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How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus:

Inner-textual and Intertextual Composition


In this article I shall set forth my most recent dis- In some poems, the concatenations are
coveries concerning the principles of Gathic com- throughout formal, whereas in other poems, a
position. After summarizing the observations I few stanzas are concatenated only semantically.
had made in earlier publications1 as concerns (I.1) However, in all poems in which some stanzas
ring-composition, (I.2) proto-poems, and nal po- are merely concatenated semantically, there is a
ems, I shall (I.2) update the latter exposition as long sequence of stanzas (totaling to a com-
to both principles and examples. Then (II) I shall parative majority in the poem) which them-
briey explain the principles of cross-textual re- selves show the criteria of a completed poem:
cursive composition whereby Zarathushtra gen- systematic concatenation of concentrically re-
erated the sequence of his poems. This will be lated stanzas (in these instances, single stanzas),
followed (III.1 and 2) by illustration of these prin- and concatenation of central to rst and last
ciples with instances involving the etymology of stanzas. These instances are to be regarded as
Gathic personal names. proto-poems, i.e. the rst stage of poems which
were later expanded by the addition of more stan-
zas to form the nal poems of our Gathic canon,
I.1 each of which has an overall concatenation,
whether or not all of the concentrically related
Each of the poems of the Gathic corpus belongs stanzas are concatenated formally (as e.g. Y46) or
to one of three basic patterns of systematic con- semantically.
catenation. These govern relations between
concentrically related (a) single stanzas; (b) con-
secutively paired stanzas; and (c) single stanzas I.2
regularly alternating with consecutively paired
stanzas. In addition, the central stanza or stan- My list of proto-poems now consists of the fol-
zas of each poem are in some instances concat- lowing (subsequent expansions are indicated
enated formally, i.e. by words showing the by +): Proto-Y28 (yielding Y28.18, + 9
inected form, or by stems or roots (sometimes 11); Proto-Y31 (> Y31.118, + 1922); Proto-Y32
the concatenation pertains to a phrase consist- (> Y32.113, + 1416); Proto-Y33 (> Y33.210, +
ing of such words); these features also serve in 1014, + 1); Proto-Y34 (> Y34.111, + 1215);
the consecutive pairing of stanzas in concatena- Proto-Y43 (> Y43.313, + 1416, + 12); Proto-
tion-types (b) and (c). In other instances, the Y44 (> Y44.211, + 1216, + 1); Proto-Y45 (>
concatenation consists of semantically, rather Y45.17, + 811); Proto-Y46 (> Y46.110, + 11
than formally, related words. Frequently the 19); and Proto-Y49 (> Y49.411, + 13, + 12). It
concatenations consist of words related by form, should now be observed that in all of these in-
and words related by meaning. Rarely, the con- stances, the last line of the proto-poem acts as
catenation is based on paronomasia, e.g. Y(asna) the rst line of a second technically complete
50.6au ma qra /manqraa/ mant(h)ra and Y50.1buu (i.e. systematically concatenated) poem (see
m@ .na qrata /mana qrata/ my protector. More Chart I). By contrast, Y48 consists of two com-
than one concatenation is often found between plete poems (16 + 712) joined without overlap;
the two related stanzas. similarly Y51 (111 + 1322).

