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SHUANGLIANG KNOWLEDGE SHARING PROGRAM

Presented By : Imdad Hussain (Services Manager)

REFRIGERATION
What does refrigeration mean?
Refrigeration means to get the heat away from a place, and to keep that place
remain at a lower temperature than the environment.

How does heat transfer from one place to another?


We all know that heat is transferred from place A to place B, when the
temperature in place A is higher than the temperature in place B.

Place A heat Environment Place A heat Place B


Place B 7
20 20
40

Refrigerating Heat transfer

Cooling
Cycles

Low Pressure refrigerant (Evaporator ) is transformed to high


pressure Vapors (Condenser)

Vapor Compression Vapor Absorption

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Vapor Compression System

Uses compressor for transferring low pressure refrigerant vapors from Evaporator to Condenser.
Source of Energy - Electrical
Refrigerant - Commercial Grade

Condenser

Refrigerant
Storage

Compressor
Expansion
Valve

Evaporator

Refrigerant = H2O

Pressure Temperature
101 kPa (760mmHg) 100
84 kPa (634mmHg) 95
6.9 kPa (52.4mmHg) 39
1 kPa (7.51mmHg) 7
0.87 kPa (6.54mmHg) 5
0.75 kPa (5.68mmHg) 3

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3
4
WORKING PRINCIPLE (Single Effect)

WORKING PRINCIPLE (Double Effect)

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Steam operated double effect LiBr absorption chiller

LP Condenser
HP Generator
Generator

Evaporator
Purging
system

Heat
exchanger

Absorber

Steam operated double effect LiBr absorption chiller


HP Generator LP Generator Condenser

Evaporator

Absorber

Heat
exchanger

Evaporator - Absorber
Absorber Eliminator Evaporator Eliminator Absorber

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- Evaporator - Absorber
Evaporator Refrigerant tube

Distribution plate

Refrigerant pan

Heat transfer tube


Refrigerant chamber

Evaporator - Absorber
Absorber Absorber
Solution spraying
tube
Solution spraying
tube

Distribution plate Distribution plate

Heat transfer tube


Heat transfer tube

Absorption
chamber

Evaporator - Absorber

Purging Purging
tube tube

Flashed vapor
tube

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Evaporator - Absorber
Absorber Eliminator Evaporator Eliminator Absorber Refrigerant tube

Solution Solution spraying


spraying tube tube

Distribution Distribution plate


plate
Distribution plate

Purging Purging tube


tube
Heat transfer tube

heat transfer tube


Refrigerant water pan

Heat transfer tube Flashed vapor tube

Absorption Refrigerant
chamber water chamber

HP generator of Steam Operated


Double Effect Chiller

Steam inlet

Heat transfer tube Condensate


outlet

HP generator of Steam Operated


Double Effect Chiller

Refrigerant vapor box

Steam inlet

Strong solution chamber Level indicator Heat exchanger Condensate outlet

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LP generator - condenser
Supporting plate Condenser

LP generator

LP generator - condenser
Eliminator Condenser

LP generator

LP generator - condenser

LP generator

Solution
inlet tube

Heat
transfer tube

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LP generator - condenser
Condenser Heat transfer tube

- LP generator - condenser

Purging
tube

Non-condensable
gas box

LP generator - condenser
Eliminator Condenser Heat transfer tube

LP generator
Purging
tube

Solution
inlet tube

Non-
condensable
Heat transfer gas box
tube

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Heat Exchanger

B out Heat transfer tube

A in
A out

B in

Cut-off vacuum valve structure

I-model cut-off vacuum valve is used to connect the purging pipe.

Cut-off vacuum valve structure

II-model vacuum valve is used to connect the outside as the sampling valve.

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Regulating valve structure

Operation of Starting up

.
1 switch on the air break in the control panel
2 start chilled water pump and adjust the chilled water flow to nominal
value
3 start cooling water pump and adjust the cooling water flow to nominal
value
4 Open the manual steam valve, when the condensate was drained.
5 press the key system start, confirmation and reconfirmation on
touch screen and put the chiller into operation condition.
6 Start the fan of cooling tower and adjust the cooling water flow to
control the cooling water outlet temperature in the limits of 36-38
degree.
7 check the chiller operation periodically and take records each 2 hours

Operation of Shut down


1 Close the steam manual valve, and press the key
system stop, then chiller will be put into dilution
operation.
2 stop the fan of cooling tower
3 The refrigerant pump will be stopped automatically when
detected solution concentration reach 58%.
4 When detected solution concentration reaches 56%,
solution pump will stop automatically, and chiller be
stopped condition.
5 after 3 minutes of chiller stopped, stop cooling water
pump firstly, then stop chilled water pump.
6 cut the power supply from control panel.

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Dilution Cycle

The control system monitors the


concentration of concentrated
solution to calculate the
optimized dilution cycle to stay
under preferred solution
concentration during shut down
(56%), thus not only to prevent
crystallization but also to
decrease the restart time

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

Failure management system

When the failure of the


unit occurs, the location,
reason and remedy of the
failure shall be displayed
by means of interface,
thus makes the operator
to treat the failure
conditions easier and
quicker.

