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SATELLITE

COMMUNICATIONS
Engr. Oliver Mariano
Engr. Benjamin Santa Maria, Jr.
SATELLITE
In Astronomy, a
SATELLITE is a
celestial body that
orbits around a
planet such as the
moon is a satellite to
the Earth.
SATELLITE

In Aerospace
terms, it is a
space vehicle
launched by
humans and
orbits the Earth or
other celestial
body.
COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE
In essence a
COMMUNICATIONS
SATELLITE is a microwave
repeater in the sky that
consists of a diverse
combination of a receiver,
transmitter, amplifier,
regenerator, filter, on-board
computer, multiplexer,
demultiplexer, antennas,
waveguides and about ay other
electronic communication
circuit ever developed.
TRANSPONDER
A Transponder is a satellite
receiver and transmitter.
A receiving and
transmitting device in a
communication or
broadcast satellite that
relays the signals it
receives back to Earth

A Transponder is a satellite
Transponder is radio repeater of which any
Transmit + Respond satellite may have many.
SATELLITE SYSTEM
It consists of one or more satellite
space vehicles, a ground-based
station to control the operation of
the system, and a user network of
Earth stations that provide the
interface facilities for the
transmission and reception of
terrestrial traffic through the
satellite system.
SATELLITE TRANSMISSION
Transmission to and from satellites are categorized as
either BUS or PAYLOAD. A BUS includes control
mechanisms that supports the payload operation. The
PAYLOAD is the actual user information conveyed
through the system.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1954, the MOON was the first
passive satellite (Moon Relay or
Operation Moon Bounce) used
by the U.S. Navy to successfully
transmit the first message.

1956, a relay service was


available between Washington
D.C. and Hawaii.
Note that only as little as 1 part in
every 1018 of an Earth stations
1962, long-distance radio
transmit power is actually returned to
communications was offered the Earth station receiving antennas.
limited only by the availability of
the moon.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1957, SPUTNIK I launched by
the Soviet Union was the first
active Earth satellite which
transmitted telemetry
information for 21 days.

1957, EXPLORER I
launched by the
Americans transmitted
telemetry for nearly 5
months
HISTORY of SATELLITES

1958, SCORE was launched by


NASA and the first artificial
satellite used for relaying
terrestrial communications.

It was a Delayed Repeater as it


received transmission from Earth
stations, store them on magnetic
tape, and then rebroadcast them
later to the ground stations.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1960, ECHO passively reflected
radio signals it received from
large Earth station antennas and
accomplished the first
transatlantic transmission.

1960, COURIER was the first


transponder type satellite
transmitted about 3 watts of
power and lasted only 17 days.
HISTORY of SATELLITES

1962, TELSTAR I was the first


active satellite to simultaneously
receive and transmit radio signals
but was damaged by radiation
from Van Allen belt.

1963, TELSTAR II accomplished


the first successful transatlantic
video transmission.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1963, SYNCOM I was the first
attempt to place a
geosynchronous satellite into
orbit was lost during orbit
injection.

1963 and 1964, SYNCOM II


and SYNCOM III were
launched and they
demonstrated the feasibility of
geosynchronous satellites.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1965 INTELSAT (Early Bird)
was the first commercial
telecommunications satellite
and used 2 transponders and
25-MHz bandwidth to carry
television signal and 480 voice
channels.

It was followed by a series of


satellites designated as
INTELSAT II, III, IV, V and VI,
the latter having 80,000 voice
channels.
HISTORY of SATELLITES
1972, MOLNIYA
(Lightning) was the first
domestic satellite
launched by the Soviet
Union.

1972, ANIK (Little Brother)


by Canada.
HISTORY of SATELLITES

1974, WESTAR by
Western union.

1975, SATCOM by
Radio Corporation of
America.
KEPLERS LAW
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the laws that
govern satellite motion.
The laws of planetary motion describes the shape of the
orbit, the velocities of the planet, and the distance a planet
is with respect to the sun.
KEPLERS LAW states that:
(1) the planet moves in ellipses with the sun at one focus,

(2) A line joining a planet and the Sun sweeps out


equal areas during equal intervals of time.

