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Artikel mengenai Frasa Nomina Dalam

Bahasa Inggris/ This article about Noun


Phrase in English FOR GENERAL ENGLISH
Artikel mengenai Frasa Nomina Dalam Bahasa Inggris

(Sumber: Susilo, Djoko. 2011. Majalah Dinamika Guru. Ponorogo: Dinamika.)

Frasa nomina memiliki berbagai fungsi dalam struktur kalimat bahasa Inggris yaitu sebagai
pengisi subjek, objek, komplemen, atau adverbial (Quirk, et. al. 2000:60). Selain itu bersama frasa
verba, frasa nomina dalam bahasa Inggris merupakan jenis frasa yang paling penting sehingga tidak
bisa dihilangkan dalam kalimat (Quirk et. al 2000:61). Fara nomina juga memiliki struktur khas terdiri
atas nomina sebagai pusat frasa yang disebut head dan kata lain yang mendahului atau
mengikutinya yang disebut dependent(Huddlestone, 2000:64). Berdasarkan letak head dan
modifier frasa nomina dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga tipe. Tipe I, yaitu frasa nomina dengan
modifier terletak sebelum head; tipe II, dengan modifier terletak sesudah head; dan tipe III, dengan
modifier terletak sebelum dan sesudah head. berdasarkan tipe frasa nomina ini sering menimbulkan
kesulitan untuk memahaminya. Hal ini misalnya dapat dilihat dari penerjemahan frasa nomina (diberi
garis bawah) dalam kalimat One of the firs aspects of method design to receive attention was the
role of vocabulary (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:32).

Kalimat di atas memiliki dua frasa nomina, yaitu the first aspects dan method design.
Struktur frasa nomina pertama terdiri atas the first sebagai modifier dan aspect sebagai head.
sedang pada frasa nomina kedua method sebagai modifier dan design sebagai head. kalimat yang
berisi kedua frasa nomina di atas mungkin diterjemahkan menjadi: (a) salah satu aspek utama dari
metode yang dirancang untuk mendapat perhatian, atau (b) salah satu aspek utama rancangan
metode yang perlu mendapat perhatian.

Dilihat dari struktur dan cara penerjemahan frasa nomina, penerjemahan frasa nomina
pertama pada (a) benar, tetapi pada frasa nomina kedua salah. Kesalahan ini disebabkan oleh
beberapa hal. Pertama, tidak memahami struktur frasa nomina. Kedua, tidak dapat menentukan
head atau kata benda pusat frasa nomina. Dalam kasus di atas yang menjadi head adalah
method, padahal yang benar pada design. Selain itu kata design berfungsi sebagai verba (pasif),
padahal sebenarnya adalah nomina sebagai head yang cakupannya dibatasi oleh kata method
sebagai modifier. Dan ketiga, tidak mengetahui cara menerjemahkan frasa nomina tersebut.
Kesalahan atau ketidakpahaman terhadap tiga hal tersebut akan mengakibatkan kesalahan dalam
memahami frasa nomina sebagaimana akan dijelaskan lebih lanjut. Penerjemahan yang benar dalam
konteks ini adalah rancangan metode sebagaimana pada penerjemahan (b).

Selain itu dapat dikemukakan bahwa setiap kalimat yang membangun suatu paragraph
mengandung frasa nomina. Hal ini terjadi karena frasa nomina dapat menjadi pengisi beberapa
elemen dalam kalimat bahasa Inggris, yaitu subjek, objek, komplemen, atau modifier. Sedangakn
jumlah frasa nomina setiap halaman buku ilmiah (rata-rata berisi 42 baris dengan spasi tunggal)
kurang lebih ada 30 buah. Kalau setiap baris berisi satu frasa nomina berarti ada 30 baris dari 42
baris atau sekitar 71,43% dalam setiap halaman buku berisi frasa nomina.

Paparan di atas menuntut kita untuk memahami frasa nomina bahasa Inggris dengan tepat
agar dapat memahami kalimat dengan tepat dan selanjutkan diharapkan dpaat memahami makna
parafraf dan teks dengan tepat pula. Sebaliknya pemahaman frasa nomina bahasa Inggris yang
kurang tepat mengakibatkan kesulitan dan kesalahan serius dalam memahami kalimat, paragraph
dan teks yang berisi frasa nomina tersebut.

