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INDIAN ETHOS, NEED, PURPOSE & RELEVANCE OF INDIAN


ETHOS
ETHICS
Ethics is a set of standards, or a code or value system, worked out from human reason and
experience, by which free human actions are determined as ultimately right or wrong, good or
evil

ETHOS
Ethos is the moral ideas and attitude that belong to a particular group or society.

Ethos is a discipline that examines ones morality or the moral standard of the society. Ethics
means expected standards in terms of your personal and social welfare. It includes honesty,
morality, responsibility etc.

Definition

Ethos is a term with Greek origins, and it refers to the morals, values and beliefs of a
person, or even an entire culture.

Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary defines Ethos as the set of beliefs, ideas,
etc. about social behavior and relationship of a person or group

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines it as the moral ideas and attitudes that
belong to a particular group or society.

ETHOS IN MANAGEMENT
The body of knowledge which derives its solutions from the rich and huge Indian system of
ethics (moral philosophy) is known as Indian Ethos in Management (IEM).

PURPOSE OF INDIAN ETHOS


To develop proper management

To ensure all round development

Work sincerely

Productivity of human being


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MANAGEMENT APPLICABILITY OF INDIAN ETHOS


All work is an opportunity for doing good to the world and thus gaining materially and
spiritually in our lives

Worship people not only with material things but also by showing respect to their
enterprising divinity within.

Strength and inspiration for excelling in work comes from the Divine, God within,
through prayer, spiritual readings and unselfish work.

He who works with calm and even mind achieves the most.

As we think, so we succeed, so we become. Attention to means ensures the end.

By mutual cooperation, respect and fellow feeling, all of us enjoy the highest good both
material and spiritual.

Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to them who see the Divine in all beings.

Regard the other person as a divine being. All of us have the same consciousness though
our packages and containers are different.

FEATURES OF INDIAN ETHOS


Divinity of a human being is not merely a notion but a truth which can be experienced
in the stillness of the mind.
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Balance is the keynote of Indian thought. We have synthesis, harmony between the
dual concepts. The Individual is the central focus.

Devine element in the individual is only a portion of the universe of the Universal or
cosmic consciousness.

Gives greater emphasis on values, human and ethical. Knowledge is not Power.
Indian ethos is based on Indian scripture. Indian thoughts provide Eternal knowledge

All work is worthy and honorable.

Emphasis on duties and responsibilities.

Deals with two types of knowledge.

a) Knowledge of creation.

b) Knowledge of creator.

PRINCIPLES OF INDIAN ETHOS FOR MANAGEMENT (IEM):


Immense potential, energy and talents for perfection as human being has the spirit within
his heart.
Holistic approach indicating unity between the Divine (The Divine means perfection in
knowledge, wisdom and power), individual self and the universe.
Subtle, intangible subject and gross tangible objects are equally important. One must
develop ones Third Eye, Jnana Chaksu, the Eye of Wisdom, Vision, Insight and
Foresight. Inner resources are much more powerful than outer resources. Divine virtues
are inner resources. Capital, materials and plant & machinery are outer resources.
Karma Yoga (selfless work) offers double benefits, private benefit in the form of self-
purification and public benefit.
Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam - Excellence at work through self-motivation and self-
development t with devotion and without attachment.
Co-operation is a powerful instrument for team work and success in any enterprise
involving collective work.
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ELEMENT OF INDIAN ETHOS


Ego sublimation rather than ego assertion.

Sacrificing spirit rather than fighting spirit.

Team achievement rather than individual achievement.

Spiritual attainment rather than material prosperity.

Self-control rather than outside control.

Concept of duties rather than concept of rights.

Yielding rather than dominating.

Concern for this age world and improvement.

Respect for and search for all truth whatever be its source.
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NEED OF INDIAN ETHOS

RELEVANCE OF INDIAN ETHOS


Maintain holistic universe

Welfare

Unique work culture

Self-development

Provides concentration

Establish value system

USE/APPLICATIONS OF INDIAN ETHOS


Management Attitude Top management having firm belief in value-oriented holistic
management. Profit is earned through service and satisfaction of all stakeholders
employees, customers, shareholders and citizens. Fulfillment of social responsibility must
be ensured.