(3) the square of the time of revolution of a planet divided


by the cube of its mean distance from the sun gives a
number that is the same for all planets.
KEPLERS LAW states that:
1. The orbit of every planet is
an ellipse with the Sun at one
of the two foci.
2. A line joining a planet and
the Sun sweeps out
equal areas during equal
intervals of time.
3. The square of the orbital
period of a planet is
directly proportional to
the cube of the semi-major
axis of its orbit.
KEPLERS LAW
(1) The orbits are ellipses, with focal
points1 and 2 for the first planet
and 1 and 3 for the second
planet. The Sun is placed in focal
point 1.

(2) The two shaded


sectors A1 and A2 have the same
surface area and the time for
planet 1 to cover segment A1 is
equal to the time for planet 1 to
cover segment A2.

(3) The total orbit times for planet 1


and planet 2 have a
ratio a13/2 : a23/2.
KEPLERS 1ST LAW
KEPLERS 1ST LAW states that a
satellite (secondary) will orbit the
Earth (primary body) in an elliptical
path.
Eccentricity (Abnormality) of the
ellipse can be defined as:
= (2 2)

Heliocentric (Sun at center) coordinate
system (r, ) for ellipse.

Also shown are: semi-major axis a, semi-


minor axis b and semi-latus rectum p; center
of ellipse and its two foci marked by large
dots.
For = 0, r = rmin and for = 180, r = rmax.
Eccentricity Demonstrator
KEPLERS 1ST LAW
KEPLERS 1ST LAW

PERIHELION (January 3) from Greek term meaning near the sun.


Earth is 147 million kilometers from the sun.
PERIGEE the point in the Earths orbit at which it comes nearest to the Sun.

APHELION (July 3) from Greek term meaning away from the sun.
Earth is 152 million kilometers from the sun.
APOGEE the point in the Earths orbit at which it comes farthest to the Sun.

1 Astronomical Unit (AU) = 150 million kilometers is the average distance of


the Earth from the Sun
KEPLERS 1ST LAW
KEPLERS 2ND LAW
Known as the
Law of Areas
It states that for equal
intervals of time, a
satellite will sweep out
equal areas in the orbital
plane, focused at the
barycenter (center of
mass) of a two-body
system.
KEPLERS 2ND LAW

The planet moves faster near the Sun, so


the same area is swept out in a given time
as at larger distances, where the planet
moves more slowly.
KEPLERS 2ND LAW
KEPLERS 2ND LAW
KEPLERS 3RD LAW
Known as the Harmonics Law
It states that the square of the
periodic time (Pmean solar Earth days) 42,164 km
of orbit is proportional to the
cube of the mean distance
(semi-major axis km) between
the primary and the satellite. 6,378 km

= AP2/3
Where P = Sidereal day(ts) / Solar day(td) = 0.9972696758 day
Typically AEarth to Satellite = (D3/P2)1/3 = D/P2/3 = 42,241.0979
(where = 42,164 km)

ASun to Earth = 2.95076 E-19 seconds2/meter3


KEPLERS 3RD LAW
SIDEREAL - relating to stars: relating to the stars, especially measured
with reference to the apparent motion of the stars
SIDEREAL DAY (Ts) - day calculated by using star's position: the time it
takes for Earth to make one complete revolution in relation to a specific
star, equal to 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.1 seconds = 23.93447222 hours

SOLAR DAY (Td) - one rotation of Earth: the time taken for the Earth to
make a complete revolution on its axis, measured with respect to the Sun
= 24 hours
SIDEREAL YEAR - one revolution around Sun: the time it takes the Sun
to make one revolution with reference to a given star, equal to 365 days,
6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.5 seconds

1 Astronomical Unit (AU) = 150 million kilometers is the average distance


of the Earth from the Sun
KEPLERS 3RD LAW

Thus, not only does the length of the orbit increase with
distance, the orbital speed decreases, so that the increase
of the sidereal period is more than proportional.
KEPLERS 3RD LAW
KEPLERS 3RD LAW
Example:

If the average distance of the Earth from the Sun


is 150 million kilometers (1 A.U.), what is the
RATIO OF THE SQUARE OF ITS ORBITAL
PERIOD TO THE CUBE OF ITS AVERAGE
DISTANCE FROM THE SUN following Keplers
3rd Law on planetary motion in seconds2/meter3.