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

All of this shows that formal relatedness is the structure, are conrmed by details of the cross-
primary basis of Gathic concatenation with con- textual correlations which result from the com-
centrism. The same formality in concatenation positional process, the basics of which are set
holds true for the other Old Avestan Yasna poems, forth in II.1.
each of which is also concentrically oriented, but
where single lines, rather than stanzas, are the com-
positional unit; thus, on the one hand, the great II
prayers (Y27.14, Y54.1, and probably Y27.15),
all of which I attribute to Zarathushtra; and on the Every Gathic poem composed by Zarathushtra
other hand, the Yasna Haptahaiti (Y35Y41), (by which I mean not only the seventeen Gathic
which I doubt is of Zarathushtras authorship.2 Yasnas of our corpus, but also the proto-poems
In connection with the term haptahaiti- on which they are based) may be accounted for
consisting of seven haitis, the compound, as according to the following process(es) of serial
well as the term haiti- for complete Old Avestan recursive composition: Beginning with a single
poem were canonized in Young Avestan. How- complete haiti-, words from each stanza in for-
ever, the etymological sense of haiti- (poem ward consecutive order, and then in backward
characterized by) concatenation is already illus- consecutive order from the last stanza to the
trated by Y32.9buu haitim, which refers to Zara- rst, were recast to appear in every stanza, in
thushtras inspired speech, and, since it occurs both directions, in a second poem under con-
in the second central stanza of the poem, con- struction, which was lled out according to the
catenates with the nale, Y32.16cuu ahaiia */a overall message(s) to be conveyed, and in confor-
hayaya/ I would fetter, which, like haiti-, comes mity to ring-composition. The same process was
from hai to tie, chain, whence concatenation. repeated, this time using every stanza, in both
Y27.13, traditionally reckoned among the directions, of the two completed poems, toward
great prayers, is instead the original last (11th) the generation of a third poem. All three com-
stanza of Y29,3 for which the present Y29.11 is pleted poems were then subjected to the same
a late substitute by Zarathushtra. One other tex- process toward the production of a fourth poem,
tual modication, this a matter of transmission and so on, until the last poem of the corpus was
after Zarathushtras lifetime, must also be ob- produced. On the basis of this analysis, it is pos-
served: In order to obtain a systematic set of sible (but beyond the scope of this paper) to state
concatenations, the present Y31.15 should be the precise order in which the poems were com-
reckoned as originally Y31.*13 (and consequently posed, and to produce scores of charts showing
the present Y31.1314 should be counted as the interrelationships between the various po-
originally Y31.*1415).4 ems (as I already have, in the course of my re-
The concatenating forms of Y31, with stanzas search during the last few months). Sufce it to
rearranged as suggested, may be stated concisely: say for now that I am convinced that Y29 was
1auu and 22buu vacah- word; 2buu and 20au aii- to the rst poem composed (its lexical material be-
come; 3bu and 21cuu uruuat/q- (bound by) solemn ing, in effect, reected in all the other poems),
declaration; 3bu and 21cu *vazd- solidity, nour- and that Y53 was the last poem composed.
ishment, (cultic) support;5 4cu and 19buu xsai to The interrelationship between the forms in-
rule; 5bu and 17b bis vid to know; 6bu and 18auu volved in the recasting process is identical to
ma qra- manthra, poetic formulation; 7bu and the formal criteria for concatenation within any
16auu *xsaqra-6 dominion; 8buu and *14cu (= 13cu) poem: A word (or phrase) may be recast as an-
casman- eye; 9buu and *15bu (= 14bu) dada- to set, other word (or phrase) showing the same inected
give; 9cu and *15auu (= 14au) ai(t)- come; 9cuu and form, stem, or root. The one recurrent banal
*15cuu (= 14cuu) ah- to be; 10auu and *13cu (= 15cu) correspondence in the recasting is the phrase
vastriia- pasturer. In the central stanzas, 11cuu vohu- manah- Good Mind, used only sparingly
(y)aqra where and 12au aqra in a continuous ref- in the ring-composition. In many instances the
erence to right and wrong speech; 11cu and 22buu recasting is based on paronomasia (even, appar-
si iaoqanaca and actions; 12auu and 1auu (-)vaca ently, at the level of the root).
words. The lexicological and textual information
The above-suggested reconstructions for Y29 gained by the charting of the various recastings is
and Y31, based on the exigencies of Gathic ring great, but must be addressed elsewhere.

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

III.1 cult and meant to co-opt Zarathushtras advo-

cacy of Mazda, an act paralleled by their patrons
In illustration of the foregoing compositional robbery (apaiieiti) of inheritances as per Y32.11,
principles, we shall now consider the remark- in which apaiieiti- */apa-yati-/ robbery repeats
able formal vicissitudes of the name Yima in /apa yam/ (cf., for further correlations between
the Gathas. I have already shown that at Y32.8auu Y32.8 and 11, morda- make go astray, jiiatu-
viuuahuso . . . yimascit Indeed Yima, son of life, vitality, and vah@us/vahistat manaho
$ rst element in Zara- $
Viuuavhan represents the from Good/Best Mind).
thushtras series of pejorative recastings of tex- Y30.3 y@ma itself, via the recasting of its lexi-
tual material originally in honor of Haoma in cal material in the backward course of the
an Old Avestan protoform of Yasnas 910.7 My composition of Y31 (from the nal stanza Y31.22
various speculations as to the various Gathic to Y31.12) has the obligatory correspondence of
transformation of yima- /yama-/ will now be Y32.*14, with a . . . (a)iiamaite takes (hold of),
corroborated through the facts of Gathic recur- receives:
sive composition.
Of my proposals of the various recastings of Y31.*14 y@ va kas@ us aenaho a mazista m
/yama-/, the most surprising, and thus most in aiiamaite bujm
need of corroboration, proceeds from the etymo- or who, for a minor violation, receives the
logical sense of the antiheros name Twin (of greatest penalty.
prehistoric origin, in allusion to the Indo-Iranian
myth of the twin pair *Yama and his sister Here the noun /yama-/ twin and the verb /a
*Yami, attested, in radically variant accounts, in yama-/ take are connected through their root
the RgVeda and in Pahlavi; for reexes of this yam (cf. the play at RgVeda 10.14.10 on Yama
word for twin in later Iranian languages, see [yamaya] and a yamat will take [escort]). The
de Blois 2003, p. 7). My suspicion that Y32.8 relationship of noun /yama-/ to verb a yam
yimascit (in which the form of the personal across our Gathic texts parallels that of /yama-/
name, yima-, is due to Young Avestan inuence) to apa yam at Y32.89. Furthermore, the cross-
prompted the application of the word twin in textual connection is conrmed by the parallel-
Y30.3, where y@ ma (with y@ ma- as the expected ism between the collocation of aenah- violation
Gathic realization of /yama-/) refers to the two and a . . . (a)iiamaite in Y31.*14b vis--vis the
primordial twin Spirits (mainiiu), one benign and collocation of aenah- and the noun yima- in
one malign, arose from my discovery that the for- Y32.8a. The implicit intertextual relationship
ward course of Proto-Y32 (Y32.113) produced between the verbs apo . . . apaiiata (apa yam)
stanza-by-stanza lexical recastings in Y30 (Chart and a . . . aiiamaite is shown by the reverse re-
IIA).8 However, the occurrence of ym @ a- at Y30.3 casting of the second half of Proto-Y32 in the
would be out of order in the forward recasting second half of Proto-Y31 (Y31.1810) in reverse
of lexical material from Y32. The expected lo- (see Chart VI).
cation for the correspondence is now seen from In addition, via the recasting of Y30.110 in
the backward recasting (Chart IIB), in which the Y53 backwards (see Chart IV), we have the corre-
obligatory lexical correspondence between Y32.8 spondence Y30.3auu y@ ma the two twins: Y53.6cuu
and Y30.3 is satised by Y32.8auu srauui yimascit aiiese I will take from a yam. Finally, via the
indeed Yima was heard vis--vis Y30.3auu y@ ma$ reverse recasting of Y32 in Y53, it is Y32.8auu
. . . asruuatm the two twinned [Spirits] were yimascit, i.e. the name Yima, which has as its
correspondent Y53.6cuu aiiese. This is the nal
I also suggested that, in effecting the obliga- corroboration for the concatenation of yimascit
tory concatenation of the two central stanzas of with apo . . . (apa)iiata at Y32.89, whereby$
Y32, Zarathushtra, playing on the etymology of Yimas name is etymologically pejorized through
Yimas name (yam), linked Y32.8 yimascit and association with robbery.
Y32.9 apo . . . apaiiata (*/apa . . . yanta/ < */apa This pejoration may have other resonances
. . . yam-ta/) robbed. He thus imparted a pejora- in Y53.6bc. Y53.6c aiiese *hoi10 piqa tanuuo
tive nuance to Yimas name and associated his para I shall take his protections away from *his
false claim to divinity with the speech of poet- person/body must be construed as continuing
priests who honored Yima through the Haoma Y53.6b drujo haca raqmo y@ m spasuqa fraidim

