00 голосов за00 голосов против

15 просмотров17 стр.Apr 20, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

15 просмотров

00 голосов за00 голосов против

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 17

HBRC Journal

http://ees.elsevier.com/hbrcj

frames

Essam H. El-Tayeb, Salah E. El-Metwally *, Hamed S. Askar, Ahmed M. Yousef

KEYWORDS Abstract It is known that changes in temperature may produce stresses in concrete structures of

Concrete; mainly the same order of magnitude as the dead and live loads in some cases. However, the stresses

Beam; due to temperature are produced only when the thermal expansion or contraction is restrained. In

Frame; this paper, the behavior of reinforced concrete beams and frames is studied under thermal loads,

Thermal loads; with the presence of dead and live loads, in order to examine the effect of temperature variation.

Material nonlinearity; The beams and frames are modeled properly by accounting for material nonlinearity, particularly

Finite element cracking. Different temperature gradients, uniform, linear and nonlinear, are considered. The nite

element method is employed for conducting the analysis utilizing the computer code ABAQUS.

The obtained results of the studied cases reveal that material modeling of reinforced concrete

beams and frames plays a major role in how these structures react to temperature variation.

Cracking contributes to the release of signicant portion of temperature restrain and in some cases

this restrain is almost eliminated. The response of beams and frames deviates signicantly based on

the temperature gradient, linear or nonlinear; hence, the nonlinear temperature gradient which is

the realistic prole is important to implement in the analysis.

2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building

National Research Center. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://

creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Introduction some instances, such loadings represent the most critical load-

ing condition and must be considered in the design of the

Reinforced concrete structures are exposed to thermal load- structure [1]. Since the construction is carried out over a con-

ings, whether through design or as a consequence of unavoid- siderable period of time, the various elements of the structure

able conditions, heat of hydration, service function or re. In are installed at different temperatures. The temperature

changes causing displacements and stresses in a structure are

different from those of installation/erection temperatures, over

* Corresponding author.

which the designer has minor, if any, control. There are many

Peer review under responsibility of Housing and Building National factors affecting temperature variations in buildings such as

Research Center. design temperature change which is the difference between

the maximum temperature in summer or minimum tempera-

ture in winter and the construction temperature [2,3]. The sec-

Production and hosting by Elsevier ond factor is the provision of temperature control [1,3]. The

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

1687-4048 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Housing and Building National Research Center.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

2 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

third factor is the statical system of the building, geometry, temperature rise, so additional moments and additional axial

dimensions and the type of connection to foundation [1,3]. forces are obtained in columns and girders, which means that

The last factor is the construction material of the building the framing action inuences the response of frames due to

[1,3]. As a result of these factors, the values of temperature temperature variation.

change and temperature gradient vary from one country to The nite element method is utilized for the modeling and

another. Therefore, codes in different countries give different analysis of the beams and frames considered in this study, tak-

gradients of temperature changes. A limited guidance is given ing into account material nonlinearity.

to ordinary buildings that consist of beams, slabs and columns

compared to the super-structures of bridges; codes give ther- Thermal effect

mal gradients for bridge deck and its effect on the supporting

elements.

Due to the poor thermal conductivity of concrete, diurnal tem-

If thermal strains are restrained in reinforced concrete ele-

perature effects produce temperature gradients in concrete sec-

ments, design codes require that the temperature effect be con-

tion; these gradients result in rotational distortions that

sidered, although in many cases very limited guidance is given

produce stresses in the structure [3]. The temperature gradient

on how this can be achieved. Exposed concrete structures, e.g.

that forms is governed by the heat ow through the body and

bridges and roofs continuously lose and gain heat from solar

is a function of the density (q), specic heat (c) and thermal

radiation, convection and re-radiation to or from the sur-

conductivity of concrete (k). Various researches [68] and

rounding environment. Analysis of heat ow in a body is gen-

codes [2,3] give different thermal gradients that must be taken

erally a three-dimensional problem. However, for a concrete

into account in thermal stress analysis. Some codes [2,3] and

beam and frame or for a bridge cross-section, it may be suf-

researches [8,9] take temperature gradients uniform over the

cient to treat it as one- or two-dimensional problem [1,4,5].

cross section and other takes the gradient linear and nonlinear.