Answer:

P2/D3 = 2.95076 E-19 seconds2/meter3


Keplers Third Law Calculator
Example:
If the average distance of the Earth from the Sun is 1 Astronomical Unit, what is
the ORBITAL PERIOD OF PLANET MARS (IN YEARS) if its average distance
from the Sun is 1.52 A.U. following Keplers 3rd Law on planetary motion.

Orbital Period of Mars = 1.87398 years


Earth Orbit Plot
KEPLERS LAWS Kepler's Laws
Planetary Configuration Simulator
NONSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
They are orbital satellites
that rotate around the Earth
in an elliptical or circular
pattern but not in sync with
the Earths 24-hour rotation.
In a circular orbit, the speed
or rotation is constant.

In an elliptical orbit, the


speed depends on the
height the satellite is above
the Earth. The speed is
greater when it is closer to
the Earth.
NONSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
Circular orbit

Elliptical orbit
NONSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
Prograde or Posigrade Orbit,
when the satellite is orbiting in
the same direction as Earths Earths
Orbit
rotation (counterclockwise) at
an angular velocity greater
than that of the Earth.
Prograde
Orbit

Retrograde Orbit, when the


satellite is orbiting in the
opposite direction of Earths Earths
Orbit
Rotation or even in the same
direction with an angular
velocity less than that of the
Retrograde
Earth. Orbit
Retrograde Motion
NONSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
Retrograde Orbit, when the satellite is orbiting in the opposite
direction of Earths Rotation or even in the same direction with
an angular velocity less than that of the Earth.
NONSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
Most nonsynchronous satellites
revolve around the Earth in a
prograde orbit thereby causing
the position of the satellite to
constantly change in respect to
a fixed position on the Earth.
Hence, they can only be used
when available in as little as 15
minutes per orbit. It also
requires expensive tracking
equipment at the Earth station.
However, propulsion rockets are
not required on board the
satellites to keep them in their
respective orbits.
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
600-2,000 km from the Earth

Highly Ellptical
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) Orbit (HEO)
5,000-10,000 km
from the Earth

Geostationary Orbit (GEO)


36,000 km from the Earth
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
LEO Satellites (Low Earth
Orbit) are located 480 miles
above the Earths surface.
The path loss between the
Earth station and the space
vehicle is much lower which
equates to lower transmit
power.

IRIDIUM is a LEO utilizing a


system of 66-satellite
constellation.
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
MEO Satellites (Medium
Earth Orbit) are located
between 6,060 miles to
12,000 miles above the
Earth and operates in the
1.2 GHz to 1.66 GHz
frequency band.

NAVSTAR is a MEO, which


is used for GPS with a
constellation of 21 satellites
with 6 spares at 9,500 miles
above the Earth.
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
GEO Satellites
(Geosynchronous Earth
Orbit) are located
22,300 miles above the
Earth and operates in
the 2 GHz to 18 GHz
frequency spectrum.

Geostationary satellites
orbits in a circular
pattern with an angular
velocity equal to that of
the Earth, an orbital
time of 24 hours, same
as the Earth.
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
Geosynchronous Orbit
The orbit can persist above
the equatorial line or have
an inclination to the
equatorial plane.
In the later case, the orbit
still maintains the same
orbital period as the
revolution of the Earth, but
spends equal time north and Satellite is geosynchronous, but
south of the equator, tracing non-geostationary orbit.
a figure eight relative to a
point on the Earths surface.
SATELLITE ELEVATION CATEGORIES
NEAR SYNCHRONOUS Orbit occurs
when nonsynchronous circular orbit
satellites travel at an altitude between
19,000 miles to 25,000 miles above the
Earth. (above and below 22,300 miles)

SUBSYNCHRONOUS, when the near


synchronous orbit is slightly lower than
22,300 miles, the satellites orbital time
is lower that Earths rotational period,
making the satellite move faster from
west to east.

