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ARDHUKITRIK: GENERATING ELECTRICITY FROM WUDHU

WATER FLOWS

SCIENTIFIC PAPER

Indonesian Science Project Olympiad (ISPO) 2017

FADHILAH REGINA AUREL DANESSA (NISN. 0018499779)


IRDYNA SYACHIRA (NISN. 0011492883)

SMAN SUMATERA SELATAN


PALEMBANG
2017

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LETTER OF PERMISSION

By this letter, I give permission to:

Name : 1. Irdyna Syachira (NISN. 0011492883)


2. Fadhilah Regina Aurel Danessa (NISN. 0018499779)

to join Indonesian Science Project Olympiad (ISPO) 2017.

Palembang, December 19th 2016


Principal,

Nanang Adi Prayitno, S. Pd.

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LETTER OF APPROVAL

Title : Ardhukitrik: Generating Electricity from Wudhu Water Flows

Name (NISN) : IRDYNA SYACHIRA (0011492883)


Name (NISN) : FADHILAH REGINA AUREL DANESSA (0018499779)

has been approved to be sent to the Indonesian Science Project Olympiad (ISPO) 2017.

Palembang, December, 19th 2016


Advisor Team Representative

Iftita Selviana, S. Pd. Irdyna Syachira

Acknowledged by,
Principal

Nanang Adi Prayitno, S. Pd.

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LETTER OF ORIGINALITY

Title : Ardhukitrik: Generating Electricity from Wudhu Water Flow


Names : 1. Fadhilah Regina Aurel Danessa
2. Irdyna Syachira
School : SMAN Sumatera Selatan
School Address : Jl. Pangeran Ratu RT 11 RW 08 Kecamatan SU I Palembang

By this letter we state that our scientific paper is from our creativity and is not plagiated
from other papers. This scientific paper have not been published in other similar
competitions.

Palembang, December, 19th 2016


Team Representative,

Irdyna Syachira

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PREFACE

The increasing of electrical demands on our civil society and the decreasing of
electricity supplies every year have been common problems for this recent year. To solve
this problem, various ways of generating electricity have been explored. The using of
piezoelectric material is one of it. Piezoelectric material is used because of its unique
characteristic and easiness in electric generating.
In this reseach, we try to make a simple single cell Ardhukitrik (SCA) to generate
the electricity from wudhu water flows. As the water flows and falls freely when people
take wudhu, the potential energy of the water is converted into kinetic energy. When the
water hits SCA, soon its energy will be converted into electrical energy.
Finally, we realize that this research and our result still need improvements. Thus,
we really appreciate suggestion and critical comments from the readers. We hope that this
scientific paper can be useful to whoever reads it.

Palembang, December 2016

Authors

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ABSTRACT

1. Fadhilah Regina Aurel Danessa, 2. Irdyna Syachira


SMAN Sumatera Selatan
Jalan Pangeran Ratu Kelurahan 8 Ulu Kecamatan SU I Palembang

The increasing electricity demand and the decreasing of electric resources in every year
support people to be creative in finding new electric resources. The use of piezoelectric
material to generate electricity is related to its unique characteristic because it can
generate electricity if there is stress. Our research and development use piezoelectric
materials from piezobuzzer to generate electricity from wudhu water flows. From the
testing, we found the optimum result of SCA when water flowed with rate of 214.28
cm3/s. In that condition, the measurement of SCA gave results of voltage of 0.4 volt,
current of 100 A, and with the calculation we found that the energy produced in every
second was 40 J and electrical power of 40 W. We compared the result with Moonie
harvester device that can produce electrical power of 81 W for one foot step every
second. Our result was lower that Moonie harvester because of some factors, such as non-
ideal water flow and kind of piezoelectric material used. This result will be more
optimum if our research is advanced by using stacked cells and series cells arrangements.

