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Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and

Revolutions
Choose the best answer for each question and mark the corresponding
France. letter on
This document the75
your scantron.
embodied
points.
1. The Enlightenment influenced Enlightenment idea that
revolutionary thought by a. The French Revolution was
a. Encouraging the poor to take justified
up arms b. Reason should guide human
b. Stressing the importance of affairs
the monarchy c. A constitutional monarchy
c. Designing a common should exist
revolutionary strategy d. Hereditary and tradition
d. Instilling a belief in the should guide government
natural rights of man
5. He believed that every person was
2. The Declaration of Independence born with a tabula rasa, or blank slate.
states, That whenever any form of a. Locke
government becomes destructive of b. Voltaire
these ends, it is the Right of the c. Montesquieu
People to alter or abolish it. These d. Frederick the Great
words describe the enlightened idea of
a
a. Need to ensure a
representative government 6. Under Spanish rule, Latin American
b. Return to a society that has society was strictly divided into a class
no central authority system determined by birth. Among
c. Social contract between the aristocracy were individuals born
government and the people in Europe or ancestors of European
d. Revolutionary intent to immigrants. This rigid social class
overthrow the current system contradicted the
government Enlightenment idea of
a. A two class system
b. Equality among men
c. The importance of birth
order
d. Constitutional guarantee of
rights

7. The American Revolution and


3. The American Revolution was French Revolution were similar in that
motivated by the Enlightened idea both
a. Of a distinct class system a. Were encouraged by
b. That all men are created Enlightenment idea of
equal natural rights
c. Of the rightful rule of a b. Sought to limit the
monarch participation of people in
d. That government needs government
central authority c. Supported the theory of
divine right
4. The revolutionaries who wrote the d. Increased the influence of
1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man religious institutions in
wanted liberty for the people of government
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

joins in society to preserve his life,


8. This class was unaffected by the liberty, and property. Whenever the
Enlightenment ruler endeavors to take away the
a. Nobles property of the people, or reduce
b. Bourgeoisie them to slaverythey are removed
c. Clergy from any further obedience and left
d. Lower class and peasants torise up with force and violence.
-John Locke,
The person of the king is sacred, and The Second Treatise of
to attack him in any way is an attack Government (1690)
on God itself. Kings represent the 12. The ideas expressed by Locke in
Divine Majesty and have been this passage helped inspire the
appointed to Him to carry out His a. Theory of Divine Right
purposes. Serving God and respecting b. American Revolution
kings are bound together. c. Separation of church and
- Bishop Jacques Bossuet state
d. Industrial Revolution
9. Which group directly challenged the
political philosophy expressed in this 13. Enlightenment thinkers
statement? contributed to changes in relationships
a. Advocates of divine right between citizens and governments
b. Writers of the Enlightenment through their belief that
c. Absolute monarchs of a. Most changes in government
Europe are dangerous
d. Leaders of the Catholic b. Absolute monarchy is the
Church most effective form of
government
10. This philosophe separated the c. Governments are instituted
government into three branches of to protect citizens rights
government and argued for separation d. Popular liberties should be
of powers. limited by the need for social
a. Voltaire order
b. Montesquieu 14. Which of the following identifies
c. Locke one of the ways Enlightenment ideas
d. Diderot influenced the actions of colonial
leaders in Latin America?
11. John Wesley founded this form of a. They strengthened the
religion during the Enlightenment. power of the Catholic Church
a. Catholicism b. They shared their wealth
b. Methodism with the lower classes
c. Christianity c. They demanded self-
d. Buddhism government from Spain and
Portugal
If man in the state of nature is free, d. They abolished slavery
and lord of his own possessions, why throughout Latin America
will he give up his freedom? The
answer is that right in the state of 15. Colonists in North America
nature are constantly exposed to protested against the taxes imposed
attack by others. Hence each man
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

