

3.13. -
V(T) , 1 2
3 4, , -
V T (. 3.12) -
. -
V T .
V
V3 3

4
Vx 2
V1
1
T
T1 T2
138

2 4 Vx. 1
2 2 3 , ,
V12 = T , V3 4 = T , (1)
; 1
4 T1, 2 3 T2. V1 Vx, -
(1),
V1 = T1 , V x = T2 , (2)
Vx V3 (1)
V x = T1 , V3 = T2 . (3)
(2), (3) ,
V1 T Vx T
= 1 , = 1 . (4)
Vx T2 V3 T2
(4),
2 4:
V x = V1V3 .
3.14. , -
V
, - 2V0 2
: 1 2 - Vm
, 3 1 . 1
V0
2 3, , 3
2 Tm T
3 (
T0 2T0

),
. -
p(V) (. 3.1),
, .
1 2 3 1, -
2 3.
1 2 3 1 :
1 2, -
139
, 3 1 (. ).
1 2 3 1 -
, 2T0
(T0 = p0V0/R).

2 3, -
,
.

p
p(V ) = 0 V + 3 p 0 . (1)
V0

p p
RT = 0 V + 3 p 0 V = 0 V 2 + 3 p 0V , (2)
V0 V0

p0 3p
T = V2 + 0V. (3)
RV0 R
(3), T(V) (3) .
V(T) , -
, , -
T,
(3) .
, ,
2 3 , -
Tm, -
2T0.
Tm ,
Vm,
, (3) . -
.
:
9 3
Tm = T0 , Vm = V0 .
4 2

140
4. .

4.1. p
p1 p2,
,
( -
)
RT m1 m 2
p = p1 + p 2 = + , (1)
V 1 2

V ; T , T = t + 273 ; 1
2 , 1 = 2 /
2 = 32 /. = (m1 +
+ m2)/V. (1)
(m1 + m 2 ) p
= = 520 /3.
RT ((m1 / 1 ) + (m 2 / 2 ))

4.2. = P(n + 1) N 2 O 2 / RT (n N 2 + O 2 ) = 1,24 10 3 /3.


4.3. 10 20

10 RT 20 RT
p0 = + (1)
V0 V0

10 = k 20 . (2)
(1), (2),
k p 0V0
10 = , (3)
k + 1 RT
1 p 0V0
20 = . (4)
k + 1 RT
1 2
:

141
p1V p V
1 = , 2 = 2 . (5)
RT RT
,
1 k + 1 p1V
N Ne = = = 333 ;
10 k p 0V0

2 k + 1 p1V
N Ne = = = 667 .
20 1 p 0V0
,
N = NHe = 333 .
4.4.
RT
p= (1 + 2 + 3 ) = 2,2 10 5 . (1)
V
,
, ,
, . -

m = m1 + m2 + m3 = 11 + 22 + 33, (2)
m1, m2 m3 , ; 1,
2 3 , (1)
RT 11 + 2 2 + 3 3 RT
= ( 1 + 2 + 3 ) , (3)
V V
. (3)
11 + 2 2 + 3 3
= . (4)
1 + 2 + 3

1 = 2 /, 2 = 32 /, 3 = 44 /, (4)

=30,7 /.

142
4.5.
2 pVN A
N= = 2,5 10 21 .

RT O 2 1 + 2 + 3
N
2 O 2 Ar
4.6. -

N1 kT N kT
V1 = , V2 = 2 , (1)
p1 p2
V1 V2 ; T ; k
. V1 + V2 -
N1 + N2 .
p(V1 + V2) = (N1 + N2)kT. (2)
(2) V1 V2 (1),
( N 1 + N 2 ) p1 p 2
p= .
N1 p 2 + N 2 p1
4.7. -
, , ,
V1 1 = 1V1 /(V1 + V2 ) ,
V1: 1 = 1V2 /(V1 + V 2 ) .
V2. V2
2 1 .
V1 1 -
. ,
,
1V1 1 RT
p1V1 = 1 RT = RT p1 = ;
V1 + V2 V1 + V2

V
p 2V2 = (1 + 2 ) RT = 1 2 + 2 RT
V1 + V2

143
1V2 + 2 (V1 + V2 )
p2 = RT ,
V2 (V1 + V2 )
T . ,

p1 1V2
= .
p 2 1V2 + 2 (V1 + V2 )
4.8.
V1 m1 1 1
= 1, = ,
V2 m 2 2 ( 1)
V1 , ; m1
; V2 , -
; m1 ; 1 2 -
.
4.9. V1/V2 = 1/1 2.
4.10. -
,
m
N= NA , (1)

, = 254 /; NA
.
J2 . N -
,
N1 = N N + 2N = N + N. (2)
(- )

N1 N + N m N
pV = RT = RT = 1 + RT , (3)
NA NA N
T ; V .

144
(3) :
N pV
= 1 = 0,2 .
N mRT
4.11. N (N -
) : (1 )N
2N .


p0V = NkT0, p1V = ((1 )N + 2N)kT1, (1)
p0, T0 p1, T1
; V ; k . -
(1) ,
pT
1+ = 1 0 = .
p 0T1
= / 1 = 0,05.
4.12. p = (1 + )mRT/V = 1,9 105 .
4.13. ,
, N, -
T. N N
, 2N . -
T
N (1 + )
p1V = RT , (1)
NA
V . nT

N (1 + )
p 2V = RT . (2)
NA
(2) (1) ,

n(1 + ) p1
p2 = .
(1 + )

145
4.14.
p1V = (1 + 2)RT1, (1)
V .
T2 , -
H2
H,
22. -

p2V = (1 + 22)RT2. (2)
(1)
(2),
p T ( + 2 2 )
p2 = 1 2 1 = 0,44 10 5 .
T1 (1 + 2 )
4.15.
1 . -

p 0V0
= + 1 . (1)
RT0

2O3 = 3O2 (2)
-
, 3/2 .

p 0V 3
= + 1 . (3)
RT 2
(3) (1) -
,
2 p 0 V V0
= .
R T T0
4.16.
Na 2 p1T2 p 2T1
= .
N 2( p 2T1 p1T2 )
146
4.17.
p1T2 (1 + 2 2 )
p2 = = 0,44 10 5 .
T1 (1 + 2 )
4.18.
N.

2O3 = 3O2 (1)
-
, -

3 1
N N + N = N + N (2)
2 2
. , -
- ,
N (1 + (1 / 2))
pV = RT , (3)
NA
V T . -
-
N (1 + (1 / 2))
p1V = RT . (4)
NA
2+
(4), (3) p1 = p.
2+
4.19.
p0V = 2RT, (1)
V T ; -
(-
).

2H2 + O2 = 2H2O
-
. ,
,
.
147
-
, /2 ,

3/2. -
,
3
p1V = RT , (2)
2
p1 . (2) (1),
3
p1 = p 0 .
4
4T p
4.20. p 0 = 0 = 10 5 .
3T
4.21. N1 -
, N2 . -

2CO2 2CO + O2 (1)

,
: N1 , N2
N2/2 .
N + (3 / 2) N 2
pV = 1 RT . (2)
NA
, CO2

m
N1 + N 2 = NA , (3)

, = 44 /. -
(2), CO2 -
CO :
N1 2( pV RTm)
= = 0,5 .
N 2 (3RTm 2 pV)

148
5. : ,
,

5.1. U -
T.
3
U = RT , (1)
2
. .

RT = p1V1 p0V0, (2)
p0 V0 ; p1 V1
. V1 = nV0, p 0 = const / V02 , p1 = const / V12
(const , ). (1)
const const const 1 n
RT = p1V1 p 0V0 = = =
nV0 V0 V0 n

1 n 1 n
= p 0V0 = RT0 . (3)
n n

3(1 n)
U = RT0 = 1,9 .
2n
, -
.
5.2. n = 1 , n > 1 .
5.3. U = 3(mg + P0S)h/2.
5.4. , .