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

he whom you see as prospering(?) is an adher- III.2

ence of Wrong. The somewhat syntactically un-
usual y@ m whom (with an exceptional spelling The Gathic cross-textual correspondence of a
in -) is quite possibly a paronomastic recasting name to forms of its constituent elements, as
of Y32.8 yimascit (for *y@ mascit), so that the lat- seen for both yimascit and viuuahuso, has
ter form would be$ doubly represented
$ in Y53.6. numerous parallels. A$ simple instance is
I had also proposed that Yimas patronymic Y53.2cuu frasaostrasca, where the etymology of
at Y32.8, viuuahuso is a pejorative neologism, frasaostra-, having splendid (frasa-) camels
formed as though an -a-stem adjectival deriva- (ustra-), correlates with Y30.9auu fras@ m (see
tive from a perfect stem in Indo-Iranian *-vans- (of Chart IV). The name of Zarathushtras daughter,
the type nom. Vedic vidvan, Av. viduua, obl. Vedic pouru.cista much (pouru-) insightful (cista-) at
vidu-, Av. vidus-), as against the stem in *-vant- Y53.3au correlates with Y30.9cuu cistis insight
in Vedic vvasvant-, Y9.35 viuuavhat-, the lat- in establishing the obligatory correspondence
ter form therefore having occurred in the text of between Y53.3 and Y30.9 in the backwards re-
the OAv. Haoma hymn. I explained viuuahusa- casting of lexical material of Y30 in the for-
as a wordplay from vi- privative (as in YAv. vijuua- ward course of Y53.11 The same attestation of
without life, not living) and vahusa- earning pourucista also corresponds to a cognate of cista-
something good (cf. Vedic pau-- winning (i.e. another derivative of cit to perceive), ciqra-
cattle); thus viuuahua- as a pejorative pun bright, clear, visible in the compound Y34.4buu
not earning anything good, referring to Yima ciqra.auuahm having visible help.12
himself. This interpretation was grounded in the The name maidiioi.maha-, attested in the
fact that the mention of Yimas violation (aenah-) vocative Y51.19au maidiioi.maha, is a thematic
in Y32.8 prefaced at Y32.6 by Mazda being ad- adjective pertaining (by birth) to the midmonth
dressed as hata.marane (*/hatamarnai/) ac- from maidiia- middle and mah- moon, month.
counter of things earned/deserved specically The name corresponds to Y44.3du ma moon
in reference to the many, countless, violations (nominative of mah-) via the lexical recasting of
(aenah-) committed for the sake of gaining fame Y44.112 in the backwards course of the second
(srauuahiieiti). Here hata- things earned/de- half of Y51 (Y51.1222).
served is from han to earn, merit (whence -sa- The recasting of Y46.113 in the second half of
in *vahusa-, cf. Vedic -- < sani), similarly Y51 (Y51.1222) contains the correspondence of
haiti- merit, earning in Y32.9, in the context of Y46.4bu ga bovines, eu fro.ga leading-bovines
misdirected attributions of fame (srauua): apo and Y51.14buu gauuoi cow (dat.).13 In addition, in
. . . apaiiata . . . haitim robs merit. I concluded the recasting of Y46 in the backwards course of
that through the substitution of the pejorative Y51,14 Y46.17buu huuo.guua (vocative of the fam-
adjective viuuahusa- for Yimas traditional des- ily name huuo.guua- /hauguva-/ having good
ignation *viuuavata- Son of Viuuavhat-, bovines, with -guva- thematic adj. from gau- bo-
Zarathushtra, as throughout the Gathas, avoided vine, cow) has as correspondence Y51.7au ga m
calling a denizen of Wrong by the real name. For cow (acc.). A parallel correspondence is found in
haiti- also as concatenation, poetry, see p. 54, the ring composition of Y46, where the obliga-
para. 2. tory concatenation between stanzas 4 and 17 is
My interpretation of viuuahusa- is now only supplied by Y46.4bu ga bovines, eu fro.ga
conrmed by the relationship between Y32.8auu the leading bovines and the name Y46.17buu
viuuahuso and Y53.5duu may you win huuo.guua. The same series of correspondences
(viuun0 ghatu, van) each other with Rightness, is seen for Y44.6euu ga m (accusative of gau-) cow
for that will be its good earning (hus@ nm) and Y51.18auu huuo.guua.15 The same words are
(see Chart V). Here, in a context of contrast, the found in an identical relationship for Y46.16buu
phonic and semantic elements of viuu@ ghatu huuo.guua vis--vis Y51.5auu in the recasting of
and hus@ nm are equivalent to those of lexical material from Y46 backwards in the for-
viuuahuso. The words viuuahuso and ward composition of the rst half of Y51.16
viuun0 hatu phonically share [viva(N)h-], and The name tura- friiana- Tura, of the Friiana
both viuuahuso and hus@ nm are parallel as family/clan (friiana- descended from Friia-) is
compounds with /vahu-/~ /hu-/ good and /-sa-/ attested in the genitive Y46.12b turahiia . . .
~ /sana-/ earning, han. friianahiia. By backwards recasting of Y46,