When the near synchronous orbit is higher than 22,300 miles, the satellites
orbital time is longer that Earths rotational period, making the satellite will
appear to have a reverse motion (RETROGRADE) from west to east.
SATELLITE ORBITAL TERMS
APOGEE, the point in an orbit
that is located farthest from the
Earth.
PERIGEE, the point in an orbit
that is located closest to the
Earth.
MAJOR AXIS (Line of Apsides),
the line joining the perigee and
apogee through the center of
the Earth.
MINOR AXIS, the line
perpendicular to the major axis
and halfway between the
perigee and apogee
SATELLITE ORBITAL TERMS
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
All satellites rotate around the Earth that forms a plane that
passes through the center of gravity of the Earth
(GEOCENTER)
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS

INCLINED
ORBITS, virtually
all orbits except
those that travel
directly above the
equator or directly
over the North
and South poles.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
ANGLE OF INCLINATION, the angle (0 to 180) between the
Earths equatorial plane and the orbital plane of a satellite
measured counterclockwise at the point in the orbit where it
crosses the equatorial plane traveling from South to North.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
POLAR ORBITS,
when the satellite
rotates in a path that
takes over the North
and South poles in
an orbit
perpendicular to the
equatorial plane.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
POLAR ORBITS
Note that 100% of the Earths surface
can be covered with a single satellite in
a polar orbit.

Satellites in a polar orbit rotate around


Earth in a longitudinal orbit while Earth
is rotating on its axis in a latitudinal
rotation.

Therefore, the satellites radiation


pattern is a diagonal that forms a spiral
around the surface of the Earth that
resembles a barber pole. As a result,
every location on Earth lies within the
radiation pattern of a satellite in a polar
orbit twice each day.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
ASCENDING NODES, the point
where a polar or inclined orbit crosses
the equatorial plane traveling from
south to north (counterclockwise).

DESCENDING NODES, the point


where a polar or inclined orbit crosses
the equatorial plane traveling from
north to south (counterclockwise).

LINE OF NODES, the line joining the


ascending and descending nodes
through the center of the Earth.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
EQUATORIAL
ORBITS, when the
satellite rotates in an
orbit directly above
the equator, usually
in a circular path.
SATELLITE ORBITAL PATTERNS
Earth is not a perfect sphere, as it bulges in the equator
(EQUATORIAL BULGE).

Early 1800s, a 20,700-foot mountain in Ecuador called Volcan


Chimborazo was erroneously thought to have the highest point on
the planet. However, because of the equatorial bulge, it proved to be
the farthest point from the center of the Earth.

ROTATION OF THE LINE OF APSIDES, equatorial bulge is causing


elliptical orbits to rotate in a manner that causes the apogee and
perigee to move around the Earth.

However if the angle of inclination is 63.4, the rotation of the line of


apsides is zero. Thus satellites required to have a constant apogee
are launched into orbit with an angle of inclination of 63.4. Referred
to as the 63 SLOT.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
These satellites orbit Earth
above the equator with the
same angular velocity. Earth
station antennas are simply
pointed to the satellite and no
special antenna tracking
equipment is necessary.
There is a delicate balance
between acceleration, speed
and distance that will exactly
balance the effects of
centrifugal force and the
gravitational forces.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES

They can provide reliable communications to


approximately 40% of the Earths surface.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
The unbalance
forces such as the
gravitational forces
exerted by the moon
and sun, solar winds
and equatorial bulge
causes these
satellites to drift
slowly away from
their assigned
Ground controllers must periodically
locations in a figure-
adjust the satellite positions counteract
eight excursion
these forces, if not, the excursion
above and below the
would build up at a rate between 0.6
equatorial plane,
and 0.9 per year, we call the
(STATIONARY
adjustments STATION KEEPING
INCLINED ORBIT)
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITES
Recall that the semimajor axis:
= AP2/3 = (42241.0979 km)(0.9972)2/3
= 42,164 km from the center of the Earth
But since Earths equatorial radius is 6,378 km then:
h = 42,164 km 6,378 km = 35, 786 km ABOVE EARTHS SURFACE