U:
Q = U. (1)

3
U = RT , (2)
2
149
; T .
T :
1
T = (m12 m02 ) , (3)
3k
k ; 1 0
. 1 = n0 ,
(3)

m02 2
T = (n 1) = T (n 2 1) . (4)
3k
(1), (4) :
3
Q= RT (n 2 1) .
2
5.5. Q = (3/2)pV(n 1) = 0,75 103 .
5.6. (AV = 0),
,
Ap > 0 ( ), -
(AQ < 0). (
, -
U = AQ . , U > 0
.)
Ap > AV > AQ. (1)
, -
. ,
QV Qp -
, :

(1)
Qp > QV.
5.7. , ,
.

150

Q = AT,
AT .

3 3 5 5
Q = U + A p = RT + pV = RT + RT = RT = A p ,
2 2 2 2
U ; -
; T ; p ; V
. ,
AT 5
= .
Ap 2

5.8.
(Q = 0)
U Q = A . (1)

-
, (5.11) -

3 3 3
U p = RT = pV = A p . (2)
2 2 2
(1), (2)

U p 3
= . (3)
U Q 2

,
(Ap > 0) (Up > 0), (AQ > 0)
(UQ < 0) .
5.9. QV/QP = 3/5.
5.10. -

151
3
Q p = U p + A p = RT + pV =
2
3 5 5
= RT + RT = RT = A p , (1)
2 2 2
Qp, Up, Ap ,
, Up = (3/2)RT
Ap = pV = RT; p ; V T -
; .
,


QT = AT, (2)
QT AT
. (1) (2) , Ap/AT = n, -

Q p 5n
= .
QT 2
5.11. -
Q -
U A, :
Q = U + A. (1)

3
U = RT , (2)
2
; T -
.
A = pV = RT. (3)
(1) (3) , Q = (5/2)RT, , ,
3
U = Q = 18 .
5
152
5.12.
Q = A,

nQ = U + A1,
nQ ,
; U A1
. 5.7,
3/5
, 2/5.
2nA
A1 = = 800 .
5
5.13. A = 3RT / 2 .
5.14. A = pV

:
m
A = pV = pV2 pV1 = RT2 RT1 = RT = RT = 3750 .

V , V = V2 V1 (V2 V1 -
); ; T2 T1 -
; T , T = T2 T1;
m ; .
5.15. , -
(A = 0).
3
Q = U = RT ,
2
T -
.
p T 1
= =
p1 T1 n
(p, T p1, T1 -
) T = T(n 1).

153
3
Q= RT = 7,5 .
2
5.16. A, ,

A = p(V2 V1), (1)


p ; V2 V1 -
. V1 V2 -
n (V = N/n) ,
q ,

N N qN N pN (q 1)
A = p = p = = pV1 (q 1) . (2)
n 2 n1 n1 n1 n1


,
A = (q 1)RT1 = 5 .
5.17. , -
, (
(5.7) -
). .
, , -
, (
)
, . ,
,
, ,

,
:
A = A .

A , (5.7).

A = U . (1)
154
,
3 3 3 p 0V0
U = RT = R (T1 T0 ) = (T1 T0 ) , (2)
2 2 2 T0
T1 ( (2)
).
(2) (1) ,
2A
T1 = T0 1 + = 360 .
3 p 0V0
5.18. Q = (5/2)mRT0(n 1)/.
. , ,
.
5.19.
n , ,
, n .

T/n T.
p(V2 V1), p ; V2 V1 -
. -

,
T RT (n 1)
A = p (V2 V1 ) = pV2 pV1 = RT R = ,
n n

An
T= = 300 .
R(n 1)

5.20. Q = (c(T2 T1) + (c + R) (T3 T2)).


5.21.

. -
, , -
, . ,

155
3 3 3 3
1 RT1 + 2 RT2 = 1 RTx + 2 RT x , (1)
2 2 2 2
Tx . (1)
1T1 + 2T2
Tx = . (2)
1 + 2

,
.. :
3 3 3 (T T2 )
Q12 = 2 RT x 2 RT2 = 1 2 1 , (3)
2 2 2( 1 + 2 )
, , -
, .
(3) : -
, .
,
:
, .
, (1) -
, -
.
, , ..
(2).
, -
( (3)).
-
, , -
.
5.22. T = (V1T1 + V2T2)/(V1 + V2),
E12 = (3 / 2)nk (T1 T2 )V1V2 /(V1 + V2 ) .
5.23. Q = 2p0V0(n2 1).
.
, -
.
.
156
5.24. :
Q
C= , (1)
T
Q , ; T
Q.
.
.
.
,
Q = U, (2)
U .
, U = (3/2)RT ( ),
3
Q= RT , (3)
2

2Q
T = , (4)
3R
(1) -
:
3
CV = R . (5)
2
.
pV, -

3 3 5
Q= RT + pV = RT + RT = RT . (6)
2 2 2
(6) T (1),
:
5
Cp = R . (7)
2

157
CT CQ -
(1):
CT = , CQ = 0. (8)
( , -
, -
, -
.
, .)
5.25. -
Q,
T, -
.

(A = 0)
3 5 3 5
Q = U = 1 RT + 2 RT = 1 + 2 RT . (1)
2 2 2 2
T -
Q:
Q
T = , (2)
3 5
1 + 2 R
2 2
:
3 5
cV = 1 + 2 R . (3)
2 2
A,

3 5
Q = U + A = 1 + 2 RT + A . (4)
2 2
-

158
A = pV = (1 + 2 ) RT . (5)
(4), (5) -

5 7
c p = 1 + 2 R . (6)
2 2
5.26. ,
Q,
-
T, ,
.

Q = U + A, (1)
U A -

Q. ,
3
U = RT , (2)
2
; T . -
Q , -
, , ,
, -
,
A pV, (3)
V .
(, (3)
: pV = RT,
. -
p, V T
p, V T :
(p + p) (V + V) = R(T + T), (4)

159
pV + pV = RT (5)
( pV
pV Vp ,
-
(5)). , (3)
pV =
= RT pV, , , .)
(2) (3) (1)
T,
Q 3 V
C= = R + p . (6)
T 2 T
V T , V/T -
-
. , ,

V = f(T),
3 RT dV (T )
C= R + . (7)
2 V (T ) dT
(7),
, , .
-
, -
-
.
(7) , -
,
V(T) = T,
. ,
3 + 2
C= R
2
. ,
, -
.
160
5.27. ) (7) (
CV, 1 1) -

C = CV + 2R
( C = 7R/2).
) , -

R 4
V= T

( = 1 1). (7) -

C = CV + 4R
( C = 9R/2).
) , -

RT
V=

( = 1 1). (7) -

R
C = CV +
2
( C = 2R).
5.28. p(V) -
, -

RT
V = +1 . (1)

(7) 5.26
(5 + 3)R
C= (2)
2( + 1)
( C = 2R).
161
(2) , -
(. 5.24): C = = 1 (-
) C = 0 = 5 / 3 ( ). -
, , (2),
5 / 3 < < 1 (,
) .
5.29. -
, , , ,
.
, -
, . -

, , , -
,
. -
, . -
( 1 ) -
. ,

m + m 2 = 2m1 , (1)

3
1 = . (2)
2

.
, ,
3 m 2 m(2) 2 3 2m12
RT + + = RT1 + , (3)
2 2 2 2 2
; T1 ,
, .. .
( (3)
.) (3),

m 2
T1 = T + .
6 R
162
5.30.
-
:
3 3 1
RT = RT1 + kx 2 , (1)
2 2 2
T T1 ;
; k ; x .
, (1):
3 3 1
pV = p1 2V + p1V , (2)
2 2 2
p1 ( (2)
, p1S = kx, x = V/S, S -
). (2) ,
3p
p1 = . (3)
7
-
:
pV p1 2V
= . (4)
T T1
(4) p1 (3) ,

6T
T1 = .
7
5.31. N -
. E0 -

3 N
E0 = RT , (1)
2 N
NA ; R .
N/2
N/4 .
163
3 N 5 N
E1 = RT1 + RT1 , (2)
2 2N 2 4N

T1 .
N/4 N /4,
.. -
, , -
, (2) (1) -
:
3 N 5 N 3 N
RT1 + RT1 RT = N /4. (3)
2 2N 2 4N 2 N

(3)

T1 = T(12/11 + 2 /(11kT)), (4)


k = R/NA .
p1
N N
p1V = + RT1 , (5)
2N 4N
V . (5)
T1 , pV = (N/NA)RT,

p1 = p(18kT + 3)/(22kT).
-
, -
.
, -
. -
,

. ,
, -
164
. -

(, ,
, ),
-
. -
, .
5.32. N1/N2 = (2 + kT2)/[5k(T1 T2)], k -
.
. .
, (3/2)RT,
(5/2)RT.
5.33.
5 3
Q = p 0 Sh + ghV0 + 2gh 2 S .
2 2
. -
p(V) = p0 + g(V V0)/S. -
p(V), -
. -
.

