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Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly

are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing,
drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food thus infected. Various forms of
waterborne diarrheal disease probably are the most prominent examples, and affect mainly
children in developing countries; according to the World Health Organization, such diseases
account for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and cause about
1.8 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 88% of that
burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene.

Waterborne Diseases

Disease Pathogen Symptoms Causes Incubation

Adenovirus Adenoviridae virus Vary depending on which Drinking contaminated water 5-8 days
Infection part of the body is infected

Amebiasis Entamoeba Diarrhea, stomach pain, Fecal matter of an infected 2 to 4 weeks

histolytica parasite and stomach cramping person (usually ingested from
a pool or an infected water

Campylobacteriosis Campylobacter Chicken, unpasteurized milk, 2 to 10 days

jejuni bacteria water

Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiumparasite Stomach cramps, Fecal matter of an infected 2 to 10 days

dehydration, nausea, person (can survive for days in
vomiting, fever, weight loss chlorinated pools)

Cholera Vibrio choleraebacteria Watery diarrhea, vomiting, Contaminated drinking water, Two hours to
and leg cramps rivers and coastal waters 5 days

E. Coli 0157:H7 Escherichia colibacteria Diarrhea (may be bloody), Undercooked ground beef, 1 to 8 days
abdominal pain, nausea, imported cheeses,
vomiting, fever, HUS unpasteurized milk or juice,
cider, alfalfa sprouts

Giardiasis Giardia lambliaparasite Diarrhea, excess gas, Swallowing recreational water 1 to 2 weeks
stomach or abdominal contaminated with Giardia
cramps, and upset
stomach or nausea

Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus Fever, fatigue, stomach Ready-to-eat foods, fruit and 28 days
pain, nausea, dark urine, juice, milk products, shellfish,
jaundice salads, vegetables,
sandwiches, water

Legionellosis Legionella Fever, chills, pneumonia, Contaminated water 2-10 days

pneumophilabacteria anorexia, muscle aches,
diarrhea and vomiting

Salmonellosis Salmonellabacteria Abdominal pain, headache, Poultry, eggs, meat, meat 1-3 days
fever, nausea, diarrhea, products, milk, smoked fish,
chills, cramps protein foods, juice

Vibrio Infection Vibrio Nausea, vomiting, Raw shellfish, oysters 1 to 7+ days

parahaemolyticus,Vibrio headache (a quarter of
vulnificusbacteria patients experience
dysentery-like symptoms)

Viral Gastroenteritis Calicivirus virus Diarrhea, vomiting, Water, ready-to-eat foods 24 to 48

nausea, cramps, (salad, sandwiches, bread) hours
headache, muscle aches, shellfish
tiredness, slight fever