Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

Chapter 2

Mobility
2.1 (a) The mean free time between collisions using Equation (2.2.4b) is

q mn n mn
n mn 2.85 10 13 sec
mn q

m0.

(b) We need to find the drift velocity first:

v d n 50000 cm / sec .

The distance traveled by drift between collisions is

d v d mn 0.14 nm .

2.2 From the thermal velocity example, we know that the approximate thermal velocity
of an electron in silicon is

3kT
vth 2.29 107 cm / sec .
m

Consequently, the drift velocity (v d ) is (1/10)v th = 2.29106 cm/sec, and the time it
takes for an electron to traverse a region of 1 m in width is

10 4 cm
t 4.37 10 11 sec .
2.29 10 cm / sec
6

Next, we need to find the mean free time between collisions using Equation (2.2.4b):

q mn n mn
n mn 2.10 1013 sec
mn q

where n is 1400 cm2/Vsec (=0.14 m2/Vsec, for lightly doped silicon, given in Table
2-1), and m n is 0.26m 0 (given in Table 1-3). So, the average number of collision is

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
t
207.7 collision 207 collisions .
mn

In order to find the voltage applied across the region, we need to calculate the electric
field using Equation (2.2.3b):

2.29 10 6 cm / sec
vd n vd 1635.71 Vcm 1 .
n 1400 cm 2 / V sec

Then, the voltage across the region is

V width 1635.71 Vcm 1 10 4 cm 0.16V .

2.3 (a)
4
10
Log[]

1
2

3
10

2
10
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 T (K)

(b) If we combine 1 and 2 ,

Log[]
3
10

2
10 T (K)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
The total mobility at 300 K is
1
1 1
TOTAL (300 K ) 502.55 cm 2 / V sec .
1 (300 K ) 2 (300 K )

1V
V 10V / cm .
l 1 mm

J ndrift q n n q n N d 80.41A / cm2 .

Drift
2.4 (a) From Figure 2-8 on page 45, we find the resistivity of the N-type sample doped
with 11016cm-3 of phosphorous is 0.5 -cm.

(b) The acceptor density (boron) exceeds the donor density (P). Hence, the resulting
conductivity is P-type, and the net dopant concentration is N net = |N d -N a | = p =
91016cm-3 of holes. However, the mobilities of electrons and holes depend on
the total dopant concentration, N T =1.11017cm-3. So, we have to use Equation
(2.2.14) to calculate the resistivity. From Figure 2-5, p (N T =1.11017cm-3) is
250 cm2/Vsec. The resistivity is

1 1 1
0.28 cm .
qN net p 3

q 9 10 cm 250 cm 2 / V sec
16

(c) For the sample in part (a),

N 2.8 1019 cm 3
E c E f kT ln c 0.026V ln 16 3
0.21 eV .
Nd 10 cm
0.21 eV
Ec
Ef
Ei

Ev

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
For the sample in part (b),

N 1.04 1019 cm 3
E f Ev kT ln v 0.026V ln 3
0.12 eV
9 10 cm
16
N net
Ec

Ei
0.12 eV
Ef
Ev

2.5 (a) Sample 1: N-type Holes are minority carriers.

p = n i 2/N d = (1010cm-3)2/1017cm-3 = 102 cm-3

Sample 2: P-type Electrons are minority carriers.

n = n i 2/N a = (1010cm-3)2/1015cm-3 = 105 cm-3

Sample 3: N-type Holes are minority carriers.

p = n i 2/N net = (1010cm-3)2/(9.91017cm-3) 102 cm-3

(b) Sample 1: N d = 1017cm-3

n (N d = 1017cm-3) = 750 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
= qN d n = 12 -1cm-1

Sample 2: N a = 1015cm-3
p (N a = 1015cm-3) = 480 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
= qN a p = 12 -1cm-1

Sample 3: N T = N d +N a = 1.011017cm-3
n (N T = 1.011017cm-3) = 750 cm2/Vsec (from Figure 2-4)
N net = N d -N a = 0.991017cm-3
= qN net n = 11.88 -1cm-1

(c) For Sample 1,

N 2.8 1019 cm 3
Ec E f kT ln c 0.026V ln 17 3
0.15 eV .
Nd 10 cm
0.15 eV
Ec
Ef

Ei

Ev

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
For Sample 2,

N 1.04 1019 cm 3
E f Ev kT ln v 0.026V ln 15 3
0.24 eV .
Na 10 cm
Ec

Ei
0.24 eV
Ef
Ev

For Sample 3,

Nc 2.8 1019 cm 3
Ec E f kT ln 0.026V ln 3
0.15 eV .
N net N d N a 9.9 10 cm
16

0.15 eV
Ec
Ef

Ei

Ev

2.6 (a) From Figure 2-5, n (N d = 1016cm-3 of As) is 1250 cm2/Vs. Using Equation
(2.2.14), we find

1 1
0.5 cm .
qn n

(b) The mobility of electrons in the sample depends not on the net dopant
concentration but on the total dopant concentration N T :

NT N d N a 2 1016 cm 3 .

n N T 1140 cm 2 / Vs and p N T 390 cm 2 / Vs .

N net = N d -N a = 0. Hence, we can assume that there are only intrinsic carriers in
the sample. Using Equation (2.2.14),

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
1 1 1

qni n qpi p qni n p
1
.
q 1 10 cm 1140 390cm 2 / V sec
10 3

The resistivity is 4.08105 -cm.

(c) Now, the total dopant concentration (N T ) is 0. Using the electron and hole
mobilities for lightly doped semiconductors (from Table 2.1), we have

Using Equation (2.2.14),

1 1 1

qni n qpi p qni n p
1
.
q 1 10 cm 1400 470cm 2 / V sec
10 3

The resistivity is 3.34105 -cm. The resistivity of the doped sample in part (b)
is higher due to ionized impurity scattering.

2.7 It is given that the sample is n-type, and the applied electric field is1000V/cm. The
hole velocity dp is 2105cm/s.

(a) From the velocity and the applied electric field, we can calculate the mobility of
holes:
dp = p , p = dp / = 2105/1000 = 200cm2/Vs.

E f = E c - kTln(N d /N c ) = E c - 0.107 eV.

(c) R = L/A. Using Equation (2.2.14), we first calculate the resistivity of the sample:

= q( n n + p p) q n n = 1.610-19 400 4.51017 = 28.8/-cm, and

= -1 = 0.035 -cm.

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Therefore, R = (0.035) 20m / (10m 1.5m) = 467 .

Diffusion
2.8 (a) Using Equation (2.3.2),

J = qn = qD(dn/dx).

Therefore,

= D(1/n)(dn/dx) = -D/. (constant)

(b) J = q n n = qn and = n .

1 dE v 1
2.9 (a) dV .
dx q dx q L qL

(b) E c is parallel to E v . Hence, we can calculate the electron concentration in terms of

Ec.

n( x ) n 0 e Ec ( x ) Ec ( 0 ) / kT where E c ( x ) E c (0) / L x.

Therefore, n( x ) n 0 e x / LkT .

dn
(c) J n qn n qDn 0
dx

qni e x / LkT n qDn ni e x / LkT 0
qL LkT

Therefore,

n Dn kT
Dn n .
q kT q

2010 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from
the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.