6.

6.1. , -
. , , -
, -
, . , -
3, , .. ,
,
.
-
, 2. -
,
pV = const.
165
, -
p V
const
p(V ) = , (1)
V
, ,
T1 T2 T3 . -
p
,

p V,
.
,
V ,
, -
, T1 < T2 < T3.
-
: ( -
, , -
),
. -
: , -
. (,
,
. ,
-
.)
, :
, , - -
, -
, , -
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
, 1 3 -
, 2 .
, ,
,
166
. -
, , . -

Q = U + A, (2)
Q, U A , ,
. ,
1, U A (. ),
Q .
, 3, U = 0 A > 0, -
, Q > 0 .
2:
A < 0, U , -
.
: -
(
10.20).
6.2.
1 U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0;
2. U < 0, A > 0, Q , -
;
3. U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0.
6.3.
1. U > 0, A > 0, Q > 0;
2. U < 0, A > 0, Q , -
;
3. U > 0, A = 0, Q > 0.
6.4. -
, Q, U
A
Q = U + A. (1)
(1) Q A .
. -
U =
= (3/2)RT, ; T -
; R , -
167
, ..
U = 0, (1) , ,
, :
Q = A. (2)
Q A (2)
Q ,
-

.
2 Q A -
A , -
1 45 -
. Q
4 A (2) -
3
1.
. -
,
Q = 0. (3)
Q A (3) 2.
.
, :
A = 0. (4)
Q A (4) 3.
. -
A = pV, p ; V -
.

A = RT. (5)
U = (3/2)RT,
(1), (5) ,
Q = (3/2)RT + RT = (5/2)RT = (5/2)A. (6)
Q A (6) 4.

168
6.7. , , ,
p V.
A = (p2 p1)(V2 V1), (1)
p2
2 3; p1 1 p
4; V1 1 p2 2 3
2; V2 3 4
(. ),
. - p1 1 4
V
.
V1 V2
(1) -
:
A = p2V2 p2V1 p1V2 + p2V1 = R(T3 + T1 2T2) (2)
( , T2 = T4). T2 -
. 1 2 3
4 , 2 4 -
,
p 2 p1 p 2 p1
= ; = . (3)
T2 T1 T3 T2
(3) ,
T3 T2
= , (4)
T2 T1

T2 = T1T3 . (5)
T2 (5) (2)

A = R (T1 + T3 2 T1T3 ) = R ( T1 T3 ) 2 . (6)
, 1
2 3,
Q = U + A, (7)

169
Q , ; U
; A , -
. .
,
1 2 3 :
3
U = R(T3 T1 ) . (8)
2
, 1 2 3, -
.

A = p2(V2 V1) = p2V2 p2V1 = R(T3 T2) (9)


( ).
T2 (5) (9),
(7), (8), (9):
3 5 3
Q= R (T3 T1 ) + RT3 R T1T3 = RT3 RT1 R T1T3 .
2 2 2
6.8.
0 1,
, (. -
6.1). .
0 2 , -
Q = 0
U + A = 0. (1)
0 3 -
( p(V)),

0 2 ( -
). 0 3
U + A > 0. (2)
(2) -
, , Q > 0, ,
, 0 3 .
, 0 3 , -
. , -
, , ,
, .
170
( ,
, . 10.19).
6.9. Q = 2R(T2 T1).
6.10. A = 0.
6.11. -
1 2 3 1 : Q = A (
, -
). -
p V,
1
Q = ( p 2 p1 )(V2 V1 ) .
2
6.12.
1 4:
Q = U + A, (1)
U ; A
. -
:
3 3
U = R (T4 T1 ) = RT . (2)
2 2
,
p
p V 1 2
. -
(V1, V2 = V3 V4 - 3 4
1, 2 3, 4). V
V1 V2 = V3 V4

A = p1(V2 V1) + p4(V4 V2). (3)


(3)
,
A = p1V2 p1V1 + p4V4 p4V2 =
= RT4 RT1 + RT4 RT1 = 2RT. (4)
7
(1), (2), (4) Q = RT .
2

171
6.13. Q = (1/2)RT.
6.14. 2 3 , -

1 2 3 1
A = A12 + A31 , (1)
A (1) .
A31 A1 2 .
1 2 ,
A1 2 = pV = p (V2 V1 ) , (2)
p 1 2; V
1 2, V = V2 V1.
V2 = nV1 1, -

A31 = A RT1 (n 1) .
6.15. 3 1 ,
2 1 3 2
T21 = T32 . (1)
, -
1 2
3
A21 = U 21 = RT21 , (2)
2

3
Q32 = U 32 + A3 2 = RT3 2 + pV3 2 =
2
3 5
= RT3 2 + RT3 2 = RT3 2 . (3)
2 2
(1) (3)
5
Q32 = A21 .
3

172
7. :
, ,

7.1. .
. ,
.
, ,
t = 0 .
7.2. .
, -
t = 100 .
7.3. ,
,
, .
, ,
-
.
7.4. -
.
-
, .
-
, t 36
36,6 C. ,
-
t 10 15 C.
,
. ,
, -
,
.
7.5. r =
= 2,3 106 /, c = 4,2 103 /(
). -
-

173
5 ,
100 .
7.6. m2 > m1. , ,
, , cm1( t1) = cm2(t2 ), c -
, ; m1
m2 ; t1 t2 ;
. -
, ( t1) (t2 ). m2 2m1.
7.7. P. t -
Q = Pt ,
.
Pt = cm(T1 T0).

cm(T1 T0 )
P= [].
t
7.8.
. -

CV(Tx T0) = cm(T Tx), (1)
CV ; Tx ; R
. -
,

,
.
cV = (3/2)R,

3 M
CV = R , (2)
2
M .
(2), (1) MR/,

MR p 0V
= , (3)
T0
174
Tx,
cmT + (3 / 2) p 0V
Tx = . (4)
cm + (3 / 2)( p 0V / T0 )
p
(V = const):
Tx 3 p 0V + 2mcT
p = p0 = p0 = 1,66 10 5 . (5)
T0 3 p 0V + 2mcT0
7.9.
cm(t k t )
M= = 7,3 .
q
7.10. -
:
Qi = cmi(t ti), (1)
c ; mi ti
i- (i = 1, 2, 3); t ( -
Qi , -
).
, -
.
m1(t t1) + m2(t t2) + m3(t t3) = 0. (2)
(2),
m1t1 + m2 t 2 + m3t 3
t= .
m1 + m2 + m3
7.11.
cm(t t )
m1 = = 0,56 .

7.12. -
. - -
, ,
, -
175
, .

( )
, .
t,

cm(t t1) = C(t1 t2).