42,164 km

6,378 km
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE
ORBITAL VELOCITY
Circumference of a
geostationary orbit:
C = 2 (42,164 km)
= 264,790 km
Therefore, the Velocity
of a Geosynchronous
Satellite:
V = 264,790 km / 24 hr
= 11,033 km/hr
= 6840 mph
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE
ROUND TRIP TIME DELAY
The round trip time delay between a
satellite and Earth station located
directly below it is:
T=d/c
= 2 (35,768 km) / 3 x 105 km/s
= 238 ms
However, including the time delay
within the Earth station and satellite
equipment, it takes more than 250 ms.
For Earth stations not directly below the
satellite, propagation delay is more
substantial and is significant in two-way
telephone conversations or data
transmission.
CLARKE ORBIT / BELT

A geosynchronous orbit is sometimes


referred to as Clarke Orbit after
Arthur C. Clarke, who first suggested
its existence in 1945 and proposed
its use for communications satellite.
CLARKE ORBIT / BELT
Clarke orbit meets the concise specifications for a geosynchronous
satellite orbit, that is:
be located directly above the equator
Travel in the same direction as Earths rotation at 6840 mph
Have an altitude of 35,768 km above the Earth
complete one revolution in 24 hours
CLARKE ORBIT / BELT
Three satellites in a Clark
orbit separated by 120 in
longitude can provide
communications over the
entire globe except the
polar regions.
CLARKE ORBIT / BELT
An International agreement initially mandated that all satellites
placed in the Clarke orbit must:
be separated by at least 1,833 miles equating to
an angular separation of 4 or more, which limits the number
of geosynchronous satellites to less than 100.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES:
No expensive tracking equipment is required at the Earth
stations.
They are available to all Earth stations within their
shadow 100% of the time.
No transmission breaks due to switching times
Doppler shift effects are negligible.
GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES:
Requires sophisticated and heavy propulsion devices on
board to keep them in orbit.
Introduce much longer propagation delays between 500 ms
to 600 ms.
Require higher transmit powers and more sensitive
receivers.
High precision spacemanship is required to place the
geosynchronous satellite into orbit and keep it there.
ANTENNA LOOK ANGLES
To optimize the performance of the satellite, direction of
maximum gain of an Earth station antenna
(BORESIGHT) must be pointed directly at the satellite.
Alignment of Earth station antennas must be determined
by the AZIMUTH ANGLE and ELEVATION ANGLE
specified using longitude and latitude coordinates.

Note that the location of a satellite is expressed in terms


of longitude and latitude but is only identified by a point
on the surface of the Earth directly below it and must fall
on the equator, this point is known as (SSP)
SUBSATELLITE POINT.
Note that geosynchronous satellites have 0 latitude.
ANTENNA LOOK ANGLES
The position of a hypothetical
GEOSYNCHRONOUS
SATELLITE VEHICLE (GSV)
is shown below with respect
to its SUBSATELLITE POINT
(SSP) and an arbitrary point
selected Earth STATION
(ES), all relative to Earths
Geocenter.

SSP = 30 E longitude and 0


latitude
ES = 30 W longitude and
20 N latitude
ANGLE OF ELEVATION
The vertical angle formed
between the direction of travel
of an electromagnetic wave
radiated from an Earth station
antenna pointing directly
toward a satellite and the
horizontal plane.
Generally, 5 is considered
the minimum accepted angle
of elevation.
ANGLE OF ELEVATION
Attenuation due to Atmospheric Absorption
vs. Angle of Elevation:
AZIMUTH ANGLE
The horizontal angular distance from a reference direction,
either the Southern or Northern most point of the horizon.
It is also the horizontal pointing angle of an Earth station
antenna referenced to the True South.
ANGLE OF ELEVATION and AZIMUTH
ANGLE

West

South Pole North Pole


ANGLE OF ELEVATION and AZIMUTH
ANGLE
Example:
An Earth station is located in Houston, Texas, which has
a longitude of 95.5W and a latitude of 29.5N. The
satellite of interest is RCAs Satcom I, which has a
longitude of 135W.