The temperature at any instant is assumed constant over the

Fig. 1 shows the different temperature gradients adopted by

structure length, but variable over the cross section [1,4,5].

different codes. In this paper, uniform, linear and nonlinear

Thermal stresses can be substantially reduced and the risk

temperature gradients are considered.

of damage caused by temperature can be eliminated by provi-

As a result of temperature variation there are two types of

sion of expansion joints and sufcient well distributed

thermal stresses, the rst is the primary thermal stress or self-

reinforcement. Since expansion joints have many problems

equilibrating stress and the second is the continuity thermal

most design codes become interested in how to reduce the

stress.

usage of expansion joints in buildings. This means that the

thermal stresses must be calculated accurately and the struc-

tural elements are designed to carry the stresses from these Self-equilibrating stress

thermal loads. The effect of temperature gradients and the

effect of cracks as a result of tensile stresses obtained from A change in temperature, which may be uniform or varies lin-

dead and live loads must be taken into account when analyzing early over the cross-section of a statically determinate struc-

thermal stresses. ture, such as simply supported beams, produces no stresses.

The main objective of this paper was to show the different When the temperature variation is nonlinear, the same beam

effects of temperature variation on the behavior of reinforced will be subjected to stresses, because any ber, being attached

concrete beams, multi-bay and multi-story frames under differ- to other bers, cannot exhibit free temperature expansion.

ent temperature gradients which may be uniform, linear and Thermal stresses in the cross-section of a statically determinate

nonlinear gradients, in the presence of gravity loads. The tem- structure will be referred to as self-equilibrating stresses. Fig. 2

perature is assumed to vary within the depth of beam or frame shows the strain and stress distribution and the deection of a

girder only and constant along the member span. This may be simply supported beam, linear elastic homogenous uncracked

assumed as one dimensional problem and hence the obtained beam, subjected to a rise of temperature which varies linearly

stresses due to temperature change are normal stresses. or nonlinearly over the depth of the section. Two lines are

Frame columns resist the elongation of the girder due to shown for the strain distribution in the case of nonlinear

5

T(y) = T0 ( y/1200)

o

T0 = (32 - .2d) C

d is the asphalt

thickness in mm

(a) Temperature gradient in New Zealands (b) Temperature gradient in AASHTO , where T1,

3

8,9

Code for highway bridges T2 and T3 are the temperature changes depending

on building location

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 3

Figure 2 Thermal stresses of simple beam under different temperature distributions [1].

hypothetical strain which would occur if each ber was free

to expand. On the other hand, since plane cross-sections tend

to remain plane, the actual strain distribution is linear as

shown. The difference between the ordinates of the broken

line and of the straight line represents expansion or contrac-

tion which is restrained by the self-equilibrating stresses

[1,4,5,10]. Figure 3 Continuity thermal stresses [11].

The self-equilibrating stress in a homogeneous uncracked

section under temperature gradient only can be calculated

according to the following equations [1]: Effect of cracks in thermal analysis

ef at T 1

In general, the absolute values of stresses caused by tempera-

ture in a cracked reinforced concrete member are smaller than

rrestrained Eef 2

in an uncracked member [1,4,5,10]. Calculation of stresses

Z caused by temperature in cracked structures is complex.

DN rrestrained dA 3 Hence, simplifying assumptions are necessary in order to make

the calculations reasonably simple. The magnitude of thermal

Z stress induced is, in part, governed by the effective stiffness of

DM rrestrained ydA 4 the member. As cracks develop and propagate within the con-

crete, the effective stiffness of the member is reduced, thus

causing a relaxation in the thermal bending moments.

1 DN

De0 5 Because of this characteristic, conventional methods of struc-

E A

tural analysis are not directly applicable to thermal loadings

[11]. However, various alternative methods of analysis have

1 DM

Dw 6 been proposed [6,11]. Codes [2,3] adopt many assumptions in

E I

the development of thermal stresses, such as the material

properties are independent of temperature and the material

r E ef De0 Dwy 7

has linear stressstrain and temperature-strain relations so that

where ef is the strain at the section centroid due to temperature; thermal stresses can be considered independently of stresses or

at is the material coefcient of thermal expansion; T = T(y) is strains imposed by other loading conditions which is a poor

a nonlinear temperature gradient; rrestrained is the normal stress approach of the problem [3].

if the beam is restrained from expansion; E is the material In this paper, the nite element method is employed for the

modulus of elasticity; DN and DM are the normal force and prediction of reinforced concrete beams in response to

bending moment due to thermal effects, respectively; De0 is temperature variations. The employed analysis accounts for

the additional uniform strain; Dw is the curvature; and r is material nonlinearity which has a signicant effect, particu-

the stress due to thermal effect. larly cracking, on the structure response. The computer code

ABAQUS is used to perform the nite element analysis.

