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IGCSE

Chemistry
Topic 7 Chemical
Reactions
Topic Book
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Answers to Topic 7 Textbook Questions

Answers Chapter 8

Summary Questions 8.1 p97


1 rate; decrease; mixture; mass
2 see fig 8.1.2 p 97 graph gradually slows down then levels off ALLOW: almost straight line then
levelling off (one reactant in great excess)
3 iron rusting < cement setting < firework exploding

Summary Questions 8.2 p99


1 see fig 8.2.1 p 98
2 calcium carbonate is in excess because there is some remaining and no further reaction to produce
the bubbles of carbon dioxide from the carbonate.
3 fast; slows; stops; limiting

Summary Questions 8.3 p101


1 increases; rate; unchanged; again
2 dust has a large surface area for the volume of material used. A larger surface area means that there
are more particles exposed to react (with oxygen in the air) in the presence of a spark.
3 small beads have a larger surface area, exposing more particles for reaction with the exhaust gases

Summary Questions 8.4 p103


1 rate; increases; concentration
2a see fig 8.3.2 p 100
b slope shallower at start but ends up at the same level (since acid in excess)
3 collision; concentrated; unit; collide; frequently

Summary Questions 8.5 p105


1 longer; time; slower; rate
2 volume of gas increasing with temperature in almost exponential fashion
3 quickly (quicker); energy; more; minimum; effective; increases

Summary Questions 8.6 p107


1 photsynthesis plants change carbon dioxide to glucose
chlorophyll catalyst in photosynthesis
reduction electrons gained
oxidation electrons lost
photochemical reaction - reaction started by light
2 crystals; bromide; light; silver; particles; black
3 the stronger / more intense the light the mire rapid the rate of decomposition

Chapter 8 Summary Questions p108


1 a purple solution.measure the light transmitted
hydrogen is released..measure the volume of gas produced
two solutions form a precipitate.. see how long it takes for letter to disappear
there are more ionsmeasure electrical conductivity
2a amount of reactants converted to product in given time
b substance that speeds up a reaction / increases rate of reaction
c slope of the graph
3 see fig 8.3.2 p100
4a increases
b rate ; decreases
5a decreases rate
b decreases rate of reaction
6 increases rate because increase in pressure pushes all the particles closer to each other
so concentration of reacting particles increases
so particles there are more collisions per second
7a the reactant that is not in excess the reactant which gets used up first
b a reaction which is started / catalysed by light
c in green plants the reaction of carbon dioxide with water in the presence of sunlight and
chlorophyll to form glucose / starch and oxygen
8 particles in food move more / vibrate more at higher temperature;
so particles have more energy at higher temperature;
more of the particles have the minimum energy to react when they collide/ collisions are more
successful at higher temperatures

Chapter 8 Exam Questions p108-109


1 D [1]
2a 2 marks for correct plotting of points including 0-0 [2]
1 mark for best line through the points [1]
b gradient line steeper than the original; [1]
levels off at the same place as previous graph [1]
c very slow reaction / takes much longer to produce the same amount of gas; [1]
catalyst speeds up reaction / increases rate of reaction [1]
3a substance which speed up a reaction / increases rate of reaction [1]
b copper(II) sulfate [1]
c Any 3 of: temperature/ concentration of HCl/ size of zinc granules / amount of catalyst used [3]
d sodium chloride and sodium sulfate (both needed) [1]
4a line 1 [1]
b A [1]
c as fig 8.4.1 p 102 [3]
1 mark for use of gas syringe or upturned measuring cylinder over water;
1 mark for closed system with gas syringe / measuring cylinder connected to flask or test tube;
1 mark for 2 or more correct labels
NOT: decrease in mass method (since refers to graph shown in the question)
d increasing the temperature; [1]
using smaller pieces of calcium carbonate / powdered calcium carbonate [1]
5a measure increase in volume of hydrogen; [1]
using a gas syringe / measuring cylinder [1]
measure decrease in mass of magnesium; [1]
by (removing magnesium) and weighing the magnesium from time to time [1]
ALLOW: weighing the decrease in mass of the reaction mixture
b measure volume / mass; [1]
at particular times; [1]
indication of rate = increase in volume/ decrease in mass with time [1]
(rate = volume / time alone = 2 marks)
ci rate increases; [1]
particles are closer together / more particles in given volume; [1]
particles have more chance of colliding / frequency of collisions increases [1]
ii rate decreases; [1]
particles have less energy; [1]
fewer successful collisions / ALLOW: particles collide with less force [1]
iii rate increases; [1]
more magnesium particles exposed/ larger surface area for reaction; [1]
particles have more chance of colliding / frequency of collisions increases [1]
6a see fig 8.3.2 p100 [2]
1 mark for graph line with negative gradient and axes correct; [1]
1 mark for downward curve which levels off [1]
b rate starts off fast then slows down (with time)/ rate greater at start; [1]
because the slope of the graph decreases with time [1]
c concentration of acid decreases / ALLOW: amount of carbonate in contact with acid
decreases; [1]
HCl particles are further apart / fewer HCl particles in given volume; [1]
particles have less chance of colliding / frequency of collisions decreases [1]
di moles calcium carbonate = 0.4 mol [1]
moles of HCl = 0.06 mol [1]
ii HCl limiting; [1]
because fewer number of moles / ALLOW: working from figures e.g. 0.4 > 0.06 / 0.4 mol calcium
carbonate would require 0.8 mol HCl [1]
ei time on vertical axis and temperature on horizontal; [1]
points plotted correctly; [1]
curve through the points/ near to points correct [1]
ii 4s [1]
7a photochemical reaction; [1]
light catalyses decomposition of silver bromide to silver; [1]
which appears black; [1]
light doesnt reach below the H so no reaction here [1]
b increase the light intensity; [1]
c Ag+ + e- Ag [1]