C (t1 t 2 )
t = t1 + = 32,6 C.
mc
, - , -
, 32,4 C,
32,6 C.
7.13.
cm(t 4 t1 )
m = = 0,68 .
r + c(t 2 t 3 )
7.14. t1,
t2. -
, t1 t2
, -
.
t1 cm(t1 t 0 ) c(t1 t 0 )
= = . (1)
t2 mr r
(1) t1 + t2 = t , -
,
tr
t2 = = 8,5 .
r + c(T1 T0 )
,
,
, .
7.15. -
:
Q1 = c1m1(t2 t1) -
t1 = 20 t2 = 100 ;
176
Q2 = c2m2(t2 t1)
t1 = 20 t2 = 100 ;
Q3 = mr m .
T
NT, - .

NT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3

(c m + c 2 m2 )(t 2 t1 ) + mr
T= 1 1 = 625 c = 10 25 .
N
7.16. m , m m
, .
. ,
, -
, Q1 = m. , -
, -
, Q2 = (m m)r. -

Q1 = Q2.
rm
m = = 508 .
+r
7.17. :
Q ,
;
Q ,
;
Q ,
t1 = 0 t2 = 100 . -
:
Q = m2r = 2,3 105 ; (1)
4
Q = m1 = 3,3 10 ; (2)
4
Q = m1c(t2 t1) = 4,2 10 . (3)
(1) (3) , Q > Q + Q. -
, t2 = 100 ,
.
177
m .

(1)
Q = Q + Q , (4)
(1)
Q = mr , -
m, -
. (2) (4)
m + cm1 (t 2 t1 )
m = 1 = 33 .
r
, m1 + m = 133
m2 m = 67 t2 = 100 .
7.18. -
. , -

, ,
t = 0 , , -
, , -
t = 0 , , . -
, , -
Q1, -
t = 0 , Q2,

t = 0 . ,
Q1 = c1m1(t1 t) = 4,2 104 ; (1)
5
Q2 = c2m2(t t2) = 4,2 10 . (2)
Q1 Q2, ,
, . -
m
Q2 = c1m1(t1 t) + m m = 1,15 . (3)
, t = 0
,
m 2 = m2 + m = 6,15 m1 = m1 m = 0,85
t = 0 . , -
t = 0 .
178
7.19. , -
,
-
.
q. ( -
, , q -
. -
, ,
q = const.)

Pt1 = cmT + qt1; (1)
cmT = qt2. (2)
(1), (2),
Pt1t 2
m= = 0,79 .
cT (t1 + t 2 )
7.20. ,

. ,
, .
q.
P P/2:
Pt1 = cmT + qt1; (1)
P
t 2 = cmT + qt 2 , (2)
2
c m .
(1), (2),
P (t 2 t1 ) Pt1t 2
q= , cmT = . (3)
2(t 2 t1 ) 2(t 2 t1 )
(3)
2P:
2Pt3 = cmT + qt3, (4)
t3 2P,
t1t 2
t 3 = = 4,9 .
3t 2 2t1
179
8. .

8.1.
. -


, -
.
, , -,
(.. ,
), , -,
(.. ).
8.2. ,
,
. , -
,

. ,
. , -
. -
,
-
. , -
.
8.3.
.
,
, , -
-
. -
- , -
, , .

,
.
, .
8.4. ,
100 %,
180
, .
, , -
, ,
100 %. , , .
,
,
.
, , (.. -
) . -
, -
( -
), ( ,
) .

( ),
, 100 %, -
100 %.
, , ,
.
8.5.
. ,
100 % ( ), -
-
. , -

, , , -
.
, , -
.
8.6. -
:
2 2 p ,2T2
= = 3,4 ,
1 1 p ,1T1

T1, T2
, T1 = t1 + 273 K T2 = t2 + 273 K. , -
3,4
181
, . -
t3 = 20 ,
1 p ,1T3
3 = = 27 %.
p ,3T1

8.7.
, -
- .

, m1 m2 -

1p V ( p p )V
m1 = , m2 = 2 , (1)
RT RT
1, 2 -
, 1 = 18 / 2 = 29 /; V T -
.
-
,
2 pV
m3 = . (2)
RT
(1), (2)

m1 + m 2 1p + 2 ( p p ) ( 1 )p
= =1+ 2 .
m3 2 p 2 p
8.8. ,

.
, .
-
, ,
. ,
m = 1 V = 10 3 T = 293 , -

182
, -
:
mRT
p= = 13,5 10 3 , (1)
V
, = 18 /. (1)
p =
= 2,3 103 . m,
, .

p V
m = = 0,17 . (2)
RT
8.9. -
m ,

(m0 + m) RT
p= , (1)
V
m0 ; T -
; , = 18 /; V -
. (1) , -

p mRT
1 = =+ = 59 %. (2)
p V
( (2) -
100 %, . -
(2) 100 %,
. -
100 %, -
.
100 %, -
.)

183
8.10.
( 2 1 )V
m= ,
RT
.
8.11. -
,
1p 2p ( p
), m1 m2
m1 1 p V1
1 p V1 = RT m1 = ; (1)
RT
m2 2 p V2
2 p V2 = RT m2 = , (2)
RT
.
,
, -
p
p(V1 + V2) = p(1V1 + 2V2). (3)
(3)
p V + 2V2
= = 1 1 .
p V1 + V2

8.12. t = 100
,
:

p ,0 (100 C) = 10 5 . (1)

,
.
, -
(1),
p ,0V
m= , (2)
RT
184
, = 18 /; T -
, T = 273 + 100 = 373 .
,
. -

m
p V1 = RT1 , (3)

V1 ; T1
, T1 = 273 + 20 = 293 . (3)
(2),
p ,0T1V
V1 = = 13,6 .
p T
8.13.
1 p ,1V1T2 1 p ,1V1T2
2 = , < 100 %,
p ,2V2T1 p ,2V2T1

1 p ,1V1T2
2 = 100 %, < 100 %.
p ,2V2T1

8.14. -
t = 100 p =
= 105 . m, -
t = 100 .
,
p V
m = = 5,9 ,
RT
, = 18 /; T -
, T = t + 273 .
, .
,
.

185
8.15. ,

. -
t = 0 t1 = 82
( ), , -
t = 0 -
, t1 = 82 (
, ..
).
m, m. -

( ,
):
m
pV = RT , (1)

, = 29 /; T -
, T = 273 . -

m m
p1V = + RT1 , (2)
1
1 , 1 = 18 /; T1 -
, T1 = 355 .
(1) (2),

V ( p1T pT1 )
m = 1 = 304 .
RTT1
8.16. ,
, .
, -
,
. -
, -
. -
-

186
, , -
, .
n > m
,
, n.
, .
-
.
, -
, -

RT (n + m) RT (n + m) RT (n + m)
= + , (1)
mV nV nV
, -
; ;
T ; nV/(n + m) mV/(n + m)
(V ). -
n (1)
n
= + . (2)
m
,
,
= + ~
, (3)
~
,

. (3) (2),

= ~
:
( n m)
= , (4)
m

(n m)
m = = = 12 ,
m
, = 18 /.

187
8.17. -
, ,
( )
RT
p= . (1)
V

p , -
4 ,
(1) ( 1 2
p ).
3 2 -
1 , V1
V2 V1 V .

, -
( -
p).
. .
2 3. -
, V2, -
,

( 3 4 ).
8.18. , -
.
, -
, 100
(
). -
, *.
100 (),
.