Continuity stress

Finite element modeling

In statically indeterminate structures such as continuous linear

elastic homogenous uncracked beams, a temperature rise vary- Various analytical procedures have been proposed for the

ing linearly or nonlinearly over the cross-section produces analysis of thermal stresses in reinforced concrete frame struc-

statically indeterminate reactions and internal forces Fig. 3. tures. In general, these procedures attempt to account for

The stresses due to these forces are referred to as continuity reduced member stiffness when determining the moment dis-

stresses. In most instances, continuity thermal stresses are of tributions that arise from the restrained deformations of

greater magnitude than primary thermal stresses and play frames under thermal loads [7,11]. However, these methods

the major role in causing structure distress [1]. The total tend to be complicated or rely heavily on simplifying assump-

stresses caused by temperature gradients are the sum of tions [7,11]. In addition, some of these methods may not

self-equilibrating stresses and continuity stresses. consider important factors such as concrete tensile strength,

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

4 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

mechanical loads, force redistribution, nonlinear thermal gra-

dients or non-uniformly cracked members. Others resort to r e e

2 1 for 0 < e < e0 9a

overly simplistic single section analysis, ignoring overall struc- ru e0 2e0

tural response. Not surprisingly, such methods yield radically

different results, unfortunately, limited experimental data are r e e0

1 :15 for e0 < e < ecu 9b

available to corroborate these proposed analysis procedures ru ecu e0

[9,11]. In this respect, a nonlinear nite element analysis seems

where e is the strain, ee is the elastic strain, ep is the plastic

the appropriate choice.

strain, Ec is the modulus of elasticity of concrete, e0 is the

In this study, concrete is modeled as 3-D solid continuum

strain corresponding to the peak stress and is equal to 0.002

element which is the standard volume element of ABAQUS.

and ecu is the strain at failure and is equal to 0.0035.

The continuum solid element C3D8RT which is an 8-node

thermally coupled brick, tri-linear displacement and tempera-

Tension stiffening

ture, reduced integration, hourglass control is used to model

concrete for 3-D stress analysis under mechanical loads plus

thermal loads [12]. In this study, concrete smeared cracking is adopted in the

In this paper, the steel reinforcement bars are modeled as analysis. This is implemented in the analysis by representing

individual 3D truss elements embedded into the concrete 3D the stressstrain curve of concrete in tension as shown in

solid element. For the truss elements the element T3D2, which Fig. 4b, where tension stiffening is accounted for by a post-fail-

is a 2-node linear 3-D truss, is used to model steel reinforcing ure stressstrain relation, where a plastic strain at which the

bars in this analysis [12]. cracking stresses causing tensile failure of the concrete reduces

to zero, is specied. This reduction of tensile cracking stresses

Material modeling with plastic strain can be expressed by linear or multi-linear

curve. There is a direct relationship between the stiffness

degradation and the stress drop after cracking [1416].

Stressstrain curve of concrete in compression

The selection of tension stiffening parameters is important

in the nonlinear analysis since greater tension stiffening makes

The model developed by Hognestad [13] is used by ABAQUS it easier to obtain numerical solutions; otherwise, failure due to

and hence it is adopted here to represent the behavior of con- local cracking in the concrete will take place, thus introducing

crete in compression. In this model, Fig. 4a. temporarily unstable behavior in the overall response of the

e ee ep 8a model. In this study, tension stiffening is taken as a single line

30

25

stress, MPa

20

P material

15 model

10 abaqus

out-put

5

0

0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004

strain

(a) Concrete model in compression and

the reesults of the tested Concrete cube of

the verification example 2.

12 12

in tension including tension stiffening (c) Concrete failure surface in plane stress

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 5

in which the tensile stresses across the cracks vanish if the total of the nite element analysis by ABAQUS are very satisfac-

tensile strain becomes equal to 0.001. tory. There is no data available for the nonlinear analysis of

the concrete beams under thermal loads to compare with

Failure ratios and the methods used in previous researches and codes neglect

the concrete tension zone and calculate the thermal stresses,

To dene the failure surface four failure ratios can be specied self-equilibrating and continuity stresses, depending on the

as shown in Fig. 4c. area and the moment of inertia of the concrete compression

zone and the reinforcing steel, so that the results obtained from

1. Ratio of the ultimate biaxial compressive stress to the uniax- these calculations deviate from that obtained from the nonlin-

ial compressive ultimate stress. A value of 1.16 is specied. ear nite element analysis.

2. Absolute value of the ratio of uniaxial tensile stress at fail-

Verication example 2

ure to the uniaxial compressive stress at failure. A value of

0.07 is used.

