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OMAE2014

June 8-13, 2014, San Francisco, California, USA

OMAE2014-23987

BP America BP America

Houston, TX, USA Houston, TX, USA

2H Offshore 2H Offshore 2H Offshore

Houston, TX, USA Houston, TX, USA Houston, TX, USA

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

In support of its commitment to safe and reliable Over the past ten years, BP has run a monitoring program

operations, BP has been continuously developing a program to to assess and maintain structural integrity for offshore risers and

assess and maintain structural integrity for offshore drilling conductors, to support safe and reliable operations. The

risers and conductors. This paper presents recent efforts by BP, structural response, including the fatigue damage, of multiple

in conjunction with 2H Offshore, to develop a new fatigue BP drilling risers and conductors are monitored using

monitoring methodology for drilling riser systems due to both acceleration data loggers and/or strain gauges.

wave and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV) damage.

To date, the focus for riser systems has predominantly been

BP has been monitoring structural response, including the on determining the fatigue damage due to VIV ([1], [2], [3],

fatigue damage, of riser systems in the Gulf of Mexico over the [4]), since VIV and its effects on structural response are

past ten years. To date, the focus has predominantly been on considered a not well-understood phenomenon. The so called,

determining the fatigue damage due to VIV, since VIV and its measured fatigue damage due to VIV is typically calculated

effects on structural response are considered a not well- by mode shape reconstruction in the frequency domain, using

understood phenomenon. In addition to VIV fatigue, direct the logged accelerations at various riser locations ([1], [5], [6]).

wave loading and vessel motions also contribute to the total In addition to VIV fatigue, direct wave loading and vessel

fatigue damage, and sometimes wave fatigue may have a larger motions also contribute to the total fatigue damage. Sometimes

contribution than VIV fatigue damage. Therefore, it is wave fatigue may have more contributions than VIV fatigue

necessary to determine fatigue due to both wave and VIV damage, especially in shallow water depths and/or wave

effects to confirm the long-term fatigue integrity of the drilling dominant conditions, such as hurricanes or winter storms.

risers. Another area of interest is the fatigue monitoring on the

wellhead, as wellhead fatigue is acknowledged as a technical

To take full advantage of the accumulated monitoring data, challenge in the industry. BP is developing a wellhead

a new fatigue monitoring methodology was developed using an monitoring system for instrumentation and data interpretation

analytical solution to account for the damage due to both wave on a real time basis. A simpler, more robust prototype system is

and VIV effects. With this method, the measured acceleration currently in development. More information can be found in

data are converted into curvature, and then fatigue damage [7], and this paper focuses on a new fatigue monitoring

along the length of riser and conductor are calculated. This new methodology for riser systems.

methodology has been validated with both finite element

analysis (FEA) and field data, and sensitivities to various Figure 1 shows the relation between median RMS

parameters have been considered. accelerations from the loggers along the riser and significant

wave heights for a period while the riser is connected. Figure 2

shows the median RMS accelerations and current for the same

period. As shown in the figures, the correlation between

acceleration and wave height indicates that most of the time the

1 Copyright 2014 by ASME

acceleration is correlated to wave, instead of current. In this

example, the maximum acceleration occurs on October 2nd, 1/

when the highest wave is also observed. The contribution of

wave induced fatigue to the total fatigue damage is material and

should be considered. To confirm the long-term fatigue

integrity, it is necessary to determine fatigue due to both wave

and VIV effects.

Figure 3 Illustration of Riser Acceleration and Curvature

This paper presents recent efforts by BP, in conjunction

with 2H Offshore, to develop a new fatigue monitoring 2 y ( x, t )

methodology for drilling riser systems accounting for both wave

a( x, t ) =

t 2

and vortex-induced-vibration (VIV) damage. With this method,

the measured acceleration data are converted into curvature The curvature in the vicinity of the logger can be expressed as

with analytical transfer function, and then fatigue damage along

the length of riser and conductor can be calculated. This new 2 y ( x, t )

( x, t )

methodology has been validated with both finite element s 2

analysis (FEA) and field data, and the sensitivity to various

parameters, such as added mass and tension, has been where s is the arc length of the riser. Application of Fourier

considered. Transform to the two equations above with cancellation of the

variable y(x,t) yields

domain. By reverse Fourier Transform, the curvature of the riser

at the logger location is therefore:

( x, t ) = IFFT{FFT[a( x, t )] * c( )}

spectrum of the acceleration. The transfer function decreases

with increased frequency, but remains relatively stable within

the wave frequency range.