*
,
- , ( , , -
). , -
, -
. .
188
-
,
. , ,
100 .
, ,
-
100 . -
, , -

m
p Sh = RT , (1)

h , -
; , = 18 /; T -
, T = 373 . -

mRT
h= = 14,4 .
p S
8.19. ,
,
p -
p, pa:
p + p = pa. (1)
-

H,
+ p = p + gH ,
p (2)

p
p
.
, -
(1) (2) . (2) p
(1),
= p + gH .
p (3)

189


l
+ H.
p lS = p (4)
2
(3), (4),
, , p,
(1)
l
gH + H
p = p 2 = 0,145 10 5 .
l
H
2
8.20.
mRT
A= ,

.
. ,
.
8.21. -
x ,
x0 1 p0
2 -
pa , -
d 4 3 T mg/S, m
T1 T0 S :
mg
p0 = p + . (1)
S
, , , -
p0 (1). x(T). -
, ,
. -
,

190
m
p 0 Sx = RT , (2)

Sx = V ; m ; -
. (2) ,
x(t) , -
. -
T0, (2)
x0:
p 0 Sx0
T0 = . (3)
mR
-
1 2.
. , -
T1,
(1):
p(T1) = p0.
, -
(
) ,
(1).
, , -
(
2 3). , T < T1 -
, (
, , -
, ..
x = d = m/S, ). -
,
, , x = d
.
3 4.
8.22.
p
p, , -

191
p. -
: ? -
m1, , -
t = 100 .

p V
m1 = , (1)
RT
p = 105 -
t = 100 ( T = 373 ).
) (1)
m1 = 11,6 . (2)
, (2)
) . -
, -
, .. 105 .
p t = 100

p T
p = . (3)
T0
-
:
p T
p = p + p = + p = 2,38 10 5 . (4)
T0
) (1) , ,
V = 30 , -
, , m1 = 17,5 . m < m1, -
, -
, .

p T mRT
p = p + p = + = 2,2 10 5 . (5)
T0 V

192
9. .
.

9.1. -
, , -
p V,
(V2 V1 ) ( p 2 p1 )
A=
2 2

A (V2 V1 )( p 2 p1 )
= = .
Q 4Q
9.2. , (T
):
nT T n 1
= = .
nT n
9.3.
,
,
. Q = A,
Q = A, Q = A, (1)
A A , ,
, .

A
=n
A
(1)
Q Q n 1
= = .
Q n
9.4. , T
. T1
. T T1 -
193
, ,
, , ,
A, -

3
A = R (T1 T ) ,
2
.
2A
T1 = T .
3R
(9.4) ,
2A
= .
3RT
9.5. -
T1 T2.
T1 T2
= . (1)
T1

1 2 -
:
T1 T2 + T T T2 + T
1 = , 2 = 1 . (2)
T1 + T T1

, 2 > 1, (2) -
, .
9.6. , 1 2 -
, 2 1 . -
1 2 ,
2 1 . ,
Q = Q21 (1)
( , Q21
, ,

194
2 1 , Q21
).
, ,
Q = Q21 + A , (2)

A A ( A / Q21 ) n
= = = = .
Q Q21 + A 1 + ( A / Q21 ) 1 + n
9.7.
A
= , (1)
Q
A ; Q ,
. .
, -
p V.
A = p0V0. (2)
, 1 2 2
3, 3 4 4 1. -
1 2.
( ),
( , -
). -
U , -

Q = U + A (3)
, , 1
2, , .. . -
1 2 3 4 1.
, -
, 1 2 3,
,

195
Q = U 1 23 + A123 . (4)
-

3 3
U 1 23 = R(T3 T1 ) = (RT3 RT1 ) =
2 2
3 9
= (2 p 0 2V0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 . (5)
2 2
1 2 3 ,
p(V) :
A1 23 = 2 p 0V0 . (6)
(4) (6)
13
Q = p 0V0 , (7)
2
(1), (2) (7) -

2
= . (8)
13
(8) ,
2/13 , -
1 2 3, . 11/13
-
3 4 1.
, -
, , -
. -
, -
3, 1
(
). , -
,
Tmax = 4Tmin. (9)

196
(9)
4T Tmin 3
= min = .
4Tmin 4
, ,
, ,
,
-
, .
(n 1)(k 1)
9.8. = .
(5 / 2)kn k (3 / 2)
9.9.
p V ( - p
, 2 3
-
1 4
) ,
. V

2 4 ( ), -
2 4 ( -
).
2 4 T24.
,
1 2 3 3 4 1.
1 2 3

3
Q1 23 = R (T3 T1 ) + p 23 (V3 V2 ) =
2
5 3
= RT3 RT1 RT24 , (1)
2 2
p23 2 3; V2 V3 -
2 3 ( (1) ).
3
4 1, Q3 41 ,
(, , ):
197
3
Q341 = R (T1 T3 ) + p14 (V1 V4 ) =
2
5 3
= RT1 RT3 RT24 , (2)
2 2
p14 1 4; V1 V4
1 4.
, , , -
Q1 23 + Q3 41 , (1), (2),

Q + Q341 ( T3 T1 ) 2
= 1 23 = . (3)
Q1 23 (5 / 2)T3 (3 / 2)T1 T24
T24. -
1 2 3 4
p 23 p14 p 23 p14
= , = . (4)
T24 T1 T3 T24
(4) , T24 = T1T3 .

( T3 T1 ) 2
= . (5)
(5 / 2)T3 (3 / 2)T1 T1T3
9.10. 3 1
Q. 2 3
A = nQ. , 3 1.
3 1
p = V, ( -
), :
1
A31 = (V12 V32 ) , (1)
2
V1 V3 1 3 ( (1) -
, p(V)). -

198
3 3 3
U 13 = R (T1 T3 ) = ( p1V1 p3V3 ) = (V12 V32 ) , (2)
2 2 2
T1, p1 T3, p3 1 3
.
3 1
Q31 = U 13 + A31 (3)
,
Q31 = Q ,
1 3
Q= (V12 V32 ) + (V12 V32 ) = 2(V12 V32 ) = 4 A31 . (4)
2 2
, 3 1
A31 = Q / 4 . , 1 2
, A = A23 + A31 =
= nQ Q / 4 = (4n 1)Q / 4 . -
3 1, Q = Q, -
(9.3)
A 4n 1
= = . (5)
A + Q 4n + 3

(n 1) 2 n 1
9.11. = = .
5n 2 n 3 5n + 3
2

9.12.
A
= , (1)
Q
A ; Q ,
. .
1 p0. -
p(V) 1 2 ,
, 2 np0.
,
p V.
p V (n 1)(n 2)
A= 0 0 . (2)
4
199
1 2.
Q -
:
Q = U 12 + A12 , (3)
U 12 ; A1 2
.
3 3 3
U 1 2 = RT12 = ( np 0 nV0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 (n 2 1) ; (4)
2 2 2
( p 0 + np 0 ) 1
A1 2 = (nV0 V0 ) = p 0V0 ( n 2 1) . (5)
2 2
(1) (5) ,
,
Q = 2p0V0(n2 1) (6)

n2
= .
8(n + 1)
9.13.
A A
= = , (1)
Q A + Q
A ; Q ,
; Q ,
.
, -
p V. , -
V0, 2p0 ( p0
1).
p 0V0
A= . (2)
2
, 1 2
2 3, 3 1. Q.
200
3 1 -

Q31 = U 31 + A31 . (3)




3 3 15
U 31 = R (T1 T3 ) = ( p 0V0 6 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 , (4)
2 2 2
T1 T3 1 3;
. 3 1
p(V) :
A31 = 3 p 0V0 . (5)
(3) (5) Q31 Q:

21 21
Q31 = p 0V0 Qx = Q31 = p 0V0 , (6)
2 2
(1), (2) (6) -

1
= .
22
9.14.
1
= .
16
9.15.
( n 1)
= .
8( n + 1)
. ,
3
1 n .
9.16. 1 2 A1 2 , -
3 1 U 31 . -

201
3 1 ,
:
A31 = U 31 . (1)
2 3 ,
A = A12 + A31 = A1 2 U 31 . (2)
1 2, -
1 2 3 1 :
A A U 31
= = 12 . (3)
Q1 2 Q1 2
1 2 , -
Q12 A1 2
(. 6.4):
5
Q1 2 = A1 2 . (4)
2
(4) (3), -

U 31 5
=1 .
A12 2
9.17.
A 5 2
= .
U 3 3
9.18. ,
, 2 3, -
1. T
3 1. -

,
3
Q31 = U = RT , (1)
2
( (1) ,
).