Dengan kata lain pemahaman frasa nomina bahasa Inggris secara tepat akan membantu
memahami teks bacaan/ reading. Selanjutnya diharapkan dapat membantu memahami teks berbagai
bidang ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, social, budaya, seni, dan lain-lain. Dalam hal ini tentu sangat
diharapkan untuk membantu membangun bangsa dan Negara.

Pengertian Frasa Nomina


Berdasarkan penjelasan Richards, Platt and Platt (1996:251) dan Huddleston (1995:85) di
atas dapat dipahami bahwa frasa nomina adalah sekelompok kata yang salah satunya adalah kata
benda atau nomina yang menjadi pusat (head) dari frasa nomina tersebut dan kata lain yang
mendahului (pre-head) atau mengikuti (post-head) kata pusatnya. head yang berupa nomina
menjadi ciri utama dari frasa nomina bahasa Inggris. Tanpa adanya head yang berupa nomina maka
frasa itu bukanlah frasa nomina bahasa Inggris.

Struktur Frasa Nomina Bahasa Inggris

Berdasarkan pengertian tersebut dapat diketahui bahwa struktur frasa nomina tersusunn
dari dua elemen pokok yaitu kata benda pusat atau head dan kata lain yang sebelum maupun
sesudah head yang disebut pewatas atau modifier. Modifier yang terletak sebelum head disebut
pre-head dan yang terletak sesudah head disebut post-head. dilihat dari pre-head dan post-
head berdasarkan definisi Huddleston (1995:85), Roberts (1958:187-193), dan Soemarno (2001:11)
dapat dibedakan adanya tiga tipe struktur frasa nomina bahasa Inggris, yaitu:

1) Tipe I, dengan struktur pre-head+head, terdiri atas 4 jenis (nomina yang diberi garis bawah
adalah head):

a) Pre head berupa nomina, contoh:

(1) Many English grammar books (beberapa buku tata bahasa, bahasa Inggris).

(2) Large Indonesian forest (hutan Indonesia yang luas).

b) Pre head berupa kata sifat (adjective+ noun) tetap dimulai dari kata benda yang berfungsi
sebagai head, dilakukan dengan cara yang sama dengan cara pada a) di atas. Contoh:

(3) Different ideas, berarti gagasan-gagasan yang berbeda.

(4) Important notes, berarti catatan-catatan penting.

c) pre head berupa kata kerja -ing (V+ing+N), juga dimulai dari kata benda sebagai head. contoh:

(5) Running water, berarti air yang mengalir

(6) Fishing rod, berarti tangkai pemancing

d) pre head berupa kata kerja bentuk 3 dengan kata benda (Kata Kerja bentuk 3+N), tetap dimulai
dari kata benda sebagai head. contoh:

(7) Written exercise, berarti latihan-latihan tulis

(8) Fried chicken, berarti ayam goring.

Penggunaan teknik heading untuk memahami struktur frasa nomina bahasa Inggris tipe I
secara lebih jelas dapat dilihat pada table 1 di bawah ini.

Tabel 1: struktur Frasa Nomina (Tipe I) beserta contohnya:

No. Contoh Frasa Nomina Struktur Frasa Nomina Tipe I (Structure Phrase of
(Example for Phrase of Nominal (type I)
Nominal Pre-head Head
Determiner Modifier
1 Many English grammar books Many English grammar Books
2 Different ideas different Ideas
3 Running water Running Water
4 His written exercises Written Exercise

2) Tipe II, dengan struktur: head+post head, contoh:

a) Lions in Safari park (Singa-singa di taman Safari)

b) Students of Muhammadiyah university of Ponorogo (para mahasiswa universitas Muhammadiyah


Ponorogo).

Secara lebih jelas struktur frasa nomina tipe II dapat dilihat pada table 2 berikut ini.