3. Ratio of the magnitude of a principal component of plastic In this example the concrete material nonlinearity modeling

strain at ultimate stress in biaxial compression to the plastic adopted by ABAQUS, and utilized in this paper, is veried.

strain at ultimate stress in uniaxial compression. A value of This example is a concrete cube of size 150 mm, modeled in

1.28 is used. the analysis using C3D8R element. A steel plate of thickness

4. Ratio of the tensile principal stress value at cracking in- 25 mm is placed on the top and at the bottom of the cube to

plane stress, when the other nonzero principal stress com- ensure uniform distribution of the applied compressive load.

ponent is at the ultimate compressive stress value, to the The plate is also modeled with C3D8R elements. The plates

tensile cracking stress under uniaxial tension. A value of are secured in place by applying constraint type tie, available

0.333 is assumed. in the ABAQUS, so that each of two attached nodes between

concrete and steel plates has the same degrees of freedoms. The

material properties are the same as discussed before in

Steel material modeling Section Material modeling. The bottom surface of the bottom

steel plate is prevented from translation vertically and horizon-

tally in perpendicular to the axes of symmetry. The load is

The reinforcing steel is assumed to be elastic-perfectly plastic

applied at the top surface of the top steel plate as uniform pres-

material in both tension and compression with elasticity modu-

sure and increases gradually up to the failure load. The stress

lus Es = 2 105 MPa and Poissons ratio equal to 0.2. The

strain curves of the concrete material model and the results

steel reinforcing bars are assumed to be embedded into the

obtained at the centroid of the cube are illustrated in Fig. 4a.

concrete by using constrain called embedded region so that

From the obtained results, it is obvious that the prediction

full bond is assumed between concrete and steel. The mechani-

of the nite element analysis by ABAQUS is very satisfactory

cal and thermal properties of concrete and steel adopted in this

and hence it can be used for the nonlinear analysis.

study are given in Table 1.

Case studies of beams

Verication

Description

Verication example 1

In order to illustrate the interaction between the employed

The objective of this example is to verify the coupled thermal- material models and the temperature effects, four examples of

stress analysis and to ensure that this type of analysis and the continuous beams are presented in the following. In addition,

solid continuum element C3D8RT may be used by ABAQUS the signicance of temperature gradient prole is illustrated

for the calculation of stresses due to thermal loads with nonlin- within the scope of these examples. Each one of the four beams

ear temperature gradient. The example is a continuous beam carries a total vertical load equal to 36 kN/m. There are three

with the cross section and temperature gradient over the cross temperature gradients as shown in Fig. 7 that are added to

section shown in Fig. 5. The concrete section is assumed to be the gravity loads; thus, there are four loading cases:

homogenous and uncracked with a coefcient of thermal expan-

sion a = 1 105/C and modulus of elasticity Ec = 30.0 GPa. CASE A Vertical loads only.

Fig. 6 shows the results of the example, obtained from CASE B Vertical loads + uniform temperature gradient.

ABAQUS and from hand calculations made by Ghali et al. CASE C Vertical loads + linear temperature gradient.

[1]. From the obtained results, it is obvious that the predictions CASE D Vertical loads + nonlinear temperature gradient.

Material Modulus of elasticity, Coecient of Thermal Specic heat, Density,

E, MPa thermal expansion, a conductivity, W/mK c, J/kg K q, kN/m3

Steel 2 105 1 105/C 45 480 78

p

Concrete 4400 fcu 1 105/C 1 1000 24

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

6 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

(a) Beam spans and dimensions (b) Temperature gradient (c) Cross section

distance from boom ,m Figure 5 Uncracked continuous bridge beam of the verication example 1.

1.4

1.2

1 Dr.Ghali

0.8

ABAQUS

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

self equilibrating stress, MPa continuity stress, MPa total stress , MPa

For all beams, bearing steel plates of thickness 50 mm and 2. The normal stresses at the bottom and top steel, Figs. 9c

of widths 200 and 100 mm are used at the interior and exterior and 11c

supports, respectively, in order to avoid stress concentration. 3. The normal stress distribution at the middle of the exterior

Beams BT1, BT2 and BT3 have the same cross section of panel and at the rst interior support, Figs. 9d, 11b and

400 mm width and 1500 mm depth. Beam BT4 has 400 mm 11d.

width and 2200 mm depth. Beam BT1 consists of two spans,

and beams BT2, BT3 and BT4 consist of four spans. All spans From the obtained results the following can be noted:

are equal to 20.00 m except in beam BT4, the spans are equal

to 25.00 m. All supports prevent only vertical displacement, 1. In the zones of high moments due vertical loads, where the

except in beam BT3, where the vertical and horizontal dis- compressive normal stresses at the extreme bers are the

placements are restrained at the second and fourth supports. highest, the maximum change in these stresses due to tem-

Beams BT1, BT2 and BT3 are reinforced with 5Y32 at bottom perature is about 15% in 40.00 m length beam; neverthe-

with concrete bottom cover 40 mm and side cover 40 mm, less, this change reached about 50% in the 100.00 m

where the concrete cover is measured from the centerline of length beam. In those regions where the compressive stres-

the corner bar to the outer bers of the beam. The top steel ses are very low the thermal stresses are in the order of mag-

is 5Y32 extended in each side over the interior supports for nitude of that due to gravity loads.

one-fourth of the span and 5Y16 as compression steel covering 2. The change in the tensile stresses of the reinforcement due

the rest of the span with top cover 40 mm and side cover to temperature variation is very minor in up to the

40 mm as shown in Fig. 8. 80.00 m length beam; nevertheless, this change reached

about 60% in regions of high moments in the 100.00 ms

Results length beam.

