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EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT BUILDING

A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
BY

ADEEL ATA
1250800011
AVANEESH KUMAR
1250800035
DEEPAK SINGH YADAV 1250800039
DIVYANSHU AWASTHI
1250800044
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA
1250800078

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF


MR. RAHUL SINGH
(LECTURER)
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
BABU BANARASI DAS ENGINEERING COLLEGE,
LUCKNOW

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A.P.J ABDUL KALAM TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY,
LUCKNOW
2016-2017

BABU BANARASI DAS ENGINEERING COLLEGE, LUCKNOW


Affiliated to
A.PJ. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


BBDEC

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the project entitled Earthquake Resistant Building submitted by ADEEL ATA

(1250800011), AVANEESH KUMAR (12508000035), DEEPAK SINGH YADAV

(1250800039), DIVYANSHU AWASTHI (1250800044), PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA

(1250800078)

In the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of bachelor of

Technology (Civil Engineering) of A.KT.U, is a record of students own work carried under our

supervision and guidance. The project report embodies results of original work and studies

carried out by students and the contents do not form the basis for the award of any other degree

to the candidate or to anybody else.

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MR. RAHUL SINGH MR. RAJ KUMAR GUPTA

(PROJECT GUIDE) (HEAD OF DEPARTMENT)

CIVIL ENGG, B.B.D.E.C

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BBDEC

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project entitle Earthquake Resistant Building submitted by us in

the partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology

(Civil Engineering) of A.K.T.U is record of our own work carried under the supervision and

guidance of Mr. RAHUL SINGH, Lecturer.

To the best of my knowledge this project has not been submitted to A.K.T.U or any other

University or Institute for the award of any degree.

ADEEL ATA
AVANEESH KUMAR
DEEPAK SINGH YADAV
DIVYANSHU AWASTHI
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BBDEC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are extremely grateful and remain indebted to our guide Mr.RAHUL SINGH and Mr. R.K

GUPTA (H.O.D), Civil Department for being a source of inspiration and for their constant

support in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of project. We are thankful to them

for their constant constructive suggestions, which benefited use lot in developing this project.

They had been a constant source of inspiration and motivation for hard work, through this

column; it would be my utmost pleasure to express our warm thanks to them for their

encouragement, co-operation and constant support without which we might have not been able

to accomplish this project.

We are sincerely grateful to our head of Department of Civil Engineering, Mr. R.K GUPTA for

his assistance and guidance throughout the study

We also express our gratitude to our college for providing us the infrastructure to carry out the

project and to all staff-member who were directly or indirectly instrumented in enabling us to

stay committed for project.

ADEEL ATA
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AVANEESH KUMAR
DEEPAK SINGH YADAV
DIVYANSHU AWASTHI
PRATEEK SRIVASTAVA

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BBDEC

PREFACE

Earthquakes constitute one of the greatest hazards of life and property on the earth. Due to

suddenness of their occurrence, they are least understood and most dreaded. The earthquake

resistant construction is considered to be very important to mitigate their effects.

The field of Earthquake Engineering has existed in our country for over 35 years now.

Indian earthquake engineers have made significant contributions to the seismic safety of several

important structures in the country. However, as the recent earthquakes have shown, the

performance of normal structures during past Indian earthquakes has been less satisfactory. This

is mainly due to the lack of awareness amongst most practising engineers of the special

provisions that need to be followed in earthquake resistant design and thereafter in construction.

Earthquakes are among the most powerful events on earth, and their results can be terrifying.

An earthquake in general does not kill people directly. Instead, many deaths and injuries result

from the collapse of buildings, bridges, and other structures. We cannot prevent natural disasters

from striking, but we can prevent or limit their impact by making buildings strong enough to

resist their destructive forces. This can be achieved by earth quake resistant structures. In the

case of earthquakes, it is possible to neutralize their harm by applying basic engineering and
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planning principles that are inexpensive. This paper presents the brief essentials of earthquake

resistant construction and a few techniques to improve the resistance of building and building

materials to earthquake forces, economically.