Tabel 2: Struktur Frasa Nomina (Tipe I) beserta contohnya:

No Contoh Frasa Nomina (Example Struktur Frasa Nominal (Tipe I)/ Structure
Phrase Nominal) Phrase Nominal
Head Post head
1 Lions in Safari park Lions In Safari Park
2 Student of Muhammadiyah University of Students Of Muhammadiyah
Ponorogo university of Ponorogo

3) Tipe III, dengan struktur: pre-head+head+post-head, contoh:

a) Many Indonesian experts in middle east countries (para ahli Indonesia di Negara-negara Timur
Tengah).

b) Special food from East Indonesia (makanan khas Indonesia bagian timur). Secara lebih jelas
struktur frasa nomina tipe II dapat dilihat pada table 3 berikut.

Tabel 3: Struktur Frasa Nomina (Tipe I) beserta contohnya

No. Contoh Frasa Nomina Struktur Frasa Nomina (Tipe III)/ Structure Phrase
(Example Phrase Nominal) Nominal
Pre-head Head Post-head
1 Many Indonesian expertsin Many Indonesian expers In middle east
middle east countries countries
2 Special food from East Special food From East
Indonesia Indonesian

Daftar Pustaka

Huddleston, Rodney. 1995. English Grammar an Outline. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Quirk, Randolp; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, Jan. 2000. Acomprehensive
Grammar of The English Language. London: Logman.

Richards, Jack C, Platt, John, and Platt, Heidi. 1996. Longman Dictionary of Language teaching and
Applied linguistics. England: Logman

Roberts, Paul. 1958. Understanding English. New York: Harper and Row, Publisher.

Soemarno, Th. 2001. Cara Menafsirkan Frasa Nomina dan Kalimat Dalam Bahasa Inggris. Surakarta:
UMS Press.
IN ENGLISH (with google translate Indonesian-english):

This article about Noun Phrase in English

(Source: Susilo, Djoko., 2011. Dynamics Teacher Magazine. Ponorogo: Dynamics.)

Noun phrase has a variety of functions within the structure of the English sentence as a filler subject,
object, complement, or adverbial (Quirk, et. Al. 2000:60). In addition with the verb phrase, noun
phrase in the English language is the most important types of phrases that can not be eliminated in
the phrase (Quirk et. Al 2000:61). Fara noun also has a distinctive structure consisting of a noun
phrase as the center of the so-called head and other words that precede or follow the so-called
"dependent" (Huddlestone, 2000:64). Based on the location of the "head" and "modifier" noun phrase
can be grouped into three types. Type I, which is located noun phrase with modifier before head; Type
II, with modifier located after the "head", and type III, with modifier located before and after the "head".
based on this type of noun phrases often pose difficulties to understand it. This example can be seen
from the translation of noun phrases (underlined) in the sentence "One of the firs aspects of the
design method to receive attention was the role of vocabulary" (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:32).

The sentence above has two noun phrases, namely "the first aspects" and "design method". The
structure consists of first noun phrase "the first" as a modifier and the "aspect" as the head. being the
second noun phrase "method" as a modifier and "design" as the head. The second sentence contains
the noun phrase above might be translated into: (a) one of the main aspects of the method that is
designed to get attention, or (b) one of the main aspects of the design methods that require attention.

Judging from the structure and the way the noun phrase translation, the first translation of noun
phrases in (a) true, but the second noun phrase wrong. This error is caused by several things. First,
do not understand the structure of noun phrases. Second, it can not determine "head" or the noun
phrase noun center. In the case above the head is a "method", but right on the "design". Similarly, the
word "design" to function as a verb (passive), when in fact it is a noun as head whose scope is limited
by the word "method" as the modifier. And third, do not know how to translate the noun phrase. Errors
or lack of comprehension on three things will lead to errors in understanding the noun phrase, as will
be explained further. Correct translation in this context is the 'design method', as in the translation of
(b).

Moreover, it can be argued that any sentence that construct a paragraph containing noun phrases.
This happens because the noun phrase can be a filler some elements in English sentences, the
subject, object, complement, or modifier. Sedangakn number of noun phrases per page scholarly
book (on average contains 42 single-spaced lines) are approximately 30 pieces. If each row contains
one noun phrase means there are 30 lines of 42 lines or approximately 71.43% in every page of the
book contains noun phrases.

Exposure above requires us to understand the English noun phrase in order to properly understand
the sentence correctly and selanjutkan expected dpaat parafraf and understand the meaning text
properly anyway. Instead of understanding English noun phrases that are less precise cause serious
difficulties and errors in understanding sentences, paragraphs and texts that contain the noun phrase.