3. From the distribution of normal stresses in Figs. 11b and

Due to the large size of the results obtained from the analysis, 11d at the critical sections of the 100.00 length beam it is

only selected results of beams BT2, BT3 and BT4 are presented obvious that the temperature prole plays a signicant

in Figs. 911. These gures illustrate the following: effect in changing such a distribution and the values of

these stresses are different from those of Fig. 9d of beam

1. The normal stresses at the top and bottom bers of the BT2 with the same number of spans but they have different

beams, Figs. 9a and 9b, 10a and 10b, and 11a. cross sections and different lengths.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 7

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

normal stress at top

2

fibers, MPa

-2

-6

CASE A

CASE B

-10

CASE C

CASE D

-14

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

2

-2

-6

-10

-14

4. From the distribution of normal stresses plotted in Figs. 9d 5. From the analysis of the 80.00 m length beam BT3, in

and 11d for four analyses: (1) linear temperature gradient which the rst and last interior supports are restrained

and linear elastic analysis, referred to as LE; (2) nonlinear against horizontal movement, the effect of linear and non-

temperature gradient and linear elastic analysis, referred to linear temperature is less than that of beam BT2, in which

as NE; (3) linear temperature gradient and nonlinear analy- only one exterior support is restrained against horizontal

sis, referred to as LN; and (4) nonlinear temperature gradient movement. However, due to the uniform temperature

and nonlinear analysis, referred to as NN, the deviation in change there is a signicant increase in the compressive

the results is remarkable, which emphasizes the signicance stresses and some relief in the tensile stresses, which is

of using the right analysis and temperature prole. expected.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

8 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

0 20 40 0 10 20 30 40

250

250

200

200

150

150

MPa

100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100

(i) Top steel (ii) Bottom steel

1.5 1.5

distance from bottom, m

1 1

LE

0.5 NE 0.5

LN

NN

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

normal stress at mid-span, MPa normal stress at support, MPa

Figure 9d Normal stress distribution at mid-span section of exterior panel and at the rst interior support of beam BT2 due to

temperature gradients for different analysis types.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

normal stress at top

2

fibers, MPa

-2

-6

CASE A

CASE B

-10 CASE C

CASE D

-14

Figure 10a Normal stress at top bers along beam BT3, where horizontal movements are restrained at supports B and D.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

2

bottom fibers, MPa

normal stress at

-2

-6

-10

-14

Figure 10b Normal stress at bottom bers along beam BT3, where horizontal movements are restrained at supports B and D.

Case studies of frames equal to 20 m long from the centerline of columns. The frame

width is equal to 400 mm and the total thickness of the girder

Frames description and of all columns is equal to 1500 mm. The clear height of all

columns is equal to 6.0 m. The frame bases are A, B and C,

Four examples of continuous frames are presented in this which are totally restrained against displacement and rotation.

paper. In addition, the signicance of temperature gradient The frame girder is reinforced with bottom steel bars of 5Y32

prole is illustrated within the scope of these examples. along its length and located at 40 mm from the bottom surface

Fig. 12 shows the dimensions and reinforcement details of of the beam. In addition to the bottom steel, top steel is intro-

the four frames: named FT1, FT2, FT3 and FT4. duced at 40 mm from the top surface of the beam and it

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 9

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

2

fibers, MPa

-2

-6

-10

distance from bottom, m

2 2

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0

-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2

(i) Normal stress at support, MPa (ii) Normal stress at mid -span, MPa

Figure 11b Normal stress distribution over beam BT4 cross section at the rst interior support and at the mid-span of exterior panel.

0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50

normal stress in top steel, MPa

CASE B

CASE C

100 CASE D 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100

(i) Top steel (ii) Bottom steel

Figure 11c Stress in top and bottom steel along beam BT4.