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Y46.197 yields lexical material in the forward impetuous) horses, with O1r. alongside OInd.
composition of the rst half of Y51 (Y51.111) i from*H. If this is so, the ptc. *visHta- would
whereby Y46.12bu turahiia has as its correspon- have been replaced in Avestan by *visata- (cf. Av.
dent Y51.7cuu tuuisi strengths (dual), from tu haiti- concatenation, MPers. wisad open(ed),
(PIE teuH) be strong, be able. Thus we recover but Av. hita- tied, attached [e.g. pn. hitaspa-!]
for Iranian an adj. *tura- strong, the equiva- from *sHita-, cf. Av. haeqa- trap; thus Vedic
lent of Vedic tur- (with u from cmpd. form tuvi- vita- < vsHita, not vsHta-?) so that vista-
< *tuHi-) alongside taviyas- stronger etc. (Bthl. would be prone to association with vis. Indeed,
s.v. tura- cites Kurd. tur for tor etc. wild, for the name vistaspa- we now have Zarathush-
which however is from Arab. ur, uri). tras own etymology, via Y32.14buu vista they
As for friiana-, the etymon friia- intimate, ready themselves; vistaspa- is to be understood
dear is represented through the verbal root fri as having ready (vista-) horses (aspa-). This cor-
be/make intimate = propitiate in the corre- relation is not accidental, as shown by Y53.2cu
spondence Y46.12buu friianahiia: Y49.12cuu frinai kauuaca vistaspo and Kauui Vistaspa corre-
I shall propitiate at the end of the forwards re- sponding respectively to Y32.15auu kuuitascit
casting of Y46.111 in Y49(112).17 indeed, the kauuidom and Y32.14buu vista$
Several proper names are attested in the last ready themselves. The name vistaspa- was taken
ve stanzas of Y46, which in its backward course as an OAv. compound, with the past participle
(Y46.19-14) supplied lexical material in the re- preserving the active voice of vis, which is
verse course of the stanzas which were added to prominent in the Vedic cognate viti, vi-,
Proto-Y32 to nalize the poem (Y32.16-14): In ad- against the generalization of the middle voice
dition to the non-onomastic correlations,18 we for vis in Avestan. From the basic active mg.
have Y46.15au haecat.aspa, voc. pl. descendents enter (Vedic viti), Iranian developed the mg.
of *hicat.aspa-, the latter name = who moistens be ready, whence middle voice mg. to ready
horses (in grooming), cf. RV 4.43.6 sin$ cad van. oneself, position oneself for. The older situa-
The rst element, *hicat-, represents the partici- tion may be found in Yt10.46, in which visaiti
ple of the attested stem hica- (= Vedic sic-) to (miqro), paralleled by (miqro . . .) jasaiti, (M.)
pour, moisten. The fem. equivalent of haecat. comes, thus need not be emended to visaite.
aspa- is Y53.3auu haecat .aspana, which corre-$ The persistence of the active form in Old
sponds to Y46.15au via the $ reverse recasting of Avestan is implicit in Zarathushtras etymolog-
Y46 (Y46.198) in the progressive course of Y53 ical connection of vistaspo and vista. [A rein-
(Y53.19). Just as Y46.15au haecat.aspa has as its terpretation of vistaspa- as having ready horses
correspondent Y32.14bu hica, instr. $ of *hic- a < having horses let loose would be easy seman-
pouring (of haoma), so corresponding to this hica tically; as Garcia Ramon (2006, p. 83) on vistaspa-
is Y53.3auu haecat.aspana, the latter via the back- < *visHta-), Vedic vita- va-, stresses, le
ward recasting of$ Y32 in the forward course of cheval est relch pour se mettre la course.]
Y53 (see Chart V). These data conrm Geldners Finally, we come to the name zaraqustra-
reading in Y32.14bu two separate words, varca itself. I had long ago suggested20 that in the
hica, which has received independent support richly and intricately linked stanzas Y44.1718,
from Vedic comparisons by Gippert.19 The name Y44.17buu zarm old age and Y44.18cuu ustrmca
*hicat.aspa- was proposed by Kellens and Pirart and a camel refer to the elements of the name
1988, $p. 8. zaraqustra- having old (*zarat from *zarat-,
For Y46.14c, the title plus name Kauui Vista- $
zar) camels (ustra-). This is now proven by the
spa (nom. kauua vistaspo) each has a correlation lexical correspondence between the aforecited
in the corresponding stanza Y32.14. Y32.14auu forms at Y44.17buuY44.18cuu, and Y46.19buu
kauuaiiascit the kauuis (here as throughout zaraqustra.21
in the pl., a $ pejorized collective) matches the
inherited title kauua-. Following Szemernyi, IV
etymologists have taken vistaspa- as a hippolog-
ical compound with vista- = Vedic vita- untied, It is difcult at present to say why Zarathushtra
unharnessed, with va- horses, RV 6.6.4, chose such a complex means of generating his
3.33.1, whereby Av. vistaspa- could represent an corpus. Parallels are yet to be sought in ancient
Indo-Iranian name he who has unrestrained (i.e. literature (e.g. in the Vedic poems). For modern