In other words, understanding of English noun phrases appropriately will help to understand the text
reading / reading. Then expected to help understand the text various fields of science, technology,
social, cultural, arts, and others. In this course is expected to help build the nation and the State.

Definition of Noun Phrase

Based on the explanation Richards, Platt and Platt (1996:251) and Huddleston (1995:85) above can
be understood that the noun phrase is a group of words, one of which is a noun or noun that became
central (head) of the noun phrases and other words preceding (pre-head) or following (post-head)
said its center. "Head" in the form nouns become the main feature of the English noun phrase.
Without the "head" in the form of the noun phrase noun phrase is not English.

English Noun Phrase Structure


Based on the understanding that it can be seen that the structure of noun phrases tersusunn of two
main elements, namely the central noun or "head" and another said that before and after the "head"
called pewatas or "modifier". Modifier that is located before the "head" is called "pre-head" and that is
after the "head" so-called "post-head". seen from the "pre-head" and "post-head" by definition
Huddleston (1995:85), Roberts (1958:187-193), and Soemarno (2001:11) can be distinguished the
three types of English noun phrase structure, ie :

1) Type I, with the structure of the "pre-head + head", consists of 4 types (nouns that are underlined
are the "head"):

a) Pre head in the form nouns, for example:

(1) Many English grammar books (some grammar books, English).

(2) Large forest Indonesian (Indonesia's vast forests).

b) "Pre head" in the form of an adjective (adjective + noun) keep starting from the noun functioning as
the "head", done in a way similar to the way in a) above. Example:

(3) Different ideas, means different ideas.

(4) Important notes, means that important records.

c) "pre-head" in the form of the verb "-ing" (V + ing + N), also starting from the noun as "head".
example:

(5) Running water, meaning water flowing

(6) Fishing rod, meaning anglers stalk

d) "pre-head" in the form of the verb with the noun form 3 (3 + Verb forms N), still starting from the
noun as "head". example:

(7) Written exercise, mean writing exercises

(8) Fried chicken, fried chicken means.

Use the technique of "heading" to understand the structure of English noun phrases I type more
clearly be seen in Table 1 below.

Table 1: Noun phrase structure (Type I) and examples:

No.. Examples of Noun Phrase (Example for Nominal Phrase Structure of Noun Phrase Type I
(Structure of Nominal Phrase (type I)
Pre-head Head
Determiner Modifier
1 Many English grammar English grammar books Many Books
2 Different different ideas Ideas
3 Running water Running Water
4 His written exercises Written Exercise

2) Type II, with the structure: head + head post, for example:

a) Lions in Safari park (the lions in the safari park)

b) Students of Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo (university students Muhammadiyah


Ponorogo).

More clearly the structure of noun phrase type II can be seen in Table 2 below.
Table 2: Structure of Noun Phrase (Type I) and examples:

Example No. noun phrase (Phrase Example Nominal) Nominal Phrase Structure (Type I) / Nominal
Phrase Structure
Head Post head
1 Lions Safari park in Lions In Safari Park
2 Student of Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo Students Of Muhammadiyah University of
Ponorogo

3) Type III, with the structure: pre-head + head + post-head, for example:

a) Many Indonesian experts in middle east countries (Indonesia experts in Middle Eastern countries).

b) Special food from East Indonesia (Indonesian food eastern). More clearly the structure of noun
phrase type II can be seen in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Structure of Noun Phrase (Type I) and examples

No.. Examples of Noun Phrase (Phrase Example Nominal) Noun Phrase Structure (Type III) / Nominal
Phrase Structure
Pre-head-head Head Post
1 Many Indonesian experts in middle east countries Many Indonesian expers in middle east countries
2 Special food from East Indonesia Special food From East Indonesian

Bibliography

Huddleston, Rodney. , 1995. English Grammar an Outline. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey and Svartvik, January In 2000.
Acomprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Logman.

Richards, Jack C., Platt, John, and Platt, Heidi. , 1996. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching
and Applied linguistics. England: Logman

Roberts, Paul. 1958. Understanding English. New York: Harper and Row, Publishers.

Soemarno, Th. , 2001. How to Interpret Noun phrase and sentence in English. Surakarta: UMS Press.