Determine the azimuth angle and the angle of elevation


for the Earth station.

L = 135 - 95.5 = 39.5


ANGLE OF ELEVATION and AZIMUTH
ANGLE

Azimuth
angle = 59
West of
Earth
Station
South (West
Latitude of 180)

L
ANGLE OF ELEVATION and AZIMUTH
ANGLE

Angle of
Elevation = 35
Earth
Station
Latitude

L
SATELLITE CLASSIFICATIONS
SPINNERS, uses the angular momentum of its spinning body to
provide roll and yaw stabilization.
THREE-AXIS STABILIZER, the body remains fixed relative to
Earths surface, while an internal subsystem provides roll and
Yaw yaw stabilization.

Pitch
Roll
SATELLITE SPACING & FREQUENCY ALLOCATION
Geosynchronous satellites must share a limited
space and frequency spectrum within the given
arc of a geostationary orbit.
Each satellite of which is assigned a longitude in
the given arc of a geostationary orbit above 35,768
km above the equator.
Satellites operating near the same frequency must
be sufficiently separated to avoid interference (1
to 4 spatial separation), whose spatial separation
is dependent on:
Beamwidth and side lobe radiation of both the
Earth station and satellite antenna
RF carrier frequency
Encoding or modulation technique
Acceptable limits of interference
transmit carrier power
SATELLITE SPACING AND
FREQUENCY ALLOCATION
The most common carrier frequencies used for satellite
communications are the 6/4 GHz and the 14/12 GHz bands.
UPLINK frequency (Earth station to transponder)
DOWNLINK frequency (transponder to Earth station)
FREQUENCY BANDS are C, X, Ku, Ka, Q, V for uplink and downlink
frequencies having bandwidths ranging from 500MHz to 2000 MHz
SATELLITE ANTENNA RADIATION
PATTERN (FOOTPRINTS)
FOOTPRINTS, the geographical
representation of a satellite
antennas radiation pattern.

Its coverage area is dependent


on the location of the satellite in
its orbit, its carrier frequency, and
the gain of its antenna.

The shape of the footprint


depends on the satellite orbital
path, height and the type of
antenna used.
SATELLITE ANTENNA RADIATION
PATTERN (FOOTPRINTS)
Contour lines represent limits of equal power density
received by the Earth stations.
SATELLITE SPOT and ZONAL BEAMS
SPOT BEAMS, the smallest beam radiated toward the Earth. They
concentrate their power on a very small geographical area thus they have
higher EIRPs.
ZONAL BEAMS, it is the next larger beam radiated.
Spot and zonal beams blankets less than 10% of the Earths surface.
HEMISPHERICAL and Earth (Global) BEAMS

HEMISPHERICAL BEAMS
typically targets up to 20% of
the Earths surface, having
EIRPs of 3 dB or 50% lower.

Earth (GLOBAL) BEAMS, the


radiation patterns of Earth
coverage antennas have a
beamwidth of approximately
17, which is the maximum
view of a geosynchronous
satellite covers about 42% of
the Earths surface.
SATELLITE SPOT and ZONAL BEAMS
SATELLITE SYSTEM LINK MODELS
SATELLITE SYSTEM LINK MODELS
UPLINK MODEL
SATELLITE SYSTEM LINK MODELS
TRANSPONDER MODEL
SATELLITE SYSTEM LINK MODELS
DOWNLINK MODEL
INTER-SATELLITE LINK
SATELLITE Applications

Advances in satellite technology have given rise to a healthy satellite


SERVICES SECTOR that provides various services to broadcasters, Internet
service providers (ISPs), governments, the military, and other sectors.

There are three types of communication services that satellites provide:


telecommunications, broadcasting, and data communications.
Telecommunication services include telephone calls and services provided to
telephone companies, as well as wireless, mobile, and cellular network
providers.
SATELLITE Applications
SATELLITE Applications