Answers Chapter 9

Summary Questions 9.1 p111


1 hydrated; crystallisation; blue; white; anhydrous; reversible
2 it is dynamic / products change to reactants at the same times as reactants change to products;
concentration of products and reactants at equilibrium does not change if temperature and pressure
remain constant/ rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction;
equilibrium can be approached from either direction
3a products change to reactants as well as reactants to products at the same rate
b a system where there is no loss of matter to the surroundings

Summary Questions 9.2 p113


1 equilibrium: concentration; right; disturbed; products; balanced
2a moves to the right / more methanol formed
b moves to the right . more methanol formed
c moves to the left / more CO and H2 formed

Summary Questions 9.3 p115


1 sulfur; oxidised; reduced; reductant; agent
2a Na
b C
c CO
3 Ca2+ + 2e- Ca reduction
2Cl- Cl2 + 2e- oxidation

Summary Questions 9.4 p117


1 state; redox; increases; oxidation; decrease
2a +3
b +1
c -1
d -2
3 purple to brown - potassium manganate(VII) is purple and potassium iodide is colourless but a
solution of iodine is brown in colour

Chapter 9 Summary Questions p118


1 hydrated with water added
reversible reaction goes in forward or backward direction
oxidation addition of oxygen
anhydrous without water
reduction - removal of oxygen
2a reduced
b oxidised
c oxidised
d reduced
3a any suitable e.g. potassium manganate(VII) from purple to colourless
b any suitable e.g. iodide ions from colourless to brown
4 it is dynamic / products change to reactants at the same times as reactants change to products;
concentration of products and reactants at equilibrium does not change if temperature and pressure
remain constant/ rate of forward reaction = rate of rev
5a position of equilibrium moves to the left
b position of equilibrium moves to the left
c position of equilibrium moves to the right
d position of equilibrium moves to the left
6 addition of oxygen; removal of hydrogen; loss of electrons; increase in oxidation number/ state
7a reduction
b oxidation
c reduction

Chapter 9 Exam Questions p118-119


1 A [1]
2 reversible [1]
3ai add water to the white copper sulfate [1]
ii CuSO4 + 5H2O CuSO4.5H2O [1]
b blue/ hydrated; [1]
crystallisation; [1]
white; [1]
hydrated [1]
ci Cu [1]
ii removal of oxygen / addition of hydrogen/ loss of electrons/ decrease in oxidation number [1]
iii the oxidation state / oxidation number of the copper [1]
4a concentration of hydrogen and iodine are decreasing; [1]
fewer reactant molecules collide / frequency of collisions decreases [1]
b concentration of hydrogen iodide molecules is increasing [1]
c rate of forward reaction = rate of reverse reaction [1]
d shifts the position of equilibrium to the right; [1]
until the relative concentrations of the reactants and products are at the correct equilibrium
concentrations [1]
e there are equal number of moles of gases on each side of the equation [1]
f position of equilibrium moves to the left; [1]
for an exothermic reaction, the reaction goes in the direction in which heat is taken in [1]
ALLOW: for an exothermic reaction the position of equilibrium moves to the left
5a chlorine; [1]
Cl atoms have gained electrons / oxidation number of Cl decreases [1]
ACCEPT: reverse answers referring to bromide
b Cl2 + 2I- 2Cl- + I2 [2]
1 mark for correct reactants and products
1 mark for balance
c Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl- [1]
2I- I2 + 2e- [1]
di equilibrium [1]
ii brown liquid reforms/ yellow crystals disappear; [1]
position of equilibrium shifts to the left; [1]
more chlorine forms [1]
iii position of equilibrium shifts to the left; [1]
decreasing pressure shifts reaction in direction of more gas molecules / more gas molecules
on left of equation / fewer on right [1]
6a reduction as well as oxidation have taken place/ N2 (or NO) has been oxidised and oxygen
reduced; [1]
N2 ; [1]
NO [1]
bi no effect; [1]
same number of gas molecules on each side of the equation [1]
ii position of equilibrium shifts to the right/ more NO2 formed; [1]
more molecules of gas on the left than on the right [1]
c position of equilibrium shifts to the right; [1]
for an endothermic reaction, the reaction goes in the direction in which heat is released [1]
ALLOW: for an endothermic reaction the position of equilibrium moves to the right