Humanising the Organisations Looking at the three aspects of humane organisations,


i.e., inter-personal relations, man-machine equation where man is the prime concern and
inner management through mental and spiritual growth of individuals.
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Interiorizing Management Self management or management by consciousness. When


the soul manages the other four members of the human being, namely, the body, mind,
intellect and the heart, the conflict these four have amongst them can be resolved. This is
management by consciousness. The objective of self-management is to first know and
manage oneself and then manage others.

Self-introspection Embark upon self-study, self-analysis and self-criticism to locate


areas of friction and disharmony, a self-examination of ones own thoughts, feelings,
emotions, sensations and passions and a desire to reduce and subdue the ego.

Brain-stilling For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a necessity. A perfect
Mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain-stilling or meditative
silence is the most reliable method to discover solutions to problems and difficulties
which seem to be difficult to be tackled by reason and intellect because through this one
can come into contact with the inner mind or higher consciousness called Chetana.

Stepping Back (for a while) Never decide anything, never speak a word, never throw
yourself into action without stepping-back. The stepping back from a situation for a while
enables one to control and master a situation.

Self-dynamising Meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of


lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence is called transforming
meditation.

Role of Intuition Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without
reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully
developed, is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition
skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes.

MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS REDEFINED


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WORK ETHOS
Work ethos or work culture refers to certain norms of behaviour governing the conduct of
workers involved in a work situation to achieve certain desired objectives. of other words, work
culture is the involvement of a workman with work. The degree of his involvement impacts his
performance; whether he gives high or low productivity, high or low quality.

WORK ETHOS WILL BE DIFFERENT AT DIFFERENT LEVELS:


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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR POOR WORK CULTURES IN AN ORGANIZATION


ARE:
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STEPS TAKEN BY MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE WORK CULTURE

Wages should be linked to productivity


Attendance bonus should be introduced
In organizations, the standing order copy should be given to every employee
Reward should be given to efficient workers
A prayer should be introduced to boost the morale of workers

DIMENSIONS OF WORK ETHOS


Rightful expectations

What does an employer want?

What are the traits of a winning employee?

Sense of loyalty towards the organization

Discipline

Ps of work ethics

Purposeyour purpose is the road you choose to travel, the meaning and direction of
your life. Its the driving force of why you do what you do. For some it may be rooted in
their spiritual faith. Others may find their purpose is something they feel called to do,
such as serving those in need, raising responsible children, or leaving the world a better
place than they found it. Aligning the activities of your life according to your purpose
gives you a clear sense of direction, so when youre faced with challenging circumstances
or difficult decisions, youre able to filter those occasions through the lens of your
purpose and make choices that keep you on track.
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Prideunlike false pride, which stems from a distorted sense of self-importance that
causes people to believe and act like they are better than others, a healthy sense of pride
springs from a positive self-image and confidence in ones abilities. A proper sense of
pride mixed with a good dose of humility is the balance youre seeking. Being driven by
false pride causes you to seek the approval and acceptance of others which can overly
influence you to take the easy way out when faced with a tough situation.

PatiencePatience is in short supply in our culture. We live in a hyper-connected,


instantaneous world where virtually anything we want is just a click away. Blanchard
and Peale describe patience as having a faith and belief that things will work out well, as
long as we stick to our values and principles. Giving in to instant gratification is one of
the biggest temptations we face and it causes us to make decisions that arent in
alignment with our purpose and values.

Persistencethis component of ethical power is about staying the course, staying true to
your purpose and values. Persistence is about commitment, not interest. When you have
interest in something you do it when its convenient. When youre committed, you do it
no matter what! When it comes to making ethical decisions, there is never a right time to
do the wrong thing. Persistence keeps us on the straight and narrow path.

Perspectiveall the other elements of ethical power emanate from the core of
perspective. Perspective is about having the big picture view of situations and
understanding whats truly important. Too often we make snap decisions in the heat of
the moment and neglect to step back and examine the situation from a bigger perspective.
Maintaining the proper perspective is also about paying attention to our inner-self and not
just our task-oriented outer-self.
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VALUE-BASED MANAGEMENT (VBM)

Definition: Value Based Management (VBM) is the management approach that ensures
corporations are managed consistently on value (normally: maximizing shareholder value).

A discipline that focuses on the management of the organization holistically.

Emphasizes the creation of value as defined by its stakeholders and priorities


defined by management.

Focuses on the deployment of strategy and value creation by managing processes,


activities, jobs, and compensation and organization structure.

Uses analytical methods, facts, computing /communications technology in an


integrated framework.