Figure 1 Illustration of Riser Acceleration vs. Wave Height

-4

x 10 Wave Fatigue Study

Transfer Function Amplitude (sec^2/m^2)

4 400

Transfer Function

Acceleration

Acceleration Amplitude

(m/s^2)

2 200

0 0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5

Frequency (Hz)

Figure 4 Transfer Function

Figure 2 Illustration of Riser Acceleration vs. Current

Once the curvature time traces are known, stress time traces at

FATIGUE MONITORING METHODOLOGY the outer fiber of the riser pipe can be evaluated from the

An analytical transfer function is derived to correlate the expression below:

accelerations with the curvature of riser at the data logger D

locations. Assuming an acceleration data logger is installed at ( x, t ) = ( x, t ) E

point B on a riser segment OA, as illustrated in Figure 3, the 2

lateral acceleration a(x,t) is the second derivative of the lateral where D is the outer diameter of the riser pipe at the logger

displacement y(x,t) in time domain, or location.

2 Copyright 2014 by ASME

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS VALIDATION Joint Name

No. of

Jt ID

Joint Elevation

In order to validate the new methodology, the finite element Jts Length from ML

analysis is performed with specified input parameters, including - - inch feet feet

environment data, riser configuration, mud weight, and tension. LP Housing - - - 10

The commercial FEA package of FLEXCOM 7.9 is used for HP Wellhead - - 13 13

this study. The outputs from FEA, especially the curvature BOP 1 18 32 45

along the riser string, are compared with results by the new LMRP 1 18 25.9 70.9

methodology. The advantage of using FEA results to validate LFJ 6.0 KSI 1 0 0.1 71

the methodology is that there is no noise and g-contamination in Slick 0.875in WT 14 19.25 75 1121

the accelerations and curvature time traces. There are also no 7Kft buoy X0.875 13 19.25 75 2096

uncertainties in the added mass and tension values. In addition, 5Kft buoy X0.875 15 19.25 75 3221

the validation can be carried out along the entire riser length 4Kft buoy X0.875 15 19.25 75 4346

instead of the logger locations.

3Kft buoy X0.875 5 19.25 75 4721

40ft Pup x 0.875 1 19.25 40 4761

The riser configuration for the FEA validation is shown in

20ft Pup x 0.875 1 19.25 20 4781

Figure 5, and the details of the joints are given in Table 1. A sea

5ft Pup x 0.875 1 19.25 5 4786

state with a significant wave height (Hs) of 6.56 feet and a peak

period (Tp) of 7.6 seconds is selected, since this sea state Telescopic OB 1 22 72.1 4858.1

causes the largest fatigue damage on riser compared with other Telescopic IB 1 19.25 43.9 4902

sea states from the metocean data. An added mass coefficient of Spool 1 19.25 10 4912

1.0 is considered for both the FEA and analytical transfer UFJ Extension 1 19.25 11 4923

methodology (ATM). A drag diameter of 34.5 inches for slick UFJ + Diverter 1 0 14.1 4937.1

joint and 54 inches for buoyant joint is considered for both Table 1 Riser Configuration Details for FEA Validation

methods.

A time trace of the curvature obtained from the analytical

transfer method is compared with that obtained from FEA

output, as shown in Figure 6. The curvature from the analytical

transfer method matches well with FEA results for both the

phase response and the curvature amplitudes.

length in Figure 7. The standard deviations of the curvature

from FLEXCOM and the analytical transfer method agree along

the riser length except the top 60 feet zone that is close to the

tension ring where the joint dimension is modeled slightly

different in both methods. The top slick joints below the outer

barrel consist of three pup joints: 40 feet, 20 feet and 5 feet.

The top element in Figure 7 is right below the outer barrel. The

outer barrel OD is 25 inches, while the top pup joint has a drag

OD of 23.4 inches. The drag OD the pup joints are chosen

according to given dry and wet weight. The ATM method

considers the properties at the interface of two different joints,

which cause the results to be slightly different from the FEA

method.

Analytical Transfer Method

3 Copyright 2014 by ASME

Figure 7 Variation of Curvature Standard Deviation along Riser

Length

The validation of the methodology is also conducted using

field measurement data. Both the acceleration and strain are

measured by 12 InTEGRIpod motion loggers and 2

INTEGRIstick strain gauges, at specific locations along the

riser string. The measured accelerations are used as input to

calculate curvature data by the analytical transfer methodology,

which are then compared with the ones obtained from the strain Figure 8 Riser Configuration for Staggered Joints

gauge sensor at the same location.

and buoyant joints, is shown in Table 2 and Figure 8. During the

operation period, the drilling water depth is 6823 feet with a top

tension of 1685 kips and a mud weight of 10.8 ppg. The

accelerometer and the strain gauge sensor are located on the

bottom end of the 6th joint above lower flex-joint, about 5 feet

above the joint interface, as shown in Figure 9. The structural

OD at the sensor location is 21 inches, while the inertia OD of

41 inches considers the presence of riser fins and auxiliary

lines.