202
3 2 , -
A,

Q32 = A . (2)
1 2
,
Q = Q31 , Qx = Q32 , (3)
(1), (2)

Q Qx 2A
= =1 .
Q 3RT
9.19. , -
.
,
. 1 2
3, 5 6 7. -
,
3 9 13
Q1 23 = RT123 + A123 = pV + 2 pV = pV , (1)
2 2 2
; T123 -
1 2 3; A123
( (1) -
-
p V). 5 6 7 8 5

19
Q567 = pV . (2)
2
, 5 6 7 8 5 19/13
, 1 2 3 4 1 , -
, 13/19
13
: 1 = .
19

203
9.20. 1 2 3 4 1 1
3 4 1
A
= ; (1)
Q1 23
( A / 2)
1 = , (2)
Q13
A , 1 2 3 4 1;
Q1 23 Q13 , -
. (1), (2) , , -
1 3 4 1,
1 2 3 4 1, 1 2
3 4 1 1 2 3, 1 3
4 1 1 3.
Q1 23 Q13 . -

Q1 23 = U 1,3 + A123 ; (3)
Q13 = U 1,3 + A13 , (4)
U 1,3 ; A123 A13
1 2 3 1 3 .
(3) (4) ,
p
V, A1 23 A13 123,
.. A/2,
Q1 23 Q1 2 = A / 2 . (5)
Q12 (5), (2)
(1), 1 3 4 1
( A / 2) ( A / Q1 23 )
1 = = , (6)
Q1 23 ( A / 2) 2 ( A / Q1 23 )


1 = .
2
204
10.

10.1. -
,

. -
x
. ,

x, h

:
gV = gSh Mg , (1)
M S ; V h -
, x.
, ,
Mg = gSy. (2)
(1), (2)
, ,
h y. (3)
, , -
x,
y. -
.
, ,
pSy = p 0 SH . (4)
, -
,
.

p = p0 + g(x + y). (5)


p (5) (4), -

p0H = p0y + gy(x + y). (6)


205
(6), x,
,
p0 ( H y)
x= y.
gy
10.2.
, ,

p1 = , p 2 = p1 + = + , (1)
r1 r2 r1 r2
p1 r1 ; p2 r2
.
,
(1)
(V1 V2 ) V 2 V 2
1 RT = , 2 RT = + , (2)
r1 r1 r2

V1 V2 ; 1 2 -
; T .
(2),
V1 V2 4 2 4 2
(1 + 2 ) RT = + = r1 + r2 . (3)
r1 r2 3 3

, .
1 + 2, ,

(1 + 2)RT = p3V3, (4)
p3 ; V3 . , p3 = /r3 (-
); V3 = (4 / 3)r33 (r3 ),
(1 + 2)RT (3), (4)

r3 = r12 + r22 .

206
10.3. , , ,
*.
x, ,
(-
) -
x; -
-
.
-

x (. ). - x
- x

2xSg ( -
, S ) -

.
. ,
.
, -
, ,
,
. -
(p0 p)S, p -
; p0 . -

F = 2xSg + (p0 p)S. (1)

( -
):
p0V0 = p(V0 xS), (2)

*
., : . . I. / .. , .. -
, .. , .. . .: , 2004.
207
V0 ,
, V0 = hS, h -
. (2)
pxS px
p p0 = = . (3)
V0 h

x.
(3) - -
x, , ,
,
(3) , .. , p, -
(3), p0:
p 0 x
p p0 . (4)
h
(, p p0
(3)
( ) -
. -
-
, .) -

p
F = 2g + 0 Sx . (5)
h
,
x -
(2g + (p0/h))S. -
-
,

(2g + ( p 0 / h)) S
= .
m
10.4. , -
(
), . ,
208
,
(2),
(3) (.
). -

const
p(V ) = 5 / 3 , (1)
V
. -
,
( -
), , ,

p
p (V ) , (2)
V
p (V ) . ,
(1) , -

x:
5 const xS
p = . (3)
3 V 5/ 3 V
, ,
.
(3)
5 x
p = p0 . (4)
3 h
(4) ,
, -

, 5/3 -

. -

209
(2g + (5 p 0 / 3h)) S
= . (5)
m
, -
-
. (T = 2/)
. , -
() ()
, ,

, .. .
, -
.
, .
, -
? ,
. -
, ,

,
. -
, , . -
, , -
-
.
10.5. , , -
: p1S, p2S , p2S, p3S
(. ). -
:
p1S + p2S p2S p3S = 0. (1)

p3
= (2)
p1

p 2 1
= . (3)
p1 1
210
, , -
, V1 = lS/2 (
), V2 = lS( + 1)/2 ( ) V3 = lS/2
( ),
lS
( p1 + p 2 ( + 1) + p 3 ) = RT , (4)
2
; T
.
(2), (3),

( 1)RT
p1 = . (5)
lS ( 2 1)
. -
,
, , -
, (1)
. , , -
,
. -
; (3) .
, , .
,

.
2Q
T = , (6)
3R
(5) -

2( 1)T
p1 = .
3lS ( 2 1)
10.6.
. V1, -
211
p1 = V12 . ,
V << V1 ( ).
-
Q V1: ,
Q > 0, V1 ,
Q < 0 .
-

Q = U + A, (1)
U A
. ,

3 3
U = RT = (( p1 + p)(V1 + V ) p1V1 ) , (2)
2 2
p -
, ,

p = (V1 + V ) 2 ( V12 ) =

= 2 V1 V V 2 2 V1V (3)
( V V1 , ,
V2, ). (2)
, V p , -
,
3 3
U = ( p1V + V1p) = (( V12 )V 2 V12 V ) =
2 2
3
= ( 3 V12 )V . (4)
2

.
, -

212
*, -
:

A p1V = ( V12 )V . (5)


(4), (5) ,
,
3
Q = ( 3 V12 )V + ( V12 )V =
2
1
= (5 11V12 )V . (6)
2
(6) , (V > 0)

5
V1 = (7)
11
, , -
, . -
V1 (7), -
Q , , ,
.
10.7. -
, , , . -
.

-
. ( )

3 3
E1 = RT0 = pV , (1)
2 2

*
, -
, V.
, V1, -
.
213
; p V .
,
p = mg/S, m ; S .
(1)
:
3
E1 = mgH , (2)
2
H .
( ,
) -
, ..
E 2 = 3mgH . (3)
, -
. -
x , -
T1, *:
3 3
3mgH = mgx + RT1 = mgx + p1V1 , (4)
2 2
p1 V1 ,
p1 = mg/S ( ), V1 = S(H + x).
(4)
3
3mgH = mgx + mg ( x + H ) . (5)
2
(5) x:
3
x= H (6)
5
E :
3 12
E= mg ( x + H ) = mgH . (7)
2 5

*
(4) , -
-
.
.
214
(1), (7) ,
E 8/5 -
E1, , ,
8
T1 = T0 .
5
10.8. -
, -
, .

.
:
3
E = mgh + RT , (1)
2
( -

), ( T -
).
( -
-
),
RT
( ) :
RT = pV, (2)
p V .
,
,
mg
p= , V = SH , (3)
S
m ; S ; H
.
(1) -

3
E = mgh + mgH . (4)
2

215
- -
, -
. -
x . -

3
E = mgx + RT1 , (5)
2
T1 . -

, (5)
3
E = mgx + mg ( x + H ) . (6)
2
-
,
2
x= h.
5
10.9.