2

distance from bottom, m

1.5 1.5

1 1

LE

NE

0.5 LN 0.5

NN

0 0

-4 -2 0 2 -4 -2 0 2

normal stress at support, MPa normal stress at mid-span, MPa

Figure 11d Normal stress distribution at the mid-span of exterior panel and the rst interior support of BT4 due to temperature

gradients for different analysis types.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

10 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

consists of 5Y32 over columns locations and 5Y16 at the mid- width is equal to 400 mm and the total thickness of the girder

dle half of each span as shown in Fig. 12a. and of all columns is equal to 1500 mm. The clear height of all

Frame FT2 consists of one story of three spans; each span is columns is equal to 6.0 m. The frame bases are A, B, C, D and

equal to 20 m long from the centerline of columns. The frame E, which are totally xed bases. The frame girder is reinforced

width is equal to 400 mm and the total thickness of the girder with bottom steel bars of 5Y32 along its length and located at

and of all columns is equal to 1500 mm. The clear height of all 40 mm from the bottom surface of the beam. In addition to

columns is equal to 6.0 m. The frame bases are A, B, C and D, bottom steel, top steel is introduced at 40 mm from the top

which are totally xed. The frame girder is reinforced with bot- surface of the beam and it consists of 5Y32 over columns loca-

tom steel bars of 5Y32 along its length and located at 40 mm tions and 5Y16 at the middle half of each span as shown in

from the bottom surface of the beam. In addition to bottom Fig. 12c.

steel, top steel is introduced at 40 mm from the top surface Frame FT4 is similar to FT3 but it consists of two stories,

of the beam and it consists of 5Y32 over columns locations each story has a clear height equal to 6.0 m as shown in

and 5Y16 at the middle half of each span, Fig. 12b. Fig. 12d.

Frame FT3 consists of one story of four spans; each span is Table 2 shows the reinforcing steel of all columns and gird-

equal to 20 m long from the centerline of columns. The frame ers of the studied frames.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 11

Mesh sensitivity and problem convergence 1. UE refers to uniform temperature gradient and linear elas-

tic analysis.

The mesh size is a very important issue in this analysis because 2. LE refers to linear temperature gradient and linear elastic

increasing the mesh size helps the model to converge to solu- analysis.

tion faster than if the mesh size is small but the results may 3. NE refers to nonlinear temperature gradient and linear

be poor. In addition, the steel bars must be meshed so that elastic analysis.

each concrete element contains a rebar in order to help the 4. UN refers to uniform temperature gradient and nonlinear

model to converge to a unique solution. As stated before, analysis (CASE B CASE A).

many trials have been made in order to obtain the best mesh 5. LN refers to linear temperature gradient and nonlinear

size for good results as shown in Fig. 13 for frame FT2. analysis (CASE C CASE A).

6. NN refers to nonlinear temperature gradient and nonlinear

Loads and boundary conditions analysis (CASE D CASE A).

Frames FT1 and FT2 are analyzed for a total working load homogenous material, there is no reinforcing steel and the

equal to 80 kN/m. Frames FT3 and FT4 are analyzed for a thermal loads act on the model without the presence of gravity

total working load equal to 65 kN/m. These loads are applied loads. In the nonlinear analysis the different features of mate-

as a uniform pressure at the top surface of frame girders. The rial nonlinearity are accounted for, reinforcing steel is present

applied loads include the girders own weight but columns own and the thermal loads act on the model with the presence of the

weights are neglected in the analysis. In addition to the gravity gravity loads.

loads, the frame girders are assumed to carry thermal loads in

the form of temperature gradients which are uniform, linear Results and comments

and nonlinear gradients as shown in Fig. 7, and the columns

do not carry any thermal loads. This constitutes four loading

cases of nonlinear analysis, as in the following: Due to the large size of the data obtained from the analysis,

only some indicative results are presented here as illustrated

CASE A. Gravity loads only. in the following:

CASE B. Gravity loads + uniform temperature gradient

(T1). 1. The normal stresses at the top and bottom bers of the gir-

CASE C. Gravity loads + linear temperature gradient (T2). der of frame FT3 and the rst story girder of frame FT4 in

CASE D. Gravity loads + nonlinear temperature gradient Figs. 14a, 14b, 15a and 15b.

(T3). 2. The normal stresses at the bottom and top steel of the gir-

der of frame FT3 and the rst story girder of frame FT4 in

The frames have been analyzed again under the effect of Figs. 14c and 15c.

thermal gradients only assuming the material is homogeneous, 3. The vertical displacement of the girder of frame FT3 and

linear elastic and uncracked and the obtained results have been the rst story girder of frame FT4 in Figs. 14d and 15d.

compared with those obtained from the nonlinear analysis so 4. The normal stress at the interior and exterior bers of the

that there are additional six cases as the following: exterior columns of all four frames in Figs. 16a, 16c, 16e

and 16g.

5. The normal stress at exterior and interior steel of the exter-

ior columns of all four frames in Figs. 16b, 16d, 16f and

16h.

6. The side sway of the exterior columns of all four frames in

Table 2 Reinforcement of the studied frames. Fig. 17.

