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Chapter 2

Mobility
2.1 (a) The mean free time between collisions using Equation (2.2.4b) is

q mn n mn
n mn 2.85 10 13 sec
mn q

where n is given to be 500 cm2/Vsec (= 0.05 m2/Vsec), and m n is assumed to be


m0.

(b) We need to find the drift velocity first:

v d n 50000 cm / sec .

The distance traveled by drift between collisions is

d v d mn 0.14 nm .

2.2 From the thermal velocity example, we know that the approximate thermal velocity
of an electron in silicon is

3kT
vth 2.29 107 cm / sec .
m

Consequently, the drift velocity (v d ) is (1/10)v th = 2.29106 cm/sec, and the time it
takes for an electron to traverse a region of 1 m in width is

10 4 cm
t 4.37 10 11 sec .
2.29 10 cm / sec
6

Next, we need to find the mean free time between collisions using Equation (2.2.4b):

q mn n mn
n mn 2.10 1013 sec
mn q

where n is 1400 cm2/Vsec (=0.14 m2/Vsec, for lightly doped silicon, given in Table
2-1), and m n is 0.26m 0 (given in Table 1-3). So, the average number of collision is

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t
207.7 collision 207 collisions .
mn

In order to find the voltage applied across the region, we need to calculate the electric
field using Equation (2.2.3b):

2.29 10 6 cm / sec
vd n vd 1635.71 Vcm 1 .
n 1400 cm 2 / V sec

Then, the voltage across the region is


V width 1635.71 Vcm 1 10 4 cm 0.16V .

2.3 (a)
4
10
Log[]

1
2

3
10

2
10
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 T (K)

(b) If we combine 1 and 2 ,


Log[]
3
10

2
10 T (K)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
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The total mobility at 300 K is
1
1 1
TOTAL (300 K ) 502.55 cm 2 / V sec .
1 (300 K ) 2 (300 K )

(c) The applied electric field is

1V
V 10V / cm .
l 1 mm

The current density is

J ndrift q n n q n N d 80.41A / cm2 .

Drift
2.4 (a) From Figure 2-8 on page 45, we find the resistivity of the N-type sample doped
with 11016cm-3 of phosphorous is 0.5 -cm.

(b) The acceptor density (boron) exceeds the donor density (P). Hence, the resulting
conductivity is P-type, and the net dopant concentration is N net = |N d -N a | = p =
91016cm-3 of holes. However, the mobilities of electrons and holes depend on
the total dopant concentration, N T =1.11017cm-3. So, we have to use Equation
(2.2.14) to calculate the resistivity. From Figure 2-5, p (N T =1.11017cm-3) is
250 cm2/Vsec. The resistivity is

1 1 1
0.28 cm .
qN net p 3

q 9 10 cm 250 cm 2 / V sec
16

(c) For the sample in part (a),

N 2.8 1019 cm 3
E c E f kT ln c 0.026V ln 16 3
0.21 eV .
Nd 10 cm
0.21 eV
Ec
Ef
Ei

Ev

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
For the sample in part (b),

N 1.04 1019 cm 3
E f Ev kT ln v 0.026V ln 3
0.12 eV
9 10 cm
16
N net
Ec

Ei
0.12 eV
Ef
Ev

2.5 (a) Sample 1: N-type Holes are minority carriers.


p = n i 2/N d = (1010cm-3)2/1017cm-3 = 102 cm-3

Sample 2: P-type Electrons are minority carriers.


n = n i 2/N a = (1010cm-3)2/1015cm-3 = 105 cm-3

Sample 3: N-type Holes are minority carriers.


p = n i 2/N net = (1010cm-3)2/(9.91017cm-3) 102 cm-3

(b) Sample 1: N d = 1017cm-3


n (N d = 1017cm-3) = 750 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
= qN d n = 12 -1cm-1

Sample 2: N a = 1015cm-3
p (N a = 1015cm-3) = 480 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
= qN a p = 12 -1cm-1