Keywords: piezoelectric material, electrical energy

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CONTENTS

COVER PAGE ......................................................................................................... i


LETTER OF PERMISSION .................................................................................. ii
LETTER OF APPROVAL ..................................................................................... iii
LETTER OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................................ iv
PREFACE ................................................................................................................ v
ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. vi
CONTENTS ............................................................................................................. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................. ix
LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................. x
CHAPTER I INTRUDUCTION ............................................................................ 1
1.1 Backgrounds ............................................................................................... 1
1.2 Problem Statement ..................................................................................... 2
1.3 Aim of Research ......................................................................................... 2
1.4 Advantages ................................................................................................. 2
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ............................................................... 3
2.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy .......................................................... 3
2.2 Equation of Continuity ............................................................................... 4
2.3 Piezoelectric Material ................................................................................. 5
2.4 Electric Power ............................................................................................ 7
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................................. 9
3.1 Research Place and Time ........................................................................... 9
3.2 Apparatus ................................................................................................... 9
3.3 Research Method ........................................................................................ 9
3.4 Procedure of Single Cell Ardhukitrik (SCA) Production ........................... 10
CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION ...................................................... 11
4.1 Testing Result of SCA Prototype ............................................................... 11
4.2 Discussion .................................................................................................. 11
4.2.1 Calculation of Water Flow Rate, Mass, and Weight ........................ 11
4.2.2 Estimation of Water Potential Energy and Power ............................ 13
4.2.3 Electrical Power from SCA Prototype ............................................. 14

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4.2.4 Using Plastic Garbage for SCA Prototype ....................................... 15
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK .................................... 16
5.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................ 16
5.2 Future Work ............................................................................................... 16
REFERENCES ........................................................................................................ 17
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................... 18

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 A particle moves in steady flows through the streamlines ............ 5
Figure 2.2 Process of generating electricity in piezoelectric material ............. 6
Figure 2.3 Moonie harvester ........................................................................... 7
Figure 3.1 Research Work Scheme ................................................................. 10

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 Water Flow Rate .............................................................................. 11


Table 4.2 SCA Current and Voltage Measurement ......................................... 11
Table 4.3 Estimation of Water Potential Energy ............................................. 13

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Backgrounds
Electricity is the daily need in modern society. People can not live without
electricity nowadays. Daily activities such as cooking, washing, cooling the room,
freezing the food, and communicating to each other are supported by electric
power. In bigger scale, electricity is also used in factories, offices, schools, and
hospitals.
More the activities need electricity, more electricity is needed. According
to the data from General Directorate of Electric Power (2014: 3), national installed
electric power total capacity in 2014 was 53 065.50 MW. It was increased
compared to 2013 total capacity of 50 898.51 MW, or in other words it was
increased of 4.25% (General Directorate of Electric Power, 2014: 3). The installed
electric power total capacity is not all under the control of PLN (National
Electricity Cooperation). According to statistical data, in 2014, some private
cooperations gave contributions of 15 685.97 MW for national capacity (General
Directorate of Electric Power, 2014: 3). The ratio of electrification is also
increased. In 2014, the ratio between the houses which use electricity and total
houses in Indonesia reached 84.25% (General Directorate of Electric Power,
2014: 25). In 2009, ratio of electrification was only 66.28% (General Directorate
of Electric Power, 2014: 25).
Electricity needed is not proportional to the electricity produced by the
nation. As an example, in North Sumatera Province, the lack of electricity supply
reached 330 MW in 2005 (Budiyanti, 2014: 13). Power plants in Indonesia could
only generate electricity of 35.33 GW to be used by 237 millions people. This
number is much different with Singapore electricity production that could reach
10.49 GW to be used by 5.3 million people (Budiyanti, 2014: 14).
On the other side, the exploration of renewable energy to fulfill the
electricity demands in Indonesia is continuously done. The application of
electricity and magnetism concepts to generate electricity is already developed in
various ways such as hydroelectric power plant in waterfall area and nuclear