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Chart I
Concatenations of Y32 (schema)22 Proto-Y32 Y32 Finalizing Coda

The Concentric Concatenations of Proto-Y32 (32.113)

1. duta- messenger and smoke (dutaho); ah to be; qba- Thy
2. aeibiio mazda . . . (paiti.)mraot Mazda speaks (back) . . . to those; var to choose (varmaidi);
xsaqra- Dominion
3. cit perceive (ciqra-); maz- great (mas)
4. acista- worst; da to establish, make (dan5 to)
5. (hu-)jiiatois from (good) life; mainiiu- spirit; vac to speak (vacaha)
6. aenah- violations (aena) ; sru hear (srauuahiieiti); sanh- to proclaim (s@ n5 gho); vid to know
(voista); qbahmi in Thy
7. aenah- violations (aesa 4m aenaha 4m); sru hear; sanh- to proclaim (sn @ 5 ghaite); vid to know
(viduua, vaedisto); han to earn and hai to tie; ah to be (ahi)
8. aenah- violations (aesa 4m aenaha 4m); sru to hear (srauui); qbahmi in Thy; ah to be (ahmi)
9. (huuo) jiiatu @ s (he . . .) from/of life; mainiiu- spirit; vac to speak (uxda)
10. acista- worst; da (dadat) establish, make
11. cit to perceive (cikoitrs);$ maz- great (mazbis)

12. aeibiio mazda . . . mraot Mazda speaks . . . to those; var to choose (varata); xsaqra- domin(at)ion
13. duta- messenger and smoke $ (dutm @ ); qba- Thy
Proto-Y32, Ties from Central to Outer Stanzas
1. ah to be (a
7. ah to be (ahi)
7. tu Thee; vahista- best
13. qbahiia of Thy; acista- worst
The Concentric Concatenations of the Finalizing Coda of Y32
13. hai to tie (hisasat); dmane in the house; xsai rule (xsaqra-)
14. hai to tie (hoiqoi);$ drguuan5 t- wrongsome
15. dmane in the house; xsai to rule (xsaiiamnn @ 5 g)
16. hai to tie (ahaiia); xsai to rule (xsaiia 4s); drguuan5 t- wrongsome

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Chart II
A Proto-Y32 (forwards) > Y30
32.1cu uruuazma 30.1cu uruuaza uruuaz (have) bliss
32.2cuu varmaidi 30.2b a-uuarna var choose
32.3bu mas 30.2c maz@ maz- great
32.3cu asrudum 30.3auu asruuatm a-sru to have been heard
32.3cu si iaoma n 30.3buu si iaoqanoi action
32.4au acista- 30.4cu acista- worst
32.5auu (hu-)jiiati- 30.4bu (a-)jiiati- life
32.5buu mainiius 30.5bu mainiius spirit
32.5a dbnaota 30.6auu dbaoma dbu deceive
32.5au mas5im (*/martiyam/) 30.6cuu martano mortal(s)
32.5cuu daeuua- 30.6auu daeuua- demons
32.6buu manah- 30.6buu manah- mind
32.6cu xsaqra- 30.7au xsaqra- dominion
32.7buu aiiaha 30.7cuu aiiaha by metal
32.8auu aesa m aenaha m 30.8a aesa m . . . aenaha m of those violations
32.9cuu (dus-)sastis 30.8cu saste proclaiming
32.9cuu as5ai(-ca) 30.8cuu as5ai to Rightness
32.10buu dada- 30.8cuu dada- establish, put
32.11a tae(-cit) . . . yoi 30.9a toi . . . yoi those who . . .
32.11auu $
cikoitrs 30.9cuu cistis cit perceive
32.12au srauuah- 30.10cuu srauuah- *being heard = fame
32.12auu martano 30.11auu mas5iiaho mortals