WHY VALUE?
The creation of value is the primary goal of managers in leading companies

Organizations exist to create value for all constituencies / stakeholders

Stakeholders include customers, owners, managers, employees, suppliers and society in


general

Organizations determine the degree to which they will prioritize the interests of each
stakeholder group and will therefore balance performance goals accordingly

WHAT VALUES?
Values depend on the stakeholder, however, examples might be:

Markets and owners expect that economic value be created

Customers may expect to obtain desired goods and services on time and at competitive
prices
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Employees may expect a substantive and meaningful job with commensurate


compensation

Suppliers may expect to be paid on time

Society may expect that their environment will be improved

THE THREE ELEMENTS OF VALUE BASED MANAGEMENT


Creating Value. How the company can increase or generate maximum future value.
More or less equal to strategy.
Managing for Value. Governance, change management, organizational culture,
communication, leadership.
Measuring Value. Valuation.

CYCLES IN VBM
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IMPORTANTANCE OF VALUE BASED MANAGEMENT


The market for its products and services.
The market for corporate management and control (competition on determining who is in
charge of an organization, threat of takeover, restructuring and/or a Leveraged Buy-out.
The capital markets (competing for investors' favor and money).
The employees and managers market (competition for company image and ability to
attract top talent).

BENEFITS OF VBM
Maximize value creation consistently,
Increases corporate transparency,
Helps organizations deal with globalized and deregulated capital markets,
Aligns the interests of (top) managers with the interests of share- and stakeholders,
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Facilitates communication with investors, analysts and communication with stakeholders,


Improves internal communication on strategy,
Prevents undervaluation of the stock,
Sets clear management priorities,
Facilitates to improve decision making,
Helps to balance short-term, mid-term and long-term trade-offs,
Encourages value-creating investments,
Improves the allocation of resources,
Streamlines planning and budgeting,
Sets effective targets for compensation,
Facilitates the use of stock for mergers or acquisitions,
Prevents takeovers,
Helps to better deal with increased complexity and greater uncertainty and risk.

LIMITATIONS OF VALUE BASED MANAGEMENT


VBM is an all-embracing, holistic management philosophy, often requiring culture
change. Because of this, VBM programs are typically large scale initiatives. To be
successful they take considerable time, resources and patience.
Value creation may sound simpler than corporate strategy, but it isn't. It is actually more
or less the same.
Economic Value Added, Performance Management and Balanced Scorecard are very
powerful management support tools and processes. However they have their own costs.
Therefore it is generally not advisable to go too deep in detail and use measuring methods
that are over-complex.
Extreme caution should be taken not to measure the wrong things as this will almost
certainly lead to value destruction.
VBM requires strong and explicit CEO and Executive Board support.
Comprehensive training and management consultancy are advisable or even necessary,
but can be quite costly.
The perfect VBM or valuation model has not been invented yet. Any method you choose
will always have drawbacks which you should consider.
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BRAINSTORMING
Brainstorming is a means of generating ideas.

Brainstorming can be used to identify alternatives, obtain a complete list of items and to
solve problems.

There are a variety of brainstorming techniques.

The common principle of brainstorming is to set aside the restrictive thinking processes
so that many ideas can be generated.

WHEN TO USE BRAINSTORMING?

Developing the solution definition, particularly in identifying alternative solutions.


Identifying all potential risks on a project.
Developing the Work Breakdown Structure (identifying all the deliverables and work
items).
Dealing with difficult problems that arise during the course of the project.
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WHY USE BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUES?


Brainstorming can:

Break through traditional thinking about a problem.

Generate new ways of thinking.

Provide an environment for building on new ideas.

Reduce the tendency to prematurely discard new ideas.

Facilitate team building.

Encourage team problem solving.

PROCESS OF BRAINSTORMING
The environment

Location: preferable to be held away from normal place of work

Room: natural light, plenty of space

Materials: whiteboard and pens. Provide a pack of post-it notes and pen for each attendee

Setting the scene

Explain the brainstorming technique.

Specify the rules.

Loosening up: use a free thinking exercise and/or a practice brainstorming session*.

For example: how could safety of taxi drivers be improved?

Rules for the session

Any idea is valid

No judgement or criticism allowed

Mobile phones switched off

Participants cannot leave the room during the brainstorming session


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Affinity analysis

Each person in turn sticks their post-it notes on the whiteboard, putting their note near to
an idea that is similar to theirs. This should result in clusters of post-it notes representing
similar ideas.

