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BLM Ground 16 miles

Problem #1

BLM Pipeline Project

a.) Cost of pipeline running West -> South -> East to the refinery.

Total distance = 8 +16 +40 = 64 miles

Total cost = 64*480,000(Cost/mile for running pipe through BLM land) = $30,720,000 b.) Cost of running East through the Mountain -> South to the refinery: Cost of burying through the Mountain = 48*480,000 + 4,500,000(one time cost) + 600,000(environmental study) +800,000(cost for delayed eight months) =$28,940,000

Problem #2

a.) Cost of running the pipeline the shortest distance from the private ground to the

refinery is:

Total distance can be found using the Pythagorean Theorem: c^2 = a^2 + b^2, where

a = 16 miles and b = 32 miles. Total distance =

Cost/mile = $360,000 +$480,000 = $840,000 Total cost =$840,000/Mile * 35.777 Miles = $30,052,60 = 35.777 Miles b.) Cost of running directly south to the private ground, then east to the refinery: 16*840,000 (cost of private ground) + 32*480,000 (cost of BLM land) =$28,800,000

BLM Ground

8 mile

Private Ground

40 miles - BLM Ground

Problem #3

The distance of pipe needed to run from the pump to the refinery can be minimized by entering the Private Ground diagonally and exiting through the Private Ground at an angle towards the refinery to reach the BLM land. Once on the Southern BLM land, the remaining distance of pipe can be run directly to the refinery.

B(Blue) = the distance of pipe run on BLM ground.

P(orange) = the distance of pipe run on Private ground.

32 miles (green) = distance needed to run the pipe east to the refinery, once on the South side of the BLM land.

A(red) = distance from the point on the south side of the BLM ground directly below the pump, to the point where the pipe meets the south side of the BLM ground in order to minimize cost.

Theta(orange) = angle at which the pipe enters the Private Ground.

Total Cost(C) of running piping from the Pump to the refinery C = B(480,000) +

P(840,000)

BLM Ground
8 mile
Private Ground
P
32 miles
A
B = 32 - A
BLM Ground
16 miles

Using the Pythagorean Theorem, we know that the lengths of the side

Since B = 32 – A, we can substitute the ‘P’ and ‘B’ values into the original Cost equation, yielding the final Cost equation below.

) + 480,000(32 A)

C(A) = 840,000(

C\left(x\right)\ =\ 840000\left(\sqrt{x^2+\ 16^2}\right)+480000\left(32\ -\ x\right)

If we differentiate the C(A) equation and solve for ‘A’, we can determine the minimal amount it will cost the company to lay the pipe. Once ‘A’ has been solved for, we can use it to find the angle at which the pipe departs from the plant, and the distance which it travels through both the Private and BLM land.

Differentiate C(A): dA/dC =

Simplify: dA/dC =

Set C(A) = 0 →

Multiply Both sides by the right-sided Denominator:

Square both sides:

Simplify:

Subtract 480,000 A 2 from both sides →

Factor out A 2

Divide both sides by 840,000 2 480,000 2

Simplify: → 124.121212 = A 2

Solve for A by taking the square root of both sides: A =

B = 32 11.14096998 = 20.85903002 miles

D(Red) represents the direct distance between the oil pump and refinery. Because the refinery

is 16 miles South and 32 miles east of the pump, this distance can found using the Pythagorean

theorem and is represented by the equation

= 11.14096998

BLM Ground

X

16

Private Ground

32

=

X(orange) =

Total cost = 840,000(19.49669747) + 480,000(20.85903002) = $26,389,560.28 = 19.49669747 BLM Ground 16 miles Money → BLM Ground 8 mile Private Ground X A B Theta(Blue) will be equal to the transverse angle on the opposite side of the diagonal X(Orange). Tangent(Ө) = Opposite Side/Adjacent Side = Western BLM Boundary/A = 16/11.14096998 By taking the ArcTangent inverse of both sides, we can find the theta value. = 55.15009542 degrees The pipe left the oil pump at an angle of 55.15009542 o and traveled 19.49669747 miles through the Private Ground and entering the Southern section of BLM land. From that point, 20.85903002 miles of pipe was run along the Southern side of the BLM land in order to connect with the refinery. The total cost of the pipe laid was$ 26,389,560.28. This was the most cost- effective way in way that the pipe could be run, while still minimizing the distance it covered to get to the refinery.

Problem #4

Below is the graph for the Pipeline Cost function.

2.639 x 10 7
(11.14, 26.38956 x 10 7 )
11.0 11.1
11.2
11.3
‘A’ Value →

Without a thorough knowledge of Calculus and how to deal with an optimization problem such as this, our company would have been forced to spend several million dollars more than was necessary, without the knowledge of an optimal path for the pipeline to take.

This is certainly not the only case in the industry for which calculus is a worthy tool to solve problems. For example, if our engineers need to calculate the rate per second at which the oil will flow through the pipeline, they will know from their experience with calculus that all they need is a graph that records the amount of oil flowing through the pipe, as a function of the time passed. Once this is given, they can develop an equation which matches the graph and differentiate from any point on the equation to find the rate at which the oil flows through the pipeline. Conversely, if the engineers know the rate at which the oil travels through the pipe, but not the amount, the antiderivative can be taken of the rate function to find the quantity of oil per hour. This is just a simple example of the innumerable applications calculus has in the real- world, and we hope you will continue to use it wisely.