B Proto-Y32 (backwards) > Y30

32.13cuu darsat 30.1cuu darsata d(a)rs see

32.12c varata $ 30.2bu auuarna var choose
32.11auu mazbis 30.2cu maz@ maz- great
32.10buu (daq@ g drguuato) dadat 30.3c hudaho.. duzdaho da establish
32.9cu mainiiu- $ 30.3au mainiiu- spirit
32.8auu yimascit 30.3auu y@ ma twin
32.8auu srauui $ 30.3auu asruuatm have been heard
32.7auu naecit 30.3cuu noit not
32.6b vahista $ . . . manaha 30.4cuu $
vahistm mano Best Mind
32.5buu mainiiu- 30.4au mainiiu- spirit
32.5auu (hu-)jiiati- 30.4bu (a-)jiiati- life
32.4auu acista- 30.4cu acista- worst
32.3cuu si iaoma n 30.5cuu si iaoqanais actions
32.3au daeuua 30.6auu daeuuacina demons
32.2cuu varmaidi 30.6buu vrnata var choose
32.2cu armaiti- 30.7buu armaiti- Regulative Mind
32.2bu xsaqra- 30.8bu xsaqra- Dominion
32.2au aeibiio 30.8cu aeibiio to those
32.1cu ahama 30.9au x iiama ah be

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Chart III
Proto-Y32 (backwards) > Proto-Y31 (second half, backwards)

32.13cuu ma qrano 31.18auu ma qra sca manthra

32.12c as5at. . . drujm 31.17a as5auua va drguua va Right(-) vs. Wrong(-)
32.12c varta$ 31.16cuu vrnuuaite var opt for, believe
32.12auu si iaoqanat 31.*15buu (ya.)si iaoqanasca action
32.11cu as5aono $ 31.*15buu as5aono righteous (acc. pl.)
32.11auu drguuato 31.*15cu drguuo.dbiio wrongsome (pl.)
32.10au vaenahe 31.*14cuu (aibi.)vaenahi see
32.9b (apa)iiata 31.*14buu (a)iiamaite yam takes
32.9au jiiat@ us 31.*13buu jiiotum life
32.8au aenaha m 31.*13bu aenaho violation
32.7buu viduua 31.12bu viduua knowing
32.6cuu s@ gho 31.11cu s@ gha sca proclamation
32.6bu (hata.)marane 31.10cuu (hu)mrtois m(a)r to account

Chart IV
Y30 > Y53 (backwards)

30.1au is@ to 53.9bu aesasa is to seek, *crave

30.2buu tanuiie 53.9buu (ps5o.)tanuuo body
30.2bu (a)uuarna 53.9au (duz)uuarnais choice
30.2cu maz@ 53.8duu mazisto great(est)
30.3au mainiiu 53.7buu mainiius spirit
30.3auu y@ ma 53.6cu (a)iiese yam *clasp; take
30.4buu ahat 53.5du ahat will be
30.4buu ahus$ 53.5cuu ahum$ existence
30.5au varta 53.4au (ni)uuarani choose
30.6bu vrnata 53.3duu varsuua choose
30.7buu armaitis 53.3duu armatois Regular Thought
30.7buu dadat 53.2duuu dadat gives
30.8cuu dadn$ 53.2du daho$ da deliver, give
30.9auu fras@ m 53.2cuu frasa(ostrasca) splendid
30.10cuu vahau srauuahi 53.1au vahista . . . srauui good(+) + *hear

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Chart V
Y32 (backwards) > Y53
32.16cuu isii@ g 53.1au istis is send/seek
32.16au vahista(-cit) 53.1au vahista best
32.15auu $ )
k@ uuitas (-cit 53.2cu kauua(-ca) kauui- feudal ruler
32.14buu vis@ ta $ 53.2cu *vista- (in name vistaspo) vis ready (oneself)
32.14auu (ni . . .) dadat 53.2duuu dadat put, establish
32.14bu hica $ 53.3auu haecat$ .aspana hic pour (on)
32.14auu xratu- 53.3du xratu- $ intelligence
32.13auu manaho 53.4cuu manaho of/from . . . Mind
32.12bu mraot 53.5au mraomi mru speak
32.11cuu vaedm $ 53.5cu vaedo.dum vid possess
32.11c (a his-ca) ahauuas-ca 53.5cuu ahum pun: ahu- milord/existence
32.10cuu yas-ca vadar@ 53.5bu (xsmaib)iiaca vadmno paronomasia: vadar/n-
weapon; vadmna- addressing
32.9buu vah@ us manho 53.5cuu vah@ us manaho of Good Mind
32.8auu viuuahuso 53.5duu viuu@ ghatu hus@ nm paronomasia; puns han earn;
(vo)hu- good
32.8auu yimas-cit 53.6buu y@ m . . . aiiese paronomasia: *ym(-) whom/
$ twin, yam clasp
32.8buu xvarmno 53.6duu (dus.)xvarqm paronomasia: (/xvar/)
32.7cuu ahi 53.7au ahat ah be
32.6cu v@ (mazda) $
53.7au v@ (mizdm) you + paronomasia: Mazda/
32.5buu mainiius 53.7cuu mainiius spirit
32.5cuu drguuat- 53.7cuu drguuat- wrongsome
32.4cuu nasiiato 53.7cuu u ana sat go astray
32.3bu mas 53.8duu mazisto $ maz- great
32.2cuu varmaidi 53.9au (duz-)uuarnais var choose
32.1buucu mazda qboi 53.9du mazda tauua Mazda to Thee/Thy

Chart VI
Y30 (backwards) > Y31 (second half, backwards)