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power plant. The use of solar panel to generate electricity from sun light is also
highly developed nowadays by researchers (Azmy et. al., 2015: 35 41, Dewi &
Antonov, 2013: 20 28). Unfortunately, the use of solar panel spends more
operational cost.
Another way which can generate cheap electricity is developed by using
piezoelectric material (Purwasih, 2010 and Dhingra, et. al., 2012: 38 42). The
use of piezoelectric material is various and can be conditioned in daily life
activities. As an example, potential energy of free-fall water when moslems take
wudhu can be converted into electrical energy by using piezoelectric material.
From all the background explained, we are finally interested in researching
the modified way to generate electricity by using piezoelectric material. Thus, we
have the research with the title of Ardhukitrik: Generating Electricity from
Wudhu Water Flows.

1.2 Problem Statement


Based on the background explained, our problem statement in this
research is How to make simple electric generator by taking the advantage from
wudhu water flows?

1.3 Purpose
The purpose of this research is making simple electric generator by taking
the advantage from wudhu water flows.

1.4 Advantages
The advantages of this research are:
1. Giving alternative cheap and easy-to-make electrical power source for the
community;
2. Fullfilling civil society electrical demands;
3. Supports water resources conservation.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Conservation of Mechanical Energy


Energy is something needed by an object to do work (Kanginan, 2016:
125). The work done is caused by the force applied to an object (Halliday, et.al.,
2010: 154). An object needs energy to move, expand, light on, increase
temperature, etc. In Physics, energy concept includes mechanical, heat, chemical,
nuclear, kinetic, etc.
Potential energy is energy that exists on an object because of its positions
from the reference (Kanginan, 2006: 358). Potential energy is caused by
gravitational force applied to an object. Gravitational force always pull an object
to the centre of gravity, or it is usually called weight (symbolized by w). Bigger
the mass of an object, bigger the weight. Higher the position of an object, bigger
the potential energy. Mathematically, potential energy can be expressed as:

(2.1)
(Kanginan, 2006: 139)

with m is the object mass (kg), g is gravitational acceleration (m/s2), and h is the
height of the object referring to its reference (m).
Kinetic energy is an energy possessed by a moving object. The term of
kinetic energy is firstly introduced by Lord Kelvin (Kanginan, 2006: 126 127).
Mathematically, kinetic energy depends on mass and the square of speed of an
object. Thus, it can be expressed as:

(2.2)

(Kanginan, 2006: 127)

Potential and kinetic energy is the parts of mechanical energy. In Physics,


mechanical energy is conserved if the system only has conservative internal forces
(Kanginan, 2006: 144). Potential energy commonly is possessed by stationary

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object. An apple hung on its tree and water fell freely from certain height have
potential energy. The potential energy can be changed into kinetic energy if the
objects move. As an example, water potential energy will be kinetic energy if the
water flows.

2.2 Equation of Continuity


Fluids is every substance that can flow because it can not resist the friction
tension (Halliday, et.al., 2010: 387). Water, oil, alchohol, blood, and air can be
categorized as fluids because they can flow. In Physics, fluids is related to the
quantities such as speed, friction, and time. Because the motion of real fluids is
very complex and not fully understood, scientists make some simplifying
assumptions in fluids approach, called by ideal fluids. The characteristics of ideal
fluids are as below (Halliday, et.al., 2011: 469 470):
1. The fluid is nonviscous. In nonviscous fluid, internal friction is neglected.
If there is an object moves through the fluid, it will experiences no viscous
force. The term viscosity is commonly used in the description of degree of
internal friction. Viscosity causes part of kinetic energy of a fluid to be
converted to internal energy.
2. The flow is steady (laminar). The velocity of the fluid at each point
remains constant.
3. The fluid is incompressible. It means that the fluid density is constant.
4. The flow is irratotational. It means that when the fluid flows, it has no
angular momentum about any point.
Ideal fluid flow agrees equation of continuity. Consider that an ideal fluid
flows through a pipe of nonuniform size as shown in Figure 2.1. The particle will
have steady flow. Determining that the fluid is ideal, the density remains constant
and the mass is conserved. Thus, the volume of fluid flowing through the pipe in
every second is constant, or in the other words, we can say that the flow rate of
the fluid is constant (Halliday, et.al., 2011: 470).