Sample 3: N T = N d +N a = 1.011017cm-3
n (N T = 1.011017cm-3) = 750 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
N net = N d -N a = 0.991017cm-3
= qN net n = 11.88 -1cm-1

(c) For Sample 1,

N 2.8 1019 cm 3
Ec E f kT ln c 0.026V ln 17 3
0.15 eV .
Nd 10 cm
0.15 eV
Ec
Ef

Ei

Ev

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
For Sample 2,

N 1.04 1019 cm 3
E f Ev kT ln v 0.026V ln 15 3
0.24 eV .
Na 10 cm
Ec

Ei
0.24 eV
Ef
Ev

For Sample 3,

Nc 2.8 1019 cm 3
Ec E f kT ln 0.026V ln 3
0.15 eV .
N net N d N a 9.9 10 cm
16

0.15 eV
Ec
Ef

Ei

Ev

2.6 (a) From Figure 2-5, n (N d = 1016cm-3 of As) is 1250 cm2/Vs. Using Equation
(2.2.14), we find

1 1
0.5 cm .
qn n

(b) The mobility of electrons in the sample depends not on the net dopant
concentration but on the total dopant concentration N T :

NT N d N a 2 1016 cm 3 .

From Figure 2-5,

n N T 1140 cm 2 / Vs and p N T 390 cm 2 / Vs .

N net = N d -N a = 0. Hence, we can assume that there are only intrinsic carriers in
the sample. Using Equation (2.2.14),

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1 1 1

qni n qpi p qni n p
1
.
q 1 10 cm 1140 390cm 2 / V sec
10 3

The resistivity is 4.08105 -cm.

(c) Now, the total dopant concentration (N T ) is 0. Using the electron and hole
mobilities for lightly doped semiconductors (from Table 2.1), we have

n 1400 cm 2 / V sec and p 470 cm 2 / V sec .

Using Equation (2.2.14),

1 1 1

qni n qpi p qni n p
1
.
q 1 10 cm 1400 470cm 2 / V sec
10 3

The resistivity is 3.34105 -cm. The resistivity of the doped sample in part (b)
is higher due to ionized impurity scattering.

2.7 It is given that the sample is n-type, and the applied electric field is1000V/cm. The
hole velocity dp is 2105cm/s.

(a) From the velocity and the applied electric field, we can calculate the mobility of
holes:
dp = p , p = dp / = 2105/1000 = 200cm2/Vs.

From Figure 2-5, we find N d is equal to 4.51017/cm3. Hence,

n = N d = 4.51017/cm3, and p = n i 2/n = n i 2/ N d = 1020 / 4.51017 = 222/cm3.

Clearly, the minority carriers are the holes.

(b) The Fermi level with respect to E c is

E f = E c - kTln(N d /N c ) = E c - 0.107 eV.

(c) R = L/A. Using Equation (2.2.14), we first calculate the resistivity of the sample:

= q( n n + p p) q n n = 1.610-19 400 4.51017 = 28.8/-cm, and


= -1 = 0.035 -cm.

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
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Therefore, R = (0.035) 20m / (10m 1.5m) = 467 .

Diffusion
2.8 (a) Using Equation (2.3.2),

J = qn = qD(dn/dx).

Therefore,

= D(1/n)(dn/dx) = -D/. (constant)

(b) J = q n n = qn and = n .

Therefore, = -D/ n = -(kT/q)/.

(c) = -1000V/cm = -0.026/. Solving for yields 0.25m.

1 dE v 1
2.9 (a) dV .
dx q dx q L qL

(b) E c is parallel to E v . Hence, we can calculate the electron concentration in terms of


Ec.

n( x ) n 0 e Ec ( x ) Ec ( 0 ) / kT where E c ( x ) E c (0) / L x.

Therefore, n( x ) n 0 e x / LkT .

dn
(c) J n qn n qDn 0
dx

qni e x / LkT n qDn ni e x / LkT 0
qL LkT

Therefore,

n Dn kT
Dn n .
q kT q

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the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.