Steel index I1 I2 I3 X1 T1 T2 B 7. The additional normal stress distribution due to tempera-

Reinforcement 5Y18 5Y32 5Y22 5Y32 5Y16 5Y32 5Y32 ture changes over the cross sections at different sections

of frames FT2, FT3 and FT4, in Figs. 18a18c.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

12 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

3

0

-3

-6 case A

case B

-9 case C

-12 case D

Figure 14a Normal stress at the top bers along the half-length of FT3 girder.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

normal stress, MPa

3

0

-3

-6

-9

-12

Figure 14b Normal stress at the bottom bers along the half-length of FT3 girder.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

250 case A 250

stress in top steel, MPa

case B

200 case C 200

case D

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100

Figure 14c Stress in the top and the bottom steel along the half-length of FT3 girder.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

displacement, mm

-5

-10

-15

-20

From the obtained results, which are partially presented 2. The inuence of temperature gradient on deection was

here, the following conclusions are drawn: insignicant in girders, Figs. 14d and 15d, but noticeable

in the exterior columns, Fig. 17, where it reached about

1. The inuence of temperature gradient on the normal stress 30% in some places. The change in deection due to uni-

distribution in concrete and reinforcing steel did not exceed form temperature change did not exceed 20% in the regions

20% in the regions of high moments. On the other hand, of high deection in girders, Figs. 14d and 15d; however,

the effect of uniform temperature changes was signicant this change was remarkable in columns where it reached

only in columns and reached about 50% increase in sec- 130% in frame FT4 (length 80 m and two stories),

tions of maximum moments. Fig. 17d.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 13

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

2.5

0

-2.5

-5

-7.5

-10

Figure 15a Normal stress at the top bers along the half-length of FT4 girder, rst story.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

2.5

normal stress, MPa

0

-2.5

-5

-7.5

-10

-12.5

Figure 15b Normal stress at the bottom bers along the half-length of FT4 girder, rst story.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

250 250

stress in top steel, MPa

200 200

150 150

100 100

50 50

0 0

-50 -50

-100 -100

(i) Stress in top steel (ii) Stress in bottom steel

.

Figure 15c Stress in the top and the bottom steel along the half-length of FT4 girder, rst story.

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

displacement, mm

-5

-10

case A

-15 case B

case C

-20 case D

Figure 15d Vertical displacement along the half-length of FT4 girder, rst story.

3. Material modeling plays a signicant inuence on the values of 4. Cracking contributed remarkably to the relief of restrained

normal stresses under both uniform and gradient temperature. stresses due to temperature variation, Figs. 18a18c when

In addition, the results due to nonlinear temperature gradient, comparing the results of nonlinear analysis with that of lin-

which is the realistic distribution, deviate signicantly from ear analysis for both cases of uniform and nonuniform tem-

those due to linear temperature gradient, Figs. 18a18c. perature proles.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

14 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

6 6

4.5 4.5

base, m

3 3

case A

case B

1.5 1.5

case C

case D

0 0

-15 -10 -5 0 -15 -10 -5 0

normal stress at outer fibers , MPa normal stress at inner fibers, MPa

Figure 16a Normal stress at the outer and the inner bers along the exterior column height of FT1.

distance from column

6 6

4.5 4.5

base, m

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-100 0 100 200 -200 -100 0 100 200

Figure 16b Stress in the outer and the inner steel along the exterior column height of FT1.

6 6

distance from column

4.5 4.5

base, m

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-15 -10 -5 0 -15 -10 -5 0

stress at outer fibers, MPa stress at inner fibers, MPa

Figure 16c Normal stress at the outer and the inner bers along the exterior column height of FT2.

distance from column base,m

6 6

4.5 4.5

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-200 -100 0 100 200 -200 -100 0 100 200

Figure 16d Stress in the outer and the inner steel along the exterior column height of FT2.

6

6

distance from column

4.5 4.5

base, m

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-15 -10 -5 0 -15 -10 -5 0

normal stress at outer bers, Mpa normal stress at inner bers, Mpa

Figure 16e Normal stress at the outer and the inner bers along the exterior column height of FT3.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 15

6 6

4.5 4.5

base, m

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-100 -50 0 50 100 150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150

normal stress in outer steel, Mpa normal stress in inner steel, Mpa

Figure 16f Stress in the outer and the inner steel along the exterior column height of FT3.

13.5 13.5

case A

distance from column

12 12

case B

10.5 case C 10.5

9 case D 9

base, m

7.5 7.5

6 6

4.5 4.5

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-15 -10 -5 0 -15 -10 -5 0

normal stress at outer fibers, Mpa normal stress at inner fibers, Mpa

Figure 16g Normal stress at outer and inner bers along exterior column height of FT4.

distance from column base,m

13.5 13.5

12 12

10.5 10.5

9 9

7.5 7.5

6 6

4.5 4.5

3 3

1.5 1.5

0 0

-200 -100 0 100 200 -200 -100 0 100 200

stress in outer steel, Mpa stress in inner steel, Mpa

Figure 16h Stress in outer and inner steel along exterior column height of FT4.