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Figure 2.1 A particle moves in steady flows through the streamlines (Halliday,
et.al., 2011: 470)

Mathematically, the equation of continuity is expressed as:

(2.3)
(Kanginan, 2006: 262)

with Q is the fluid flow rate (m3/s).


Beside the volume of fluid flowing every unit of time, flow rate is also a
product of cross-sectional area times speed (Kanginan, 2006: 261).
Mathematically, flow rate can be expressed as:

(2.4)
(2.5)

(Kanginan, 2006: 261)

with V is the volume of fluid (m3), t is time (s), A is cross-sectional area ( m2),
and v is the speed of fluid flow (m/s). Equation 2.4 and 2.5 tells us that the speed
is high where the tube is constricted and low where the tube is wide (Halliday,
et.al., 2011: 470).

2.3 Piezoelectric Material


Piezoelectric material can be found in nature or synthesized in laboratory.
One of stable and natural piezoelectric material is quartz. The synthesized
piezoelectric materials are lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and polyvinylidene

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frouride (PVdF). Most of piezoelectric materials are in the crystal or polymer
form. Polymer piezoelectric material is widely used because of its elasticity.
Crystal (in the form of ceramic) piezoelectricity material is less elastic and has
higher stiffness (Purwasih, 2010: 20).
Piezoelectric material is one that produces an electric charge when a
mechanical stress is applied (the substance is squeezed or stretched). Conversely,
a mechanical deformation (the substance shrinks or expands) is produced when an
electric field is applied. Piezo-film can generate enough electrical density that can
be stored in a rechargable battery for later use (Dhingra, et.al., 2012: 38). When
mechanical stress is apllied, the molecules in piezoelectric material will move
freely and the electric field forces all the dipoles to line up and face in the same
direction (Purwasih, 2010: 20). Piezoelectricity is the ability of piezoelectric
material to produce electrical potential as a response to the mechanical stress
given (Purwasih, 2010: 24). The electrical potential produced is called as
piezoelectric effect. This effect is reversible (Purwasih, 2010: 24)

Figure 2.2 Process of generating electricity in piezoelectric material (Purwasih,


2010: 20)

Piezoelectric effect is used to harvest electrical energy in various way.


Electrical energy from piezoelectric can be gained by placing piezoelectric
devices in foot traffic places such as terminals, airport, or shopping centre
(Dhingra, et.al., 2012: 40). Moonie harvester is a device used to generate
electricity from foot steps and embedded on shoes. It consists of a metal ceramic
composite transducer that has been developed by sandwiching a PZT ceramic
between two metal end caps as shown in Figure 2.3. The energy output of one
step of Moonie harvester is recorded as 81 J and 162 W for two shoes when
walking 2 steps per second (Dhingra, et.al., 2012: 40).

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Figure 2.3 Moonie harvester (Dhingra, et.al., 2012: 40)

2.4 Electric Power


In an electric circuit, electrical energy is supplied from a source such as
battery and is transferred to another forms of energy by devices in the circuit. The
battery, for example, transforms chemical energy to electrical energy. Because of
the chemical action going on inside it, it builds up a surplus of electrons at one of
its terminal (negative) and creates a shortage at the other (positive). It is then able
to maintain a flow of electrons, or commonly known as electrical current (Duncan
& Kennett, 2014: 163).
The device such as battery is determined to have potential difference (or
usually called as voltage) when the energy can be transferred through the
electrical current, carried by the charged particle or electron (Duncan & Kennett,
2014: 163). Mathematically, voltage can be expressed as:

(2.6)

(Duncan & Kennet, 2014:163)

where Q is the charge (coulomb).


