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# EE-380 Communication System Lab 9 Week-11

## Name: Syed Arham Mukhtar Roll No: 17100116

Name: Zarmeen Khan Roll No: 18100273

## Pulse Amplitude modulation

Objectives:
Understanding the principle of Pulse amplitude modulation
Implement various parts of communication system in MATLAB

You are given a computer simulation tool that is used to simulate the pulse amplitude
modulated (PAM) symbols transmission over a channel. As a design engineer, your task is to
analyze the system. You can change different parameters and analyze data and signal using
the text boxes and slide bars. Make sure to capture the essence of the problem rather than to
exhaustively try all possible combinations of settings in PAM Lab.
a) Write a short explanation (no more than two lines) about each box you see in simulation tool.

a) Transmitted Symbols
Allows the setting of a specific bit sequence and M, which is the number of symbols.
We can also see the stem diagram of the symbol sequence.
b) Transmitted Signal
The transmitted symbols after passing through the pulse shaping filter can be seen plotted.
The roll-off factor and pulse shaping filter length, Dr can also be set. Moreover there is an
option to choose between rectangular and Root raised cosine pulse.
c) Channel PSD
The PSD of the channel. We can change the channel characteristics from a flat to a low pass
channel and vice versa. For low pass channel, the frequencies can be adjusted.
This is the transmitted signal after passing through the channel. The noise added to the
e) Sampling of Match Filter Output
The received signal is passed through the matched filter. The resulting sequence is plotted.
Moreover the sampled instances for decisions are also shown. We can adjust the filter length,
Dt.
f) Estimates of Transmitted Symbols
Symbols detected are shown, there is an option to only show those symbols which are

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EE-380 Communication System Lab 9 Week-11

b) First for a very low noise realization (adjusted by noise slide-bar) detect the correct input
bits with Rect. and SRRC pulse. Plot MF output and Eye diagram. And analyze the results.
Also elaborate the effect of using both pulses.

## Bit sequence: 1101111111, M = 2

Rectangular SRRC
Symbols
Sent

Matched
Filter
Output

Eye
Diagram

Rect has a much wider channel impulse response, hence it is more susceptible to errors in case low pass
channel is used.

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EE-380 Communication System Lab 9 Week-11

## c) Increase the noise level and elaborate the effect.

Increasing the noise level increases the number of symbol errors in our received signals.
Rect performs better than SRRC under low SNR conditions.

d) Switch between FLAT and low pass channel, and analyze the results.

In a flat channel, no effect is added to the output signal. In case of low pass signal, only a
certain range of frequencies are allowed through the channel.

Since a rect pulse shaping filter produces a much wider frequency response it performs
much worse than the SRRC.

e) Change the truncation length and roll-off factor of SRRC pulse and analyze the effect.

Increasing roll off factor increases the transmitted signal bandwidth. This makes it perform
poorly in a low pass channel.

The truncation lengths need to be equal if they are mismatched then wrong decisions are

f) Explain the when the transmitter and receiver are not synchronized. Use initial offset to
simulate the effect.

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EE-380 Communication System Lab 9 Week-11

The sampling occurs at the wrong times and hence wrong decisions are made. This
produces symbol errors.

g) Write theoretical aspects of Nyquist criteria for Zero ISI pulse, Root raise cosine filter, Eye

Nyquist criteria for Zero ISI pulse: Gives the criteria for selecting low pass signals as a pulse shaping filter
that still give zero inter symbol interference. The examples are SRRC and a simple sinc.

Root Raised Cosine Filter: It is a modified Sinc wave to allow for time domain cutoffs. We can adjust the
lengths with a truncation roll off factor, alpha.

Eye Diagram: A diagram of consecutive symbols after convolution with pulse shaping filters.

Matched Filter Receiver: A receiver that incorporates a matched filter. The matched filter is a
flipped and shifted copy of the pulse shaping filter. It is the optimal linear filter for
maximizing SNR.

Submission details:
Create a pdf of this manual having subject:
Name1_roll number1_ Name2_roll number2_Lab9
And upload it to Lab 10 LMS Dropbox.

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