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Answers to Biology for IGCSE Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Summary Questions page 140.

(Suggested marks are given in square brackets)

1 (a) homeostasis - the maintenance of a constant internal environment [1]

(b) toxin a poisonous substance (produced during metabolism) [1]
(c) metabolic waste substance(s) produced by chemical reactions in the body that
may be toxic if allowed to accumulate so is/are removed [1]

2 arterioles are narrow blood vessels between arteries and capillaries;

arterioles have rings of muscle;

when rings of muscle contract they decrease the diameter; so increasing the
resistance to flow; so less blood can flow through to the capillaries; this is
rings of muscle relax the diameter increases; so decreasing the resistance to flow;
so more blood flows through the capillaries; this is vasodilation [6]

3 temperature sensors in the skin detect changes in temperature;

especially cold temperatures

conserve heat
arterioles constrict to reduce blood flow to capillaries in skin; this reduces heat loss
from blood in capillaries; hair erector muscles contract; raise hair; trap more air
which is a good insulator; reduce heat loss;

promote heat loss

arterioles dilate to increase blood flow to capillaries in skin; this increases heat loss
from blood in capillaries; hair erector muscles relax; hairs lower; trap less air; sweat
glands secrete sweat; sweat evaporates; cools the body [6]

4 hypothalamus; monitors temperature of the blood; receives information from

temperature sensors (e.g. in the skin);
in the heat
sends impulses to skin; to stimulate vasodilation;
to stimulate sweating;
in the cold
stimulate vasoconstriction;
sweat glands stop making sweat [6]

5 lungs; liver; kidneys [3]

6 carbon dioxide; urea [2]

7 excretion is the removal from the body of metabolic waste that has been produced
by chemical reactions inside cells; egestion is the removal of undigested food from
the gut (undigested food has never been absorbed, assimilated and used inside
cells) [2]

8 excess amino acids are broken down in the liver; part of the molecule of each amino
acid is converted into urea [2]

9 kidney filters blood / removes wastes from blood / makes urine / controls the
volume of water lost from the body in the urine;
ureter carries urine from the kidney to the bladder;
bladder stores urine;
urethra carries urine from the bladder out of the body [4]

10 liver breaks down

hormones; toxins / alcohol / drugs / named drug; (excess) amino acids;

makes urea [4]

11 any change in body temperature acts as a stimulus; (hypothalamus stimulates)

corrective action by the body; e.g. sweating / vasodilation / AW ; mechanism of
sweating or vasodilation described e.g. relaxation of muscles in arterioles / more
blood flows through capillaries in the skin; to keep temperature within limits /
temperature does not change much / temperature stays (near) constant [4]

12 a drawing similar to that in Figure 11.1.2 on page 131

to include

liver converts glucose to glycogen; stores glycogen; breaks down glycogen to

glucose; regulates glucose concentration in the blood;

pancreas detects changes in the glucose concentration of the blood; secretes insulin
to lower blood glucose concentration; secretes glucagon to increase blood glucose

Note insulin and glucagon are hormones. Insulin stimulates liver cells to change
glucose to glycogen; glucagon stimulates liver cells to change glycogen to glucose.
These hormones are not enzymes so they do not catalyse these reactions. They do
not enter liver cells so they cannot carry out the reactions. The changes between
glucose and glycogen are catalysed by enzymes inside the liver cells.

Statements such as insulin converts glucose to glycogen should be marked wrong,

corrected and the mistake explained.

13 removing metabolic waste

urea is filtered from blood; concentrated in urine; urine is passed out of the body;

maintaining glucose and salt concentrations of the body

both are filtered from the blood; all the glucose is reabsorbed; most of the salt is
reabsorbed; excess salt is excreted; if blood glucose concentration is higher than
normal then some glucose will not be reabsorbed and will be present in urine;

water potential
if not enough water in the body / concentration of blood too high / water potential of
blood too low; ADH stimulates collecting ducts in kidney; to become permeable; so
water is reabsorbed by osmosis; urine is concentrated / more water is retained
inside the body;

if too much water / concentration of blood is too low / water potential of blood is too
high; no ADH; collecting ducts are impermeable; water, stays in the urine / is not
reabsorbed; urine is dilute / excess water is lost from the body [6]

14 blood flows through tubes of dialysis membrane; which is partially permeable;

surrounded by, dialysis fluid / dialysate; this is a solution of glucose and salts but no
urea; urea diffuses out of blood into dialysate; glucose and salt diffuse between
blood and dialysate to adjust concentrations in blood [4]

Chapter 11 Exam-Style Questions page 140-141

Multiple Choice Questions (1 mark each)

1 D
2 C
3 C
4 D

Short Answer Questions

5 (c)(i) A (right) kidney;

B renal artery;
C ureter;
D bladder; [4]

(ii) A filters blood / makes urine;

B delivers (oxygenated) blood to the kidney;
C carries urine from kidney to bladder;
D stores urine; [4]

(b)(i) urea, salts, water; [1]

(ii) urea, glucose, salts and water are small enough to be filtered; all the glucose is
reabsorbed; most of the salts and water are reabsorbed; urea is excreted;

red blood cells, platelets and proteins are too large to be filtered; [3]

6(a)(i) award up to 4 marks for clearly stated differences as summarised in this table

feature P Q
sweat gland secretes sweat does not secrete sweat;
sweat evaporates on surface of no sweat to evaporate;
arteriole dilated (vasodilation) constricted (vasoconstriction);
capillaries wide(r) narrow(er);
lots of blood flowing through little blood flowing through
them them;

(ii) P hot;
Q cold; [2]

(b) enzymes are at a constant temperature; reactions occur at a constant rate; energy
(from respiration) available all the time; activity is not dependent on surrounding
temperature; can be active at day or at night (or both); can live in cold
environments where animals which cannot maintain a constant body temperature
cannot survive; [2]

7 (a) (detected by) pancreas; (liver cells respond by) converting glucose to glycogen; [2]

(b) (decrease in blood glucose concentration)

detected by pancreas;

glucagon secreted;

liver cells respond by converting glycogen to glucose; [3]

8 (a) amino acids are broken down; to release nitrogen-containing part; in deamination;
which becomes ammonia; this is combined with carbon dioxide (to form urea); [4]

(b)(i) 2.7 / 2.75, grams per dm3; day 1; [2]

(ii) 9; steep decrease in urea concentration each time dialysis occurs; [2]

(iii) kidneys recovered; blood is filtered; all the time; so urea is removed from the blood
all the time; instead of at intervals; this lowers the urea concentration below the
concentration at the end of dialysis; [4]

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