30.11cuu ahaiti 31.22cuu ahaiti will be

30.11auu uruuata 31.21cu uruuaqo commitment(-)
30.10bu vah@ us manaho 31.21cu vah@ us . . . manaho Good Mind
30.9auu ahum 31.20cu ahum existence
30.8buu voi.vidaiti 31.19cuu vidata vi da allot
30.7cuu adanais 31.18b a . . . (a)dat a da give over, consign
30.6auu dbaoma 31.17cu d@ bauuaiiat$ dbu deceive, deceit
30.5cuu si iaoqanais 31.16cu si iaoqanasca$ action
30.4auu dazde 31.*15bu dadte bring about
30.3auu y@ ma 31.*14buu a . . . (a)iiamaite yam clasp, take
30.2buu nar@ m narm 31.*13buu hanar (as though ha-nar a nar- man
man singly?; but = Vedic sanuts
30.1auu viduse 31.12buu viduua knowing

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

literature, one is reminded of the Oulipo, a and Y53.7cuu mainiius; Y30.4cu and Y53.7cuu drguuat-;
French group of authors who endeavor to pro- Y30.4buu and Y53.7duu u ah(a)t(i) ap@ mm; Y30.3bu
duce literary works through articial constraints and Y53.7duu u vacah-; Y30.2buu and Y53.8cu (-)narVm
and mechanical means. Apart from the recur- (-)narVm; see Chart I for rest.
12. The other correspondences are: Y34.1au and
sive means of poetic production endowing the
Y53.1duu si iaoqana; Y34.2auu and Y53.2buu yasna-;
corpus of interconnected poems with an overall
Y34.3cuu and Y53.2cuu u saosiiato; Y34.5cuu and Y53.3cu
unity and constancy, this technique of compo- vah@ us . . . manaho; Y34.5cuu and Y53.3cuu dat(a);
sition may be regarded as yet another aspect of Y34.6buu and Y53.4duu vispa-; Y34.7cu and Y53.5du
Zarathushtras crypticism of style. ainii@ m/ainim; Y34.8cuu and Y53.6euu manah-; Y34.9cu
and Y53.7bu yauuat; Y34.9cu and Y53.8duu maz-;
Y34.10cu and Y53.9du $ *tu- (thee/thy) + xsaqra-.
13. Other correspondences: Y46.1au and Y51.12auu
Notes noit . . . xsnaus; Y46.1duu and Y51.13bu drguua()to;
Y46.2auu, buu and Y51.13buu ah; Y46.3cu and Y51.14buu
1. See Schwartz 2003a, pp. 19699 et passim, with s@ ghais; Y46.3euu and Y51.14cu sanh or sad;
bibliography 196, n. 2. Y46.4cuu and Y51.14buu xvais si iaoqanais; Y46.5auu and
2. Schwartz 2006a. [For ring composition in gen- Y51.14cuu ada, etc. down to Y46.13 and Y51.22au as5a-
eral, see Mary Douglas, Thinking in Circles (Yale + hac. Note Y46.8buu frosiiat and Y51.16auu nasat, at-
University Press, December, 2006), pp. 48389.] testing as and nas to reach$ as variant outcomes $ of
3. Schwartz 2003a, pp. 199 seq. PIE *Henk and *Hnek.
4. Y31, like Y44, shows concatenation-type (c). 14. For this recasting, cf. Part of I, on the role of
5. Y31.3bu *vazdohuuadbiio in place of paronomasia.
cazdohuuadbiio, conrming an independent sug- 15. The other correspondences in the series are the
gestion by Werba. (See Werba 1986.) Note also that phonically related Y44.1b (nmaho . . .) nm@ and
in the backwards recasting of Y45 in the forwards Y51.22cu *nam@ ni (both paronomastic recastings of
course of Y31, Y31.3 cazdohuuadbiio corresponds to Y46.1 nmoi . . . nmoi aiieni); Y44.1d and Y51.22a
Y49.10 vazdaha. as5a- + hac; Y44.2duu and Y51.21au spto; Y44.2duu
6. For the reading Y31.7bu *xsaqra for mss. xraqba, and Y51.20auu vispa-; Y44.2euu and Y51.19au na;
cf. the parallel Y45.7e with Y45.8b, Y31.8bcu, and Y44.5buu, cuu and Y51.18cu daidi; Y44.7bu and Y51.17au
Y45.4buuc. Probable inuence of Y31.9auub xratus, as brxdam; Y44.8au and Y51.16buu man; Y44.9eu and
at Y31.7 with mainiiu- and mazda. Y51.15bu quasi (-)dm-a- house; Y44.10duu and
7. See Schwartz 2006 for all aspects of the relation- Y51.14buu si iaoqana-; Y44.10du and Y51.14auu *ar@ m;
ship of Y32 to the Haoma hymn. Y44.11cuu and Y51.13auu daena; Y44.12euu and Y51.12au
8. Cf. Schwartz 2004, pp. 1617; 2003b, p. 389, with noit.
Schwartz, 2006a. $ The other correspondences: Y46.19auu and
9. For Zarathushtras heuristic application of twin Y51.1cuu varsa-; Y46.18bu and Y51.2buu istois;
to the two Spirits, and their origin in a single, prob- Y46.17cuu and Y51.2cuu vahma-; Y46.16d and Y51.3buu
lematically ambiguous term mainiiu-, see Schwartz vah@ us manaho; Y46.16 and Y51.4b repeat respec-
2004, pp. 1516. The eventual equation of Mazda tively the interrogative and relative directional forms
Ahura with Spta Mainiiu set the stage for the Sasa- is -qra (whereby the statements of Y46.16 concerning
nian Zurvanite myth of Ohrmazd and Ahriman as the location of the ve pentadic divine entities are
(twin) brothers within the womb of a single parent posed as questions in Y51.4); Y46.15bu and Y51.5cu
Time. See Schwartz 2004, pp. 1516. For the meaning data- pl.; Y46.14bu and Y51.5auu gau- (see below);
of mainiiu- in the Gathas, see Shaked 2003, esp. pp. Y46.14euu and Y51.6au vah@ us; Y46.13cuu and Y51.7a
39295 for Y30.3 and the twin Spirits, contra da redup. pres.; Y46.12euu and Y51.7cuu sanh;
Kellens interpretations (note also pp. 39596, on Y46.12d and Y51.7cuu vohu + manaha; Y46.11bu and
xsaqra- and da). Y51.8bu aka-; Y46.10buu and Y51.8c vid; Y46.9cuu and
10. Mss. hois. Emendation as *hoi is would intro- Y51.9cuu as5auuanm; Y46.8auu and Y51.10buu dazde/
duce a problematic plural object. I suggest that the -s duz-da (da); Y46.7a; and Y51.11a k@ (m)(. . .)na.
of hois has incorporated Pahlavi 3rd pers. sg. enclitic 17. The other correspondences are: Y46.1 and
-s , a gloss of Av. hoi. Y49.1 xsn(a)u; Y46.2du and Y49.1cuu rap; Y46.3bu
11. The other correspondences are: Y30.11au and and Y46.3bu and Y49.2cu dar; Y46.3euu and Y49.3auu
Y53.1du sasa -; Y30.10buu and Y53.2au manaha; /v(V)rnVi/ (var); 46.4au and Y49.4duu drguuat-;
Y30.8buu and Y53.4cuu manah- + vohu-; Y30.7cuu and Y46.5buu huztus and Y49.5cuu mru; Y46.5duu and
Y53.5duu ahat; Y30.6cuu and Y53.6euu ahum; Y30.5bu Y49.7cuu xvaetu-; Y46.6euu and Y49.8auu da; Y46.7bu and