Joint Name

Joints Length from ML

- - ft ft

BOP 75

Slick Joint 2 75 225

Staggered Joint (1

11 150 1875

buoyancy + a Slick)

Buoyancy Joint 47 75 5400

Staggered Joint (1

8 150 6600

buoyancy + a Slick)

Slick Joint 2 75 6750 Figure 9 IntegriSTICK curvature sensor mounted on slick

Pup 1 30 6780 riser joint with fins

Pup 1 5 6785

A period between Jan 15th and 17th is selected for field data

Water Depth 6823 validation, since the riser response for this period is mostly due

Table 2 Riser Configuration for Staggered Joints to wave motion. Figure 10 shows the median riser acceleration

response during this period. Figure 11 and Figure 12 shows the

curvature and acceleration in frequency domain, respectively.

4 Copyright 2014 by ASME

Figure 10 Field Measured Acceleration vs. Time Including Figure 13 Curvature Comparison between Analytical Transfer

Identified VIV Events Method and Field Data In Time Serial

above the joint interface, and the joint below this slick joint is a

buoyancy joint. Field added mass and equivalent OD are not

clearly known, especially at the location of the strain gauge

sensor which is located 5 ft above the transition between the

buoyancy joint and the slick joint with fins. At this location the

hydrodynamic effects of buoyancy and slick joints coexist.

Therefore, it is challenging to define the correct hydrodynamic

properties for this formulation at this elevation. The standard

deviation of the curvature around the pipe circumference is

compared between the analytical transfer methodology and that

from the field strain gauge. As shown in Figure 14, the

analytical transfer methodology matches the field data well,

considering a drag diameter of 54 inches and an added mass

coefficient of 1.73 for the slick joint. Note the solution is not

Figure 11 Curvature Obtained from Measured Strain Data

unique, as the curvature results also match well with a drag

diameter of 41 inches and an added mass coefficient of 3.0 for

the slick joint. The comparison for various drag diameters and

added mass coefficients are summarized in Table 3.

the analytical transfer method and the strain gauge

measurement. The stress derived from the strain gauge sensor is Figure 14 Curvature Comparison between Analytical Transfer

used to obtain the field curvature. The curvature time traces Method and Field Data On Cross Section

from the two sources match well, as zoomed between 200 and

600 seconds. The low frequency contents below 0.05Hz in the

curvatures are filtered.

Added Mass Coefficient

Inertia OD Curvature Standard Deviation Joint Type

Added

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Mass Slick A 0.82 1.0 1.18 1.35

Wave Fatigue Strain Data

Coeff. Ratio Slick B 0.82 1.0 1.18 1.35

(in) Method (x1E-5 (x1E-5

(100%) Slick C 0.82 1.0 1.18 1.36

1/m) 1/m)

Slick D 0.82 1.0 1.18 1.36

41 1.0 0.70 53

Buoyant E 0.76 1.0 1.24 1.48

41 2.0 1.00 76

Buoyant F 0.76 1.0 1.24 1.48

41 3.0 1.28 97

1.32 Table 4 Variation of Normalized Curvature Standard Deviation

54 1.0 0.92 70 with Added Mass Coefficient

54 1.8 1.32 100

54 2.0 1.41 107 Measured riser tension and mud weight in the field may not

Table 3 Results for various Drag Diameter and Added Mass always be 100% accurate. Hence, the curvature standard

Coefficient deviations are also compared for different top tensions. The top

tension of about 1800 kips is increased and decreased 50 kips

and the corresponding curvature change is shown in Figure 16.

SENSITIVITY STUDY AND DISCUSSION For a constant tension change along the riser length, the

The curvature using field data is affected by signal noise, curvature standard deviation shifts by a constant. Considering

sensor orientation, local tension at the strain gauge sensor, the averaged tension and curvature standard deviation along the

added mass, and the alternation of the buoyancy and bare joints. riser, the normalized tension and curvature standard deviation

The added mass and associated hydrodynamic diameter are not as a factor of the base case is given in Table 5. Every 1% of

known, therefore the sensitivity of the curvature from the ATM tension change in the riser leads to about 1% of change in

to these parameters is studied in this section. curvature standard deviation.

added mass coefficient in the analytical transfer method is

shown in Figure 15. The added mass coefficient is given as 1.0

for all riser joints in Flexcom, while it is varied between 0.5 and

2.0 in the analytical transfer method. The variation of standard

deviations at six typical locations of the riser (A through F) is

plotted against the added mass coefficient, as shown in Figure

15, and normalized as a factor of the base case in Table 4.