on them by the British following the c. All citizens possess basic


French and Indian War. What was the human rights (ie. freedom of
main reason the colonists were upset speech)
about these taxes? d. People are incapable of
a. Colonists believed that ruling themselves because
because they lived so far they are inherently
from Britain, they did not disorganized and chaotic
have to pay taxes on
anything
b. Colonists were not
represented in the British
Parliament and for that 18. The application of science and
reason believed the taxes reason to understanding the world
were unjust resulted in the 1700s being known for
c. Colonists drank less tea than the
people living in Britain, so a. New Deal
the tax was an unfair burden b. Enlightenment
on them c. Progressive Movement
d. Colonists had already paid a d. Reformation
great deal to fund the British
effort in the French and 19. The members of the Third Estate
Indian War. took revolutionary action because they
16. This type of ruler allowed religious a. Were suspicious of the liberal
toleration, freedom of speech and the ideas coming out of the
press, rights to own private property French legislature
and nurtured the arts, sciences and b. Believed that a king should
education. They also obeyed their own rule by divine right, not the
laws and still maintained absolute will of the people
power. c. Disagreed with the ideas
a. Tyrant behind the Declaration of the
b. Absolutist Rights of Man and of the
c. Enlightened despot Citizen
d. President d. Had fewer rights, owned less
land and paid more taxes
17. The Declaration of the Rights of than the wealthier members
Man and of the Citizen includes of the French population
several Enlightenment ideas. Which of
the following is not one of the 20. Which of these enlightened rulers
Enlightenment ideas incorporated into made enlightened reforms which
the document? completely failed?
a. Citizens should have a voice a. Frederick the Great
in the decisions the b. Joseph II
government makes on their c. Catherine the Great
behalf d. Louis XVI
b. People give rights to their
governments to limit their 21. Thomas Paines 1776 pamphlet,
governments power Common Sense, is based on
Enlightenment ideas. Which of the
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

following ideas is the primary basis for method when exploring


Common Sense? questions about human
a. Human society is nature and the
disorganized and chaotic, responsibilities of the citizen
and for that reason, d. Enlightenment thinkers
governments are required to looked to the works of
maintain order Copernicus and Galileo, as
b. People have the natural right Newton had, when seeking
to rule themselves because answers about the nature of
they are capable of using art and religion
their powers of reason to
understand their world
c. The scientific method can
unlock the mysteries in the
natural world
d. Government should operate
in separate branches: one to
write the laws, one to carry
them out, and one to 24. During the early Revolutionary
interpret them. period, American colonists used many
methods to show their opposition to
22. John Locke believed that the British taxation. Which method did
government had an obligation to the they use to show their opposition to
people it governed to protect their taxes imposed by the British
natural rights. If the government failed government?
to do this, then the people had the a. American colonists
right to boycotted British goods,
a. Move to another country such as sugar and tea
b. Refuse to vote in the next b. American colonists carried
election out a plan to overthrow King
c. Overthrow the government George III
d. Continue to be persecuted c. American colonists
demanded seats in
Parliament, which led to the
23. The discoveries of Isaac Newton creation of the National
had a major influence on Assembly
Enlightenment thinkers. In what way d. Americans distributed copies
was this influence so significant? of the Declaration of the
a. Enlightenment thinkers Rights of Man and of the
attempted to base their Citizen among the 13
philosophies on religious colonies
tradition
b. Enlightenment thinkers 25. These are the three locations in
studied Newtons writings which the Seven Years War was
about the freedom of human fought.
beings and the proper role of a. Europe, North America and
kings and governments India
c. Enlightenment thinkers b. North America, South
employed Newtons scientific America, and India
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