s c h w a r t z: How Zarathushtra Generated the Gathic Corpus

Y49.9buu drguuat-; Y46.7euu and Y49.9cu daena; Gippert 2002 J. Gippert. The Avestan Lan-
Y46.8duu and Y49.10auu pa; Y46.9cuu and Y49.10buu guage and Its Problems. In
as5auuan-; Y46.10cuu and Y49.11au -xsaqra-; Y46.11e Indo-Iranian Languages and
and Y49.11d drujo *dmane (. . .) astaiio. Peoples, ed. N. Sims-Williams,
18. Y46.19au and Y32.16buu ma-; Y46.18auu and 16587. Oxford.
Y32.16au vahista; Y46.17euu and 32.16auu danh; Kellens and J. Kellens and E. Pirart. Les
Y46.16duu and Y32.15buu xsai. Pirart 1988 textes vieil-avestiques. Vol. 1,
19. Gippert 2002, pp. 18486. Introduction, textes, et com-
20. Schwartz 1986, pp. 37579. mentaire. Wiesbaden.
21. The surrounding correlations are Y46.19duu and Schwartz 1986 M. Schwartz. Coded Sound
Y44.20bu gau-; Y46.19du and Y44.19eu vid-; Y46.19c Patterns, Acrostics, and Ana-
and Y44.19b, 18buu mizdm han-; Y46.18duu and grams in Zoroasters Oral Po-
Y44.17cu xsmaka-; Y46.17cuu and Y44.16duu sraosa-; etry. In Studia Grammatica
Y46.17auu and Y44.16buu s@ gha-. The further corre- Iranica: Festschrift fr Helmut
lations, which include notably Y46.9buu and Y44.7cu Humbach, ed. R. Schmitt and
uzma-, end in the series Y46.5buu and Y44.4bu P. O. Skjrv, 32792. Munich.
*/dr(i)ta/, Y46.4auu and Y44.3buu as5ahiia; Y46.3buu and Schwartz 1998 The Ties that Bind: On
Y44.2cu su; Y46.3bu and Y44.2bu ah@ us; Y46.2du and the Form and Content of
Y44.1cuduu friiai . . . friia- da; and nally the phoni- Zarathushtras Gathas. In
cally similar Y46.1a nmoi (zam kuqra) nmoi and New Approaches to the
Y44.1bu nmaho (a yaqa) n@ m@ . Interpretations of the Gathas,
22. For the details, see Schwartz 1998, pp. 13334, ed. F. Vajifdar, 12797. Surrey.
to which add Y32.7buu and 10auu */(-)vaina-/ see, sight. Schwartz 2003a Gathic Compositional
The evidence for relocation of Y32.7cuu irixtm to History, Y29, and Bovine
Y32.6, in concatention with Y32.11buu raexnaho Symbolism. In Paitimana:
(both ric to leave over) will be discussed elsewhere. Essays in Iranian, Indo-
European, and Indian Studies
in Honor of Hanns-Peter
Schmidt, ed. S. Adhami,
195249. Costa