If Q is in the form of a steady current I flowing for time t, then Q can be
expressed as:

(2.7)
(Duncan & Kennet, 2014:163)

Thus, the equation of energy transferred can be written as:

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(2.8)
(Duncan & Kennet, 2014:163)

In many circuits and generator, it is important to know the rate at which


electrical energy is transferred into other forms of energy. The energy transferred
is measured by the work done. The power is the amount of energy transferred in a
unit of time (Duncan & Kennett, 2014: 177). Mathematically, the power can be
expressed as:

(2.9)

(Duncan & Kennett, 2014: 177)

where P is power (watt), E is the energy transferred (joule), and t is time (second).
Substituting the equation (2.8) to the equation (2.9), the equation for electrical
power can be written as:

(2.10)
(Duncan & Kennett, 2014: 177)

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Place and Time


This research was held in physics laboratory of SMAN Sumatera Selatan,
started on November, 17th 2016 until December, 9th 2016.

3.2 Apparatus
Apparatus needed for this research were:
1. Scissors (1 piece)
2. Digital multimeter (1 piece)
3. Analog multimeter (1 piece)
4. Electrical scotch tape (1 roll)
5. Black and thick scotch tape (1 roll)
6. Red and black cable
7. Piezo buzzer (10 pieces)
8. Transparent middle-sized plastic bag (6 pieces)
9. Transparent scotch tape (1 roll)
10. Stopwatch (1 piece)
11. Fruit jam jar cap (6 pieces)
12. Crocodile clips (12 pieces)
13. Rollmeter (1 piece)
14. Load (6 pieces)

3.3 Research Method


This research used research and development method. We innovated the
application of piezobuzzer as the electrical generator. The work scheme of our
research was:

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Preparation

Problem Statement

Literature Review

Production of Single Cell Ardhukitrik (SCA) Prototype

Testing SCA Prototype

Evaluation

Prototype Improvements

Figure 3.1 Research Work Scheme

3.4 Procedure of Single Cell Ardhukitrik (SCA) Production


The procedure to produce SCA was as follows:
1. Separate piezoelectric material component from piezo buzzer
2. Stretch and squeeze the piezoelectric material component, but do not make
the ceramic part left
3. Prepare red and black cables as needed
4. Put the black cable in the bottom part of piezoelectric material component
and red cable on the top part (piezoelectric ceramic), stick them by using
transparent scotch tape
5. Stick the piezoelectric material components to the top of fruit jam jar cap
by using transparent scotch tape
6. Stick the load in the bottom of the fruit jam jar cap
7. Wrap the overall circuit with transparent plastic bag, seal the plastic bag
by using black thick scotch tape.

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CHAPTER IV
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Testing Result of SCA Prototype


The testing of SCA prototype was done in wudhu area of Shalahuddin Al
Ayubi Mosque in SMAN Sumatera Selatan. The testing processes were
determining the flow rate from the faucet, setting SCA positions, and measuring
current and voltage of the SCA while the water flew from the faucet. The
calculation of water flow rate is represented in Table 4.1

Table 4.1 Water Flow Rate


Num Rotation of Volume (cm3) Time needed (s) Flow Rate
faucet (cm3/s)
1. 1 (minimum) 600 21 28.57
2. 2 (medium) 600 6 100
3. 3 (maximum) 600 2.8 214.29

Table 4.2 SCA Current and Voltage Measurement


Num Flow Rate (cm3/s) Electrical Current Voltage (volt)
(A)
1. 28.57 Undetected 0.0
2. 100 50 0.3
3. 214.29 100 0.4

4.2 Discussion
4.2.1 Calculation of Water Flow Rate, Mass, and Weight
The faucet that was used to test the SCA prototype was the one used at
Shalahuddin Al Ayubi Mosque in SMAN Sumatera Selatan. The flowing water in
this faucet used a rotational system, where the water could flow if the head of the
faucet was rotated. For the testing, we rotated the faucet variously to determine
the water flow rate. From the data we have in Table 4.1 and by using equation
(2.4), we found that the flow rate varied from 28.57 cm3/s up to 214.29 cm3/s.