6

distance from column

4.5

base, m

3

case A

case B

1.5

case C

case D

0

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

(a) side sway, mm, FT1 (b) side sway, mm, FT2 (c) side sway, mm, FT3

13.5

12

10.5

distance from column

9

7.5

base, m

6

4.5

3

1.5

0

-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0

(d) side sway, mm, FT4

Figure 17 Side sway of the exterior columns of frames FT1, FT2, FT3 and FT4.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

16 E.H. El-Tayeb et al.

UE

1.5 1.5

LE

1.25 NE 1.25

1 UN 1

0.75 LN 0.75

0.5 0.5

0.25 0.25

0 0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

stress due to temp, MPa stress due to temp, MPa

(i) Section 1-1 (ii) Section 2-2

Figure 18a Comparison between elastic analysis and nonlinear analysis of thermal stresses at different sections in FT2.

distance from bottom,m

1.5

1.25

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

0

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa

(i) Section 1-1 (ii) Section 2-2 (iii) Section 3-3

Figure 18b Comparison between elastic analysis and nonlinear analysis of thermal stresses at different sections in FT3.

1.5 UE

1.25 LE

NE

distance from bottom,

1 UN

0.75 LN

0.5

m

0.25

0

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa

(i) Section 1-1 (ii) Section 2-2 (iii) Section 3-3

1.5

1.25

1

0.75

0.5

0.25

0

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2

normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa normal stress, MPa

(iv) Section 4-4 (v) Section 5-5 (x) Section 6-6

Figure 18c Comparison between elastic analysis and nonlinear analysis of thermal stresses at different sections in FT4.

based on the temperature gradient, linear or nonlinear.

Hence, the nonlinear temperature gradient which is the

From the obtained results for beams and frames with different

realistic prole is important to implement in the

number of spans and length analyzed under different cases of

analysis.

temperature, the following conclusions can be obtained:

concrete beams and frames react to temperature variation. Conict of interest

Cracking contributes to the release of signicant portion of

temperature restrain and in some cases this restrain is The authors declare that there are no conict of interests.

almost eliminated.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames 17

considerations, New Zealand Eng. (Wellington) 27 (7) (1972)

[1] A. Ghali, R. Favre, M. Elbadry, Concrete Structures: Stresses 228233.

and Deformations, Chapman and Hall, London, 1986. [10] M. Elbadry, A. Ghali, Thermal gradients in bridges-some design

[2] AASHTO, Interim Specications for the Guide Specications of considerations, ACI Struct. J. (1986).

Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges, rst [11] F.J. Vecchio, Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

ed., The American Association of State Highways and Frames Subjected to Thermal and Mechanical Loads, ACI

Transportation Ofcials, Washington, D.C., 1994. Struct. J. (1987).

[3] AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specications, fth ed., The [12] Abaqus Analysis Users Manual 6.10. Dassault Syste`mes

American Association of State Highways and Transportation Simulia Corp., Providence, RI, USA.

Ofcials, Washington, D.C., 2005. [13] E. Hognestad, A Study of Combined Bending and Axial Load in

[4] M. Elbadry, A. Ghali, Temperature variations in concrete Reinforced Concrete Members, University of Illinois

bridges, J. Struct. Eng. ASCE 109 (10) (1983) 23552374. Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin Series No. 399A, vol.

[5] M. Elbadry, A. Ghali, Nonlinear temperature distribution and 49(22), November 1951.

its effects on bridges, in: IABSE Proceedings, Zurich, 1983, pp. [14] S. Alih, A. Khelil, Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite

169191. Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel, Laboratory and

[6] F.J. Vecchio, N. Agostino, B. Angelakos, Reinforced Concrete Finite Element Analysis, World Academy of Science,

Slabs Subjected to Thermal Loads, Department of Civil Engineering and Technology (2012).

Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, on M5S IA4, [15] K. Behfarnia, The effect of tension stiffening on the behavior of

Canada, 1992. R/C beams, Asian J. Civ. Eng. (Building and Housing) 10 (3)

[7] F.J. Vecchio, J.A. Sato, Thermal gradient effects in reinforced (2009) 243255.

concrete frame structures, ACI Struct. J. (1990). [16] R. Nayal, H. Rasheed, Tension stiffening model for concrete

[8] L. Xingfa, Analysis of Temperature Stress of Concrete beams reinforced with steel and FRP bars, J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

Structure, Communications Press, Beijing, China, 1991. 18 (6) (2006) 831841.

Please cite this article in press as: E.H. El-Tayeb et al., Thermal analysis of reinforced concrete beams and frames, HBRC Journal (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.hbrcj.2015.02.001

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.