Q = U + A, (1)
Q , ,
2h; U -
; A . -
,
3 3
U = RT = ( p1V1 p 0V0 ) , (2)
2 2
p1, V1 p0, V0 -
.
V0 = Sh, V1 = 3Sh, (3)
S . p1 p0
.
mg
p0 = + p . (4)
S
216

mg + hg
p1 = + p . (5)
S

3
U = (2mgh + 3h 2 g + 2 p ) . (6)
2

. -
,
. , , -
,
,
. ,

mg
p = p + . (7)
S
, -
,
-
mg h -
.

mg + hg
p = p + . (8)
S

p
mg + hg
pa +
S
mg
pa + V
S
SH 2Sh 3Sh
,
, -

217
.
( )
2
mg h gS
A = 2 p + Sh + . (9)
S 2
(1), (6) (9) -
, ,
Q = 5h(mg + paS + hg).
10.10. ,
,
Q = cm(T T ) (1)

( , (1)).
, -
(1) ,
.
,
, -
, -
.
i-
li Ti,
Ti .

-

ml i
Qi = cmi (Ti Ti) = c (Ti Ti) , (2)
l
l ; mi
, mi = li m / l . , -
,
cm
Q= li (Ti Ti) .
l i
(3)

218
(3) .
T(x) -
x (, -
T1 T1 ).
;
. , li (Ti Ti)
li, (Ti Ti) , .. -
, . -
(3)
T(x), cm/l. ,
T + T2 T1 + T2
Q = cm 1 . (4)
2 2
10.11. , . , -
,
, .
: ,
( ),
(
). , -
, .
, -
. , -
.
, .
, .
. ,
-
, . ,
,
, , -
, -
, . , , :
, -
. -
, , -

219
n
. .
( -
) C0,
C1. t.


C0T1 = C1(t T1), (1)
T1
. (1) C1

xT1 = t T1, (2)
x = C0/C1 -
.
( -

C0 + C1) ,

(C0 + C1)T2 = C1(t T1 T2), (3)
T2 (
)
. (3) C1
(x + 1)T2 = t T1 T2. (4)
(2), (4) -
x t, -

2T2 T (T1 + T2 )
x= , t= 1 . (5)
T1 T2 T1 T2
(

C0 + 2C1) n .

220
(C0 + 2C1)T3 = nC1(t T1 T2 T3), (6)
T3 (
) n -
. (6) C1
(x + 2)T3 = nt nT1 nT2 nT3. (7)
(7) x -

t (5) , -

nT2 (T1 + T2 )
T3 = .
(n + 2)T1 nT2
10.12. . -
, -
,
.

,
.
, C0, C1. -

C0(t2 t1) = C1(t0 t2). (1)
(1)
C0 t 0 t 2
= . (2)
C1 t 2 t1
, ,
t2, ,
. C0 + C1,
2C1,
(C0 + C1)(tx t2) = 2C1(t0 tx), (3)
tx . (3) C1, -

221
1 C0
+ 1(t x t 2 ) = t 0 t x . (4)
2 C1
C0/C1
( (2)), (4) -
tx.
. -
(2) ,
C0
= 7. (5)
C1

, -

1 C0
+ 1 = 4 . (6)
2 C1
(4) :
4t 2 + t 0
tx = = 44 C.
5
10.13. -
. ,
*
P1. ,

P1 = k(t2 t1), (1)


k ,
: , -
, .,
.
,

*
, -
.
222
, , .
, k,
, -
. , -
, .
, (1)
P1
k= . (2)
t 2 t1
t3, -
P,

P1 + P = k(t2 t3), (3)


, (2):
P1 (t 2 t 3 )
P1 + P = . (4)
t 2 t1
(4),
P (t 2 t1 )
P1 = .
t1 t 3
10.14. -

-
( , -
P
) P
(. 1).

P = T44R2, (1) . 1
R ; ,
.
,
,
, -
223
. , -
. , -

, ,
(. 2),
, , -
, ,
. -
-
P
,
.
, -

-


, -
. 2

P = T14 4( 2 R) 2 , (2)
T1 ; 2R .
(1) (2),
T
T1 = . (3)
2
,
, ,
. ,
, . -

(1) ,
:

T 4 4R 2 = 2T24 4R 2 , (4)
T2 .
, ,
:
224
T2 = 4 2 T .
,
.
. ,
, -,
, -, -
,
-
.
, -
, -
,
p = T4,
T ; , -
-
.
10.15. ,
Q, -
T , -

Q
C= . (1)
T
T -

3
Q = RT + A , (2)
2
. -
Q ,
. -

A pV, (3)
V . (2)

225
3
Q = RT + pV . (4)
2
(4) T, -

. , -

(p + p)(V + V) = R(T + T) Vp + pV = RT (5)
( pV ; .
5.25). ,

p
f (V ) p f (V )V . (6)
V

RT = (Vf (V ) + f (V )) (7)
(4)
3 RTf (V )
Q = RT + . (8)
2 Vf (V ) + f (V )
(1)
3 Rf (V )
C= R + . (9)
2 Vf (V ) + f (V )
(9) , , ,
, ,
.
10.16. (9) ,

5
C = R .
6
10.17. , ,
, , ,
p = f(V).
. ,
226
, -
10.15. .

, x -
x = V/S, S .
, ,
, .

:
p = kV,
k . (9) -
10.15,
C = 2R.
10.18. -
, (10.15, 10.16, 10.17),
.

, , ,
, .

, V(T) ,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
,
, -
( ,
), -
.
, Q
, (
). ,
. , -
V T

227
, V V (T )T , V (T ) -
, ,
V (T ) = 0 , . -

3
Q = RT , (1)
2
T .
, ,
Q 3
C= = R . (2)
T 2
, -
:
T2
C (T ) = R 02 , (3)
T
-
T1, (3) (2):

T02 3
R 2
= R . (4)
T 2
,
2
T1 = T0 . (5)
3
, T1 (5) -
. (3) ,
T < T1 , -
Q = CT,

T02 3
R 2
T > RT . (6)
T 2
,
, .. . T > T1 -
228
, -
Q = CT, -
(6)
T2 3
R 02 T < RT ,
T 2
, , .. .
, T1 -
, , , -
T1 .
10.19.
. -
,
.
,
, -
, .
-
,
, , , ,
-
, .

:
p = gh, (1)

V = S(H h), (2)
; S .

(2) (.. ). -
, , -
. , -
,
, .
V
(2).
229
, ,
.
: ,
, ,
, , -
,
. -
. .
V -
h = V/S,
gV/S. p -

const
p = 5/3 . (3)
V
, -

p
p (V ) , (4)
V
p (V )
(3). ,
5 const 5 p 5 gh
p = V = V = V , (5)
3V 8 / 3 3V 3 S ( H h)
-
(1), (2). ( (5) , -
; (5).)
, ,
gV 5 ghV
. (6)
S 3 S ( H h)
(6) h , -
, ,
3
h H. (7)
8
230
h (h = 11H/24) -
3H/8 (7), -
.
. -
, (9)
9.15. , -
,
.
x,
g
p = gx = g ( H l ) = hH V, (8)
S
l , ; V ,
V = Sl. (8)
. (9) 10.15,
( = 1):
V
R H
3 S
C= R+ . (9)
2 2V
H
S
, V = S(H h), (9):
(8h 3H ) R
C= . (10)
2h H
(1) h = 11H/24,
8
C= R, (11)
3
..
h = 11H/24 , , p

.
-
, 2
h = 11H/24 ( - 1
) ( - V
1 ) ( 2).
231
, ,
h = 3H/8 p(V)
. -
( ),

h = H/2. h (h = 11H/24) -

3 1
H <h< H , (12)
8 2
. , -
(10) 5.24 .
h = 3H/8 , -
, (10), .
h = H/2 ,
.
10.20.
A
= , (1)
Q
A ; Q ,
.
, -
p V, ,
:
p V
A= 0 0 . (2)
2
, -
1 2, 3 1.
1 2 , -
, , -
, -
, -
:
3 3 3
Q1 2 = U 1 2 = RT1 2 = (2 p 0V0 p 0V0 ) = p 0V0 . (3)
2 2 2
232
2 3. ,
(, , -
), (, ,
).
V* ,
V ( -
), Q,
,
V* ( 10.6).
, ,
( -