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Considering that the water is an ideal fluid and agreed the equation of
continuity, we predicted the mass and weight of the water flew from the faucet.
The results are as follows:
1. First rotation
In the first rotation that we have done, it was determined that the water
flow rate was 28.57 cm3/s. It means that, there are 28.57 cm3 volume of
water in every second. By using density equation and considering that the
density of water remains constant of 1 gr/cm3, mass of water that flew on
the floor could be determined as:

It means that there were 28.57 gr of water which flew in every second
when the flow rate was 28.57 cm3. Considering that the gravitational
acceleration is constant of 9.8 m/s2 when the testing was processed, the
weight of water was 0.28 N.
2. Second rotation
In the second rotation, it was determined that the flow rate was 100 cm3/s.
It means that in every second, 100 cm3 water flew and hit the floor. By
using the same equation of density, we predicted the mass of the water as:

From the calculation, we predicted that there were 100 gr of water flew
and hit the floor every second. Considering that the gravitational

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acceleration was 9.8 m/s2, the weight of the water which hit the floor was
0.98 N.
3. Third rotation
In the third rotation, it was determined that the flow rate was 214.28 cm3/s.
It means that in every second, water flew with volume of 214.28 cm3. We
then calculated the mass and of the water as:

It means that 214.28 gr of water flew and hit the floor in every second.
With the same way as before, the weight of the water was predicted as
2.09 N.

4.2.2 Estimation of Water Potential Energy and Power


Before testing the SCA prototype, we measured the distance between
faucet and the floor. The measurement result gave information that the distance
was 82.5 cm. For simplifying the problems, we considered that water flew and
had free fall motion (the water initial speed considered as zero), the gravitational
acceleration was 9.8 m/s2, and there was no friction between water and pipe, and
particles of the water. By using equation 2.1, the estimation of potential energy of
the water was shown in Table 4.3:

Table 4.3 Estimation of Water Potential Energy


Num. Flow Rate (cm3/s) Estimation of Potential Energy (joule)
1. 28.57 0.23
2. 100 0.81
3. 214.29 1.72

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By using the equation for power, which is , where E is energy

(joule) and t is time (second), when the water flow rate reached 28.57 cm3/s, water
woud have power due to its potential energy of 0.23 W every second. When the
water flow rate reached 100 cm3/s, its power would be 0.81 W. Finally, for its
maximum flow rate from the faucet (214.29 cm3/s), the power would be 1.72 W.

4.2.3 Electrical Power from SCA Prototype


Based on the testing, electrical power of SCA prototype can be determined
by using equation P= IV, where I is electrical current (ampere) and V is voltage
(volt). In the first rotation, the electrical current could not be detected because of
our multimeter limitation. The voltage measurement also gave zero result. In the
second rotation, by using analog multimeter, we found that the electrical current
was 50 A and the voltage (using digital multimeter) was 0.3 volt. Thus, from the
second rotation, we found that the electrical power produced by SCA prototype
was 15 W. In the third rotation, we found data of the electrical current of 100 A
and the voltage of 0.4 volt. The maximum amount of electrical power produced
by the SCA prototype was 40 W.
Comparing the Moonie harvester which has electrical power of 81 W for
each foot step every second, our result is quite smaller (Dhingra, 2012). The
smaller result is caused by some factors, such as: (1) the force given by the water
is quite small as the maximum flow rate only produced force as 2.09 N; and (2)
the piezoelectric components that we used was simpler than the one used in
Moonie harvester. Comparing our result with the water potential energy and
power due to potential energy, the electrical power that we found in SCA
prototype measurements are much smaller. This quite big difference is caused by
some factors, such as: (1) the mass of water flew from the faucet did not totally hit
the SCA prototype, some water spread around the SCA prototype; (2) the water
itself is not the ideal fluid, there were friction between the particle of water and
pipe. The friction can reduce the energy given to the SCA prototype.