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LIST OF FIGURES
Chapter 1
Figure 1.1 Multi Storey Building 3

Chapter 2
Figure 2.1 Total Horizontal Earthquake force in a building increases downwards
Along its heights.

Figure 2.2 Floor bends with the Beam but moves all columns at that level together.

Figure 2.3 Infill walls move together with the columns under earthquake shaking.

Figure 2.4 two distinct designs of building that result in different earthquake performances-
Columns should be stronger than Beams.

Figure 2.5 Performance objectives under different intensities of earthquake shaking


seeking low repairable damage under minor shaking and collapse prevention
under strong shaking.

Figure 2.6 Reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings an excellent structural system for
Earthquake resistance.

Figure 2.7 Shear walls must be symmetric in plan layout twist in buildings can be
avoided.

Figure 2.8 Layout of main reinforcement in shear walls as per IS:13920-1993 detailing is
the key to good seismic performance.

Figure 2.9 Reinforced hollow concrete blocks.

Figure 2.10 Mid-level isolation procedures.

Chapter 5
Figure 5.1 Base-Isolated and Fixed-Base Buildings.

Figure 5.2 Base-Isolated, Fixed-Base Buildings.

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Figure 5.3 Damping Device Installed with Brace.

Figure 5.4 a total collapsing a building.

Chapter 6
Figure 6.1 Damage caused by Earthquake in Walls.

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

BBDEC

ABSTRACT

A major part of design for earthquake resistance involves the building structure, which has

primary role in preventing serious damage or structural collapse. Over the years, earthquake has

been the cause of great disasters in the form of destruction of property and injury and loss of life

to the population. One major measure to mitigate the earthquake hazards is to design and build

structures through better engineering practices, so that these structures possess adequate

earthquake-resistant capacity.

Structures of Uniform Response are special earthquake resistant frames in which

members of similar groups such as beams, columns and braces of similar nature share the same

demand-capacity ratios regardless of their location within the group. The fundamental idea

behind this presentation is that seismic structural response is largely a function of design and

construction, rather than analysis. Both strength and stiffness are induced rather than

investigated. Failure mechanisms and stability conditions are enforced rather than tested.

Structures of Uniform Response are expected to sustain relatively large inelastic displacements

during major earthquakes. A simple technique has been proposed to control and address the

gradual softening of such structures due to local/partial instabilities and formation of plastic

hinges. In structures of uniform response, the magnitude and shape of distribution of lateral

forces affects the distribution of story stiffness in proportion with story moments, therefore

affecting the dynamic behaviour of the system as a whole. Simple closed form formulae

describing the nonlinear behaviour of moment frames of uniform response have been proposed.

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While the scope of this contribution is limited to moment frames, the proposed method can

successfully be extended to all types of recognized earthquake resisting systems.

LIST OF TABLES

Chapter 2

Table 1 Seismic Design Categories, Risk, and Seismic Design Criteria 15

LIST OF FLOW CHARTS

Chapter 4

Flowchart 1 Steps of Project work 42

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE
Certificate
Declaration
Preface
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Figure
List of Tables

Chapter 1) INTRODUCTION .... 1

1.1 Brief detail of building . 4


1.2 Design approach ... 5
1.3 Specification and design Criterion loads .. 7

Chapter 2) LITERATURE REVIEW .. 9

Chapter 3) ANALYSIS & CALCULATIONS OF BUIDING STRUTURES28


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3.1 For Vertical loads 29
3.2 For lateral loads ... 29
Chapter 4) DESIGN METHODOLOGY ... 31
5.1 Method 34
5.2 Materials .. 34
5.3 Design of beam 34
5.4 Design of column 35
5.5 Design of slabs 35
5.6 Design of staircase .. 36
5.7 Design of Isolated footing 36

Chapter 5) UNDERSTANDING OF EARTHQUAKE AND BASIC

TERMINOLOGY.

Chapter 6) BEHAVIOUR OF MASONRY BUILDINGS TO GROUND

MOTION ...79

Chapter 7) ROLE & RESPONSIBILITIES OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 82

Chapter 8) CONCLUSION .. 86

9) BIBLIOGROPHY . 89

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