Compared with the base case with Ca=1.0, the curvature

standard deviation of the slick joints (A, B, C, D) increases

about 3.6% for every increment of 0.1 (or 10%) in added mass

coefficient, while increases about 4.8% for buoyant joints (E

and F).

Tension

Top Tension

Length - 50kips +50kips

Normalized Average

0.96 1 1.04

Tension

Normalized Average

1.04 1 0.96

Curvature Deviation

Table 3 Sensitivity of Top Tension

gravity (g-contamination), and it may affect the curvature

Figure 15 Sensitivity of Curvature Standard Deviation to accuracy if not well understood. By retrieving the riser tilt angle

Added Mass Coefficient at any given location from the FEA model, the acceleration of

gravity, g, can be projected into the accelerations as controlled

g-contamination, which is compared with the accelerations from

FEA output to analyze the percentage and sensitivity. In time

domain, accelerations with and without g-contamination are

6 Copyright 2014 by ASME

compared and shown in Figure 17. A maximum g-contamination thanks to 2H Offshore engineers who did the data analyses

of 14% of the acceleration standard deviation is found along the documented in this paper.

riser length. The g-contamination is found negligible. Note

however that for applications where higher dynamic riser angles REFERENCES

are expected, the g-contamination can be removed through the

use of angular rate measurements. 1. Shilling, R., Campbell, M., and Howells, H. (2005).

Drilling riser vortex induced vibration analysis

calibration using full scale field data. Proc. 2005

Deepwater Offshore Tech Conf. Vitoria, Espirito

Santo, Brazil.

2. Beynet, P.A., Shilling, R, and Campbell, M. (2008).

Full Scale VIV Response Measurements of a Drill

Pipe in Gulf of Mexico Loop Currents. Proc. 27th

OMAE Conf. Estoril. OMAE 2008-57610.

3. Tognarelli, M.A., Taggart S., and Campbell, M.

(2008). Actual VIV Fatigue Response Of Full Scale

Drilling Risers: With and Without Suppression

Devices. Proc. 27th OMAE Conf. Estoril. OMAE

2008-57046.

4. Taggart, S. and Tognarelli, M.A. (2008). Offshore

drilling riser VIV suppression devices Whats

available to operators? Proc. 27th OMAE Conf.

Figure 16 G-Contamination Effect on Acceleration Standard

Estoril. OMAE 2008-57047.

Deviation

5. Thethi, R., Howells, H., Natarajan, S., Bridge, C.

(2005). A Fatigue Monitoring Strategy &

CONCLUSIONS

Implementation on a Deepwater Top Tensioned

To take full advantage of the accumulated monitoring data,

Riser. Proc. 2005 Offshore Tech. Conf. Houston, Tx.

a new fatigue monitoring methodology was developed using

OTC 17248.

analytical acceleration to curvature transfer function to account

6. Kaasen, K., Lie, H., Solaas, F., Vandiver, K. (2000).

for the fatigue damage due to both wave and VIV effects.

NDP: Analysis of VIV of Marine Risers Based on

Full-Scale Measurements Proc. 2005 Offshore Tech.

This new methodology has been validated very well with

Conf. Houston, Tx. OTC 11997.

finite element analysis (FEA) method, by comparing curvature

7. Forman, P., Walker, D., Henderson, J., Maher, J.,

distribution. The advantage of using FEA results to validate the

(2013). Overview of Wellhead Fatigue Monitoring.

methodology is that there is no noise, g-contamination, and

Offshore Engineer, October, 2013.

added mass and tension uncertainty in the accelerations and

curvature time traces.

the calculated fatigue is sensitive to added mass and drag

diameter, but not g-contamination. With a drag diameter of 54

in and an added mass of 1.8, the proposed method matches well

with the measured field data. A standardized approach for

selecting the added mass coefficient and hydrodynamic

diameter is the subject of ongoing work.

from a riser system with continuous buoyancy or slick joints are

preferred to better understand the effect of the total added mass,

which is dependent on the added mass coefficient, Ca and the

drag diameter. In addition, a more detailed and complicated

CFD simulation may be conducted to investigate the actual drag

affect and added mass effect. Extra strain sensors on different

locations and a non-staggered riser configuration would also

assist in further validation of this methodology.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank the management of BP for permission to

publish this paper. In addition, the authors wish to express

7 Copyright 2014 by ASME

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