, A -
A p*V):
3
Q = U + A = RT + p* V , (4)
2
U
; p* . -
-
, p (
) V, (3)
3
Q = (( p* + p)(V* + V ) p*V* ) + p* V =
2
3
= (V* p + p* V ) + p* V . (5)
2
2 3
:
p0
p(V ) = V + 3 p0 (6)
V0
( ), p* -

p

233
p 0V* p V
p* = 3 p 0 , p = 0 . (7)
V0 V0

p* p (7) (5), ,

p 0 V 8V
Q = 15 * . (8)
2 V0

(8) , (Q > 0),


V* < 15V0/8, (Q < 0), V* > 15V0/8, .. -
2 3 V0
V1 = 15V0/8 ,
V1 2V0 .
Q,
V0 V1. -

3
Q= ( p1V1 2 p 0V0 ) + A =
2
3 ( p + p 0 )(V1 V0 )
= ( p1V1 2 p 0V0 ) + 1 , (9)
2 2
p1 = 9p0/8 ,
V1, A = (p1 + p0)(V1 V0)/2

. (9) p1 V1, -
, 2 3,
49 p 0V0
Q= . (10)
32
, ,
(3) (5)
97 p 0V0
Q = . (11)
32

234
,
(11), , (2), -
(1), -

16
= . (12)
97
10.21. 1 2
Q12 , 2 3 Q23 . 3 1
,
Q
1 = 1 23 . (1)
Q12

Q
2 = 1 3 4 , (2)
Q41
Q41 Q34 , -
4 1 3 4 .
2 3 4 1
, ,
Q41 = Q23 . (3)
q
(1) (2) Q12 Q34 .
q
Q1 2 = , Q34 = q(1 2 ) . (4)
1 1
1 2 3 4 1 4 1
1 2 2 3 3 4.
1 2 3 4 1
Q41 + Q12 Q23 Q3 4 Q1 2 Q34
= = . (5)
Q41 + Q12 q + Q1 2

(5) Q12 Q34 (4),


q
235
1 + 2 1 2
= .
2 1

10.22. = 1 + 2 12.
10.23. (.
. 9)
Q Q
= , (1)
Q
Q ,
; Q , -
.
2 3 -
p , , ,
2p0 2
,

p0 1 2 3 1. ,
1 3 V

V0 V1 1 2, 3
1.
Q = Q12 , Qx = Q31 , (2)

Q12 Q31 , -
1 2 3 1.
1 2 . -

Q1 2 = U 1 2 + A1 2 . (3)
1 2 ,
A12 = 0 .

3 3
Q1 2 = U 1 2 = RT12 = p 0V0 , (4)
2 2
p0 V0 1. -
, 3 1,
V3 3. 2 3
,
236
2 p 0V05 / 3 = p 0V35 / 3 . (5)
(5)

V3 = 2 3 / 5 V 0 . (6)
, 3 1,
, :
3 5
Q31 = U 31 + A31 = RT31 + p 0 V31 = p 0 V31 =
2 2
5
= p 0V0 (1 2 3 / 5 ) (7)
2
( ).
, 3 1 -

5
Q x = Q31 = p 0V0 (2 3 / 5 1) . (8)
2
, -
, (1),
8 5 23 / 5
= 0,14 .
3
10.24. 1 2, -
3 4.
Q12 Q34
= , (1)
Q1 2

Q12 , -
p
1 2; p2 2
Q34 , -
3 4. 1 p1 1
2 3 4 , -
p3 3
.
p4 4 V
237 V1 V3
3 3
Q1 2 = RT1 2 = V1 ( p 2 p1 ) , (2)
2 2
T12 = T2 T1 ; T1, p1 T2, p2
1 2. , -
3 4
3 3
Q34 = RT43 = V3 ( p3 p 4 ) , (3)
2 2
T43 = T3 T4 , T3, p3 T4, p4
3 4.
2 3 4 1.
2 3 ,
const const
p2 = , p3 = , (4)
V15 / 3 V35 / 3

const ,
2 3: pV5/3 = const. -
1 4
const const
p1 = 5 / 3 , p 4 = 5 / 3 , (5)
V1 V3
const ,
4 1: pV 5 / 3 = const (
2 3). (4),
(5) (2) (3),
,
3
Q1 2 = V12 / 3 (const const ) ,
2
3
Q34 = V32 / 3 (const const ) . (6)
2
(1) (6)
( ( const const ),
, )
238
2/3
V
= 1 1 . (7)
V3

-
.. ,
1876 . ( . . 9).
(7), ,
( )
4 1 1 2. -
-
V3/V1 812,
( ,
,
(7)
2/3 2/5 = 0,4): 0,560,63.

-
.
-
.
pV5/3 = const ,
-

TV2/3 = const1, (8)
*
const1 . (8) , , -,

2 3 4 1 :
T2 T1
= , (9)
T3 T4

*
, , ,
5/3
pV = const ( ).
239
-, (7)
, ..
T4 T1 T4 T T T3
=1 = =1 3 = 2 . (10)
T1 T1 T2 T2
(10) , -
, , , ,
.
; , (10),
,

.
10.25.
1
=1 2/5 .
n
10.26.
( ,
, ), -
.
. m1 = 74 ,
m2 = 10 .
T = 373
, mmax
H 2O p V
m max = = 58 , (1)
RT
p = 105 -
T = 373 .
m1 = 74 , .
, ,
, , -
, -
,
.
, -
. -
240
, , ,
105 . , -
,
m 2 RT
p= = 1,55 10 5 , (2)
H2 V

.. ,
. -
, -
. ,
,
p (2), .
.
, , , -

.
p = 105 , ..
T = 373 . ,
m2 = 74 V = 100 -
T = 373
m 2 RT
p= = 5,2 10 4 , (3)
CO 2 V

. -
V1, -
p = 105 .

:
m 2 RT
V1 = = 52 . (4)
CO 2 p

V2 =
= V V1 = 48 . m3, .. -
,
H 2O p V
m3 = = 28 , (5)
RT
241
m1 m3 = 46
( , -
, , , .. -

).
. -
:
, ,
, -
. , p -
T = 373 , .. -
p = 105 . -
. ,

m1 m2
pV1 = RT pV2 = RT (6)
H 2O N2

( V1 V2 ,
),
m m RT
p = 1 + 2 = 0,9 10 5 . (7)
H O N V
2 2
(7) -
T = 373 ,
-
.
10.27. .
-
, -
. ,
, -
p

p = p. (1)

, -
242
p, -
, (1) .
,
, .
-
, , -
, -
. ,

( ), .. . -
,
p = p. (2)
, -
, -
-
,
.
, -
. ,

. , -
,
.
(, i- j-), -
,
-
:
p = p(i) + p(j). (3)

: 1 2 2 3, ,

:
p(i) + p(j) = p. (4)

243
-
, (4) -
i j:

(i )(T (i, j ) T (i )) 2 + ( j )(T (i, j ) T ( j )) 2 = p , (5)


T(i, j) , i- j- -
.
-
, .
(1), (2)
p
(k ) = . (6)
(T (k ) T (k )) 2

(i) (j) (6) (5),


T(i, j):

(T (i, j ) T (i)) 2 (T (i, j ) T ( j )) 2


+ =1. (7)
(T (i ) T (i)) 2 (T ( j ) T ( j )) 2
.
1- 2-
(7), T(1, 2)

(T (1, 2) 300) 2 (T (1, 2) 300) 2


+ =1 (8)
100 2 80 2
( 300, 100 80 ).
(8),

T (1, 2) = 362 .
-

(T (2, 3) 300) 2 (T (2, 3) 250) 2


+ =1 (9)
80 2 100 2

244
( 300, 250, 100 80 ).
(9), -

T(2, 3) = 338 K (10)
( T(1, 2) =
= 238 T(2, 3) = 223 ,
). (9), (10) ,
2 3
T = 338 .

245


..

..
- ..

05.05.2008. 6084 1/16


.-.. 15,5. .. 15,5. 2000 . . 007-1

-
( ).
.
115409, , ., 31