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4.2.4 Using Plastic Garbage for SCA Prototype
To support green environment, we also try to reuse the plastic garbage to
build up our SCA prototype. The using of transparent plastic bag is very useful for
our research. We had tried several time for testing the SCA prototype but failed
because it was very sensitive to water. Firstly, we covered the SCA prototype with
transparent scotch tape. When it was hit by water from the faucet, the water
inserted to the inner side of the scotch tape and broke the circuit. When we
wrapped the SCA prototype by transparent plastic bag, the water could not be
inserted any more.
The using of fruit jam jar caps was also very useful. Its elastic and thin
characteristics eased us to package the piezoelectric component on it. Besides,
fruit jam jar caps were also one of the plastic garbage. By reusing it, we hope that
we can also help our environment produce clean and green electricity generator.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

5.1 Conclusions
The conclusions from this research are:
1. We have made a single cell prototype to generate electricity from wudhu
water flow, as we call it SCA (Single Cell Ardhukitrik)
2. The maximum results of SCA testing were the voltage of 0.4 volt, the
electrical current of 100 A, and the maximum power of 40 W for every
second.

5.2 Future Work


For the future work, we plan to design the modification of SCA in order to
maximize the electrical power gained. Thus, we plan to have series cells and
stacked cells arrangement for our Ardhukitrik.

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REFERENCES

Azmy, Achmad Ulul, dkk. 2015. Sistem Tracking Panel Surya untuk
Pengoptimalan Daya Menggunakan Metode Kontrol Self-Tuning PID
dengan JST Jenis Perceptron Transmisi, 17 (1): 35 41.

Budiyanti, Eka. Mengatasi Krisis Listrik di Jawa dan Sumatera Info Singkat
Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Publik VI (05/I/P3DI/Maret/2014): 13 16.

Dewi, Arfita Yuana & Antonov. 2013. Pemanfaatan Energi Surya sebagai
Suplai Cadangan pada Laboratorium Elektro Dasar di Institut Teknologi
PadangJurnal Teknik Elektro, 2 (3): 20 28.

Dhingra, Paul, dkk. 2012. Energy Harvesting using Piezoelekctric Materials


Special Issue of International Journal of Computer Applications: 38 42.

Directorate of Electrical Power. 2014. Statistik Ketenagalistrikan. Jakarta:


Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources.

Duncan, Tom & Heather Kennett. 2014. Cambridge IGCSE Physics (Third
Edition). London: Hodder Education.

Halliday, dkk. 2010. Fisika Dasar Edisi 7 Jilid 1. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Halliday, dkk. 2011. Fisika Dasar Edisi 8 Jilid 1. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Kanginan, Marthen. 2006. Fisika SMA Kelas XI. Jakarta: Erlangga

Purwasih, Intan. 2010. Rancang Bangun Sumber Energi Terbarukan secara


Hybrid (Kumparan dan Bahan Piezoelektrik PVDF) dengan
Memanfaatkan Cantilever sebagai Penggetar (Thesis). Surakarta:
Sebelas Maret University Press.

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APPENDIX
FIGURES DOCUMENTATIONS

Piezo buzzer Broken Piezoelectric Material

Digital Multimeter Analog Multimeter

Crocodile Clips Wrapped SCA Prototype

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Unwrapped SCA Prototype Piezoelectric Component from Piezo
Buzzer

Stopwatch Rollmeter

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Transparent Plastic Bag Faucets in wudhu area

Shalahuddin Al Ayubi Mosque in Setting the SCA Position before Testing


SMAN Sumatera Selatan

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