The control system also


keeps in the memory
contents of last 5 failures
for check at any time

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

Operation of torque wrench

1. Allowable torque limits for the valve stem is 40Nm for type DN10 and 70Nm
for type DN25.
2. Preset torque: Turn the handle, the dial disk will be revolved accordingly,
stop at the place, where the required torque is at the red division on the dial
disk. Then fix the torque by turning the rear cover in the direction of arrow to
stop.
3. Apply the wrench with preset torque to the valve stem, turn it in the direction
smoothly. The valve is closed, when click sound is taken place, or the
hand feeling became different than before. The operation is finished at this
moment. Stop applying force, and keep the original position of wrench.
4. After the operation, the torque setting should be restored to the minimum
value for store the wrench.

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Block Diagram Control System

Temperature Signals

The sensor measure the temperature and generate the control


signal. In the moment, the Platinum resistance (PT-100) is used as
temperature sensor.

Platinum resistance measures the temperature by the changing of


resistance, which will be displayed by the secondary instrument.

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

Pressure Signals 4 20 mA

These are of diaphragm capacitor type


which based on the displacement of
diaphragm in proportion with pressure .
This displacement of detecting diaphragm
change electric capacity and capacitive
output forms electric current output with
the aid of electric circuit.

The transformed sensor electric current


output can be used for following:

a) Adjust the frequency of inverter for


regulating the solution flow, or can be used
to adjust the opening of steam valve for
regulating steam supply

b) Monitoring of auto purging unit pressure


signals

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

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HP Generator Level signals

The changing of cooling capacity


causes the fluctuation of solution
level in HP generator, when
cooling load is increased, the fuel
valve will opened widely.

With the increase of fuel quantity,


the refrigerant vapor will be
generated more, and solution
level in HP Generator will be
reduced .

For maintaining the level in HPG,


the float less level controller
interlocked with PLC and inverter
are used.

Pressure signal of HP Generator is


also associated with level control

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

Steam / Hot Water Flow Control Valve Signals

Motorized valves can accept the


standard signal of 4 ~ 20 mADC

Main Electric Supply for this valve is


24 VAC. So chiller is equipped with
Step Down Transformer (220VAC to
24 VAC)

Control System of Shuangliang absorption Chillers / Heaters

Electrical Actuator
RA-3000Electrical Actuator Inner Sketch

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Steam / Hot water Valve Reset Mean

Valves are provided with Reset Means which close the


steam valve in case of power failure to protect the
chiller from damage (Crystallization of HP Generator)

It can store electricity for approximately 5 minutes

Troubles

Unload trouble
Dilution and shutdown trouble
Shutdown trouble

Unload trouble
If any abnormal phenomena below occurs, chiller will be
unloaded firstly (Burner stop for direct-fired). If chiller
system still does not turn well after 10-minute unloading,
control system will alarm immediately and automatically
shut down chiller after turning into dilution operation.
(1) Failure of cooling water
(2) High HP generator solution temperature
(3) High HP generator pressure
(4) High flue gas outlet temperature
(5) Low cooling water temperature
(6) High de-crystallization pipe temperature
(7) High hot water temperature (heating model)

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Dilution and shutdown trouble

 over current of refrigerant water pump


Alarm immediately and shut down after dilution
operation
 burner troubles
Alarm immediately and shut down after dilution
operation
 over current of vacuum pump
Alarm immediately and stop the vacuum pump

Shutdown trouble

When any following severe trouble occurs,


chiller will alarm instantly and shut down
emergently.

(1) Low chilled water temperature


(2) Failure of chilled (hot) water
(3) Low refrigerant water temperature
(4) Trouble in inverter

Monthly Inspection

 Chilled water and cooling water pH values and water


quality

 Cleaning of filters (gas filter, oil filter, chilled water /


cooling water strainers

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Yearly Inspection

 Clean heat transfer tubes


 Analyze LiBr solution

Vacuum pump maintenance

Measuring the limit vacuum by Mcleod gauge.


1. connect Mcleod vacuum gauge to sampling valve, and
keep lower purging valve on closing position.
2. Run vacuum pump for 3 minutes, if the pressure is less
than 30 Pa, Vacuum pump is satisfied.
3. For long time evacuation and avoiding the oil
emulsification, the vacuum pump should be operated
idly to warming up, then open the purge valve. Before
shutdown the vacuum pump, it also needs to work idly
for several minutes to discharge the water vapor, which
mixed with the oil.

Vacuum pump maintenance

4 Check constantly for oil level and preventing the oil


emulsification. The oil level should in the middle of sight
glass, and drain the emulsified oil or water .Then add
the new oil.

5 If lithium bromide solution comes into the vacuum pump


due to accidental operation, then contaminated oil
should be drained and pump washed by running the
pump repeatedly for a short time to discharge out the
rest of solution. Wash vacuum pump by vacuum pump
oil.

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Block Diagram Control System