c. Europe, India, and Africa


d. India, Africa, and Japan 30. The willingness of people to hand
over their rights to a ruler in exchange
for law and order in society was called
the
a. Scientific method
b. Magna Carta
26. Montesquieu believed that to c. Enlightenment
prevent tyranny in government there d. Social contract
should be a separation of powers.
Which of the following best illustrates 31. The philosopher who believed that
this idea? all people are born free and equal,
a. Absolute power in the with the rights to life, liberty, and
executive branch property was
b. Splitting power among three a. John Locke
or more countries b. Thomas Hobbes
c. Total power in the legislative c. Galileo Galilei
branch d. Baron de Montesquieu
d. Dividing power among three
branches of government 32. The group of social critics in
Enlightenment France were called
27. Which of the following is not an a. Satirists
idea from the Enlightenment? b. Philosophes
a. People have natural c. Stoics
rights d. Revolutionaries
b. Problems can be
solved by using
reason 33. Upon whose ideas is our Bill of
c. Kings ruled by divine Rights based?
right a. Montesquieu
d. Government should b. Locke
serve the people c. Hobbes
d. Voltaire
28. The major contribution of the
Enlightenment philosophers was the 34. Brilliant French satirist who
introduction of new ideas about frequently targeted the clergy,
a. Government aristocracy, and the government was
b. Economics a. Thomas Hobbes
c. Religion b. Baron de Montesquieu
d. Science c. Voltaire
d. John Locke
29. The new intellectual movement
that stressed reason and thought and 35. An influential French writer who
the power of an individual to solve wrote that Power should be a check
problems was the to power was
a. Scientific Revolution a. Louis XIV
b. Enlightenment b. Voltaire
c. Great Awakening c. Thomas Hobbes
d. Geocentric theory d. Baron de Montesquieu
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

prosecute enemies of the French


36. French philosophe Jean Jacques Revolution.
Rousseau believed that the best form a. The Reign of Terror
of government would be a b. The Directory
a. Direct democracy c. The Enlightenment
b. Constitutional monarchy d. The National Assembly
c. Dictatorship
d. Republic 40. This was the name for the lower
class that ran the Paris Commune.
a. Paris Communists
37. Womens contributions to the b. The Directory
Enlightenment included all of the c. The sans culottes
following EXCEPT d. The philosophes
a. Urging women to enter
male-dominated fields 41. What is a coup detat?
b. Writing about the a. A revolution
inequalities between men b. A salon
and women c. An overthrow of the
c. Running for office government
d. Holding social gatherings d. The Paris Commune
called salons for influential
people 42. When power is shared between
the state and federal government it is
38. Enlightenment philosophes such called what?
as John Locke and Jean Jacques a. A federal system
Rousseau wrote that the relationship b. A coup detat
between citizens and their c. Separate, but equal
government was a social contract. d. Nationalism
Which statement describes the impact
of the idea of government as social
contract on the French Revolution in
1789? 43. What was one idea that the
a. The king granted women the leaders of the American Revolution
right to vote shared with Enlightenment thinkers?
b. French citizens claimed their a. Colonies exist to provide raw
natural rights materials and markets for
c. The king raised taxes to pay mother countries
off public debt b. The people have the right to
d. French citizens supported overthrow their government
the king against the nobles if it abuses its powers
c. Governments may restrict
freedom of speech and of
the press during times of
crisis
d. Factories and businesses
should be owned by the
39. This was the period under government rather than by
Maximillien Robespierre when individuals
revolutionary courts were set up to
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

44. What action by the leaders of the a. Voltaire


French Revolution demonstrates that b. John Locke
they were influenced by c. Montesquieu
Enlightenment ideas? d. Rousseau
a. They called for the fall of the
absolute monarchy 48. Many Latin American nations
b. They encouraged the gained their independence early in the
conquests of Napoleon 19th century. The relationship between
c. They fought to maintain the people and their government
Frances colonial empire changed. Slavery existed under
d. They supported the colonial governments, but some of the
combination of church and new nations, such as Haiti, did not
state permit slavery. The abolition of slavery
was based on Enlightenment ideas of
a. Liberty as a natural rights of
man
b. Separation of government
powers
45. In exploring the relationship c. Personal rights as less
between governments and people, important than civil order
Thomas Hobbes argued that d. The authority of absolute
governments resulted from a social monarchs
contract to maintain and orderly
society. John Locke, another 49. Natural law was a fundamental
philosopher of the Enlightenment, idea of the Enlightenment.
inspired American revolutionaries by
arguing that a new social contract Which concept is an application of
could be instituted under what natural law to the governments role in
circumstance? the economic lives of its citizens?
a. If a government failed to a. Free markets based on
compel obedience supply and demand
b. If a government violated b. Government control to
peoples natural rights achieve a favorable balance
c. If a government failed to of trade
protect people from c. Agriculture based on tenant
economic inequality farming and serfdom
d. If a government entered into d. Lower taxes on the most
alliances with foreign privileged groups in society
governments

46. Where was Marie Antoinette from? 50. Enlightenment philosophes such
a. France as John Locke and Jean Jacques
b. Britain Rousseau challenged the idea of the
c. Canada divine right of kings. They wrote about
d. Austria a governments obligations to uphold
peoples rights and how the
47. This philosophe studied government should be based on the
government and devised the idea of a consent of the governed.
separation of powers.
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

These new ideas encouraged people b. They supported movements


to for social and political
a. Remain firm in their support change
of absolute monarchs c. They encouraged the
b. Look for leaders who would formation of American and
exercise dictatorial powers French constitutional
c. Engage in revolutions to monarchies
establish democratic d. They supported the efforts of
governments governments to maintain
d. Call for church leaders to control over their subjects
create theocracies and
replace the monarchies.

51. ______________________ is the only


system of government in which
monarchy is the only source of power
a. Absolutism 54. According to the concept of
b. Dictatorship absolutism
c. Democracy a. there is no absolute authority
d. Commonwealth in society
b. people have absolute power in
government
c. people have the right to
overthrow absolute
monarchies
d. authority had absolute power
52. In Latin American society, this and could not be disobeyed
class of people are the most important
and have the most rights.
a. Creoles 55. Enlightened thinkers believed
b. Mestizos society was governed by
c. Mulattos a. religion
d. Peninsulares b. a social contract
c. scientific inquiry
53. During the Enlightenment, a d. political philosophers
number of writers explored the
relationship between governments 56. Isaac Newton was a
and the people they governed. For mathematician and a scientist.
example, Rousseau wrote The Social Newtons discovery of the laws of
Contract, in which he examined ideas motion and universal gravitation
about majority will and the common helped to advance the scientific
good. revolution of the time. Newton and
other enlightened thinkers believed
How did these ideas influence the truth could be found through
American and French Revolutions? a. the study of philosophy
a. They encouraged loyalty to b. the application of reason
established governments c. strict obedience to authority
d. the study of religious
doctrines
Multiple Choice Questions: The Enlightenment and
Revolutions

63. Early proponent of womens rights


a. Voltaire
b. Montesquieu
c. Mary Wollstonecraft
57. Earth-centered theory of the d. Catherine the Great
universe
a. geocentric theory 64. Intellectual movement that
b. heliocentric theory stressed reason and thought and the
c. scientific method power of individuals to solve problems
d. Aristotles Theory a. individualism
b. Enlightenment
58. A new way of thinking about the c. Intellectualism
natural world based on careful d. Salons
observation and a willingness to
question accepted beliefs 65. Thomas Hobbes called the
a. geocentric theory agreement by which people create a
b. heliocentric theory government the ___________
c. scientific method a. salon
d. Scientific Revolution b. Enlightenment
c. checks and balances
59. A logical procedure for gathering d. social contract
and testing scientific data.
a. geocentric theory
b. heliocentric theory
c. scientific method
d. Scientific Revolution

60. Russian empress who was


considered an enlightened despot
a. Catherine the Great
b. Mary Wollstonecraft
c. Votaire
d. Queen Elizabeth I

61. Which of the ideas does not


belong?
a. natural rights
b. checks and balances
c. social contract
d. Bill of Rights
62. In social gatherings called
___________, wealthy hostesses of Paris
helped spread the ideas of the
Enlightenment to educated Europeans.
a. salons
b. sans culottes
c. philosophes
d. neoclassical