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# TOPICS TO COVER TODAY

1. Quick Revision
2. Interfacing Key-board
3. Interfacing 7-Segment LEDs

1
LED = Light Emitting Diode

2
LED INTERFACING
Case-1: LED is ON if output = 0, current is low
Case-2: Too much current, Failure of Port or LED
Case-3: Not enough drive (1ma), LED is too dim
LED INTERFACING
There are 2 ways of connecting LEDs to I/O ports:

## LED cathodes are grounded and logic 1 from the I/O

port turns on the LEDs - The current is supplied by the
I/O port called current sourcing

## LED anodes are connected to the VCC and logic 0 from

the I/O port turns on the LEDs - The current is received
by the chip called current sinking
LED INTERFACING

## Common Cathode Common Anode

7-SEGMENT DISPLAYS
Seven-Segment Displays:

## A group of eight LEDs physically mounted in the shape

of the number eight plus a decimal point

g

## Often used to display BCD numbers (1 through 9) and a

few alphabets
7-SEGMENT DISPLAYS

## Two types of 7-segment LEDs

1) Common anode
2) Common cathode

Decimal point
7-SEGMENT: COMMON ANODE
Common anode: All anodes are connected to a power
supply and cathodes are connected to data lines
Logic 0 turns on a segment
Example: To display digit 1, all segments except b and
c should be OFF, Byte 11111001 = F9H will display digit
1 +5V
7-SEGMENT: COMMON CATHODE
Common Cathode: All cathodes are connected to GND
and anodes are connected to data lines
Logic 1 turns on a segment
Example: To display digit 1, all segments except b and
c should be OFF, Byte 00000110 = 06H will display digit
1
7-SEGMENT DISPLAY STRUCTURE
7-SEGMENT DISPLAY STRUCTURE
7-SEGMENT DISPLAY TABLE

a a a

BCD pgfedcba he
f b f b b f b
7_seg x g g g

0000 001111 11 3f
e c e e c c
0001 00110000 30 d d d

0010 0101101 1 5b
0011 010011 11 4f
0100 011001 10 66
a a a a a
0101 01101101 6d
f b f b f b
0110 01111101 7d g g g g

0111 00000111 07 c e c c e c c
1000 01111111 7f d d d d

1001 01101111 6f
7-SEGMENT DISPLAY DRIVERS
MULTIPLE 7-SEGMENT DISPLAYS