Review the ideas by cluster. For each type of idea ask the group How could we make
this work? Discuss each variation of the idea and refine to develop a possible solution.

Summary and future action

Write up a summary of each type of idea/solution presented.

Determine an action plan for working through the ideas.

The action plan may be to test or further research the alternatives identified to select a
shortlist of the most suitable solutions for further evaluation.

A BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUE
Present the problem or opportunity for which brainstorming is being applied

Allocate 3-5 minutes to write on the post-it notes as many ideas as possible one idea per
note

Each person quickly writes their thoughts onto the post-it notes regardless of how
impractical, outrageous, extreme, crazy they may be (do not filter the ideas)

BRAIN STILLING
Decision making in silence

Brain stilling can be used when you need to arrive silently and peacefully, preferably in a 'Room
of Silence', to a rational and enduring decision. Silence here "does not mean only absence of
speech, but a perfect calm in body, mind and heart. Let the decision-maker retire from life-
problems, sit in silence, invoke peace, concentrate on the problem, meditate over the situation
and wait for the 'inner guidance' to reach the solution.

Brain-stilling For rational and enduring decisions, silent mind is a necessity. A perfect
Mounum (calm mind enjoying tranquility) is necessary. Brain-stilling or meditative silence is the
most reliable method to discover solutions to problems and difficulties which seem to be difficult
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to be tackled by reason and intellect because through this one can come into contact with the
inner mind or higher consciousness called Chetana.

TECHNIQUES OF BRAIN STILLING


Meditation-Meditation is the most powerful mind tool ever developed. Meditation has
been scientifically proven to improve creativity, intelligence, memory, alertness, and to
integrate left and right brain functioning. It has been shown to improve physical, mental,
and emotional health.

Self-dynamising Meditation A dynamic meditation is meditation of transformation of


lower consciousness into higher consciousness and hence is called transforming
meditation. Through meditation, in a silent and calm mind, one reaches a higher level of
consciousness which offers guidance in the form of intuitions to tackle a multitude of
problems. This is called consciousness approach to management.

Management by Consciousness-Management by consciousness is "an exercise in


harmonizing men, material and methods toward the fulfillment of goals leading to human
development, social benefit and global welfare." 1 Ethical business in consecrated to a
sacred cause and universal welfare. Management begins with self. "It is only a person
who manages himself well can hope to manage others. Management Development cannot
take place without Self-Development. Without the mastery of one's own ego, the
containment of the turbulent enemy within, of what avail is the manipulation of mere
techniques? Business leaders must find ways to energize the process of struggle to reach
perfection through workplace, a place for self-realization and Divine

The Golden Hour-Take 30 minutes each morning to sit quietly and to reflect on your
goals. You'll find when you read the biographies and autobiographies of successful men
and women that almost every one of them began their upward trajectory to success when
they begin getting up early in the morning and spending time with themselves

Intuition-Intuition is the act of coming to direct knowledge or certainty without


reasoning or inferring. It is immediate cognition by the inner mind and when fully
developed, is efficient and effective for taking prompt and sound decisions. Intuition
skills enable one to cope with confidence the fluctuating environment and rapid changes.
Faith is a prerequisite to develop and realize the power of intuition.
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BRAIN STORMING VS BRAIN STILLING

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES BEHIND TQM


Customer satisfaction

Continuous improvement

Management by fact

All functions are interdependent

Participative and integrated problem solving process

Every workstation a control point

FEATURES OF TQM
Long term approach

Driven by Top management


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Brings about total cultural change

Interlinks various subsystems

Requires involvement, participation and cross functional management

Meeting dynamic needs

POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF TQM


Helps to focus clearly

Facilitates to aspire for a top quality performer

Channelizes the procedure

Critically examines all the processes

Fully understand the competition

Helps to develop good procedures


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INDIAN INSIGHTS IN TQM

INDIANIZING TQM
Sashkin and Kiser have defined TQM as Creating an organizational culture committed to the
continuous improvement of skills, teamwork, processes, product and service quality, and
customer satisfaction. TQM stresses three principles: customer satisfaction, employee
involvement, and continuous improvements in quality, which some refer to as the quality trilogy.
TQM is also said to be based on four fundamental commitments:
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Commitment to the customers total satisfaction

Commitment to understanding and improving the organizations processes

Commitment to employee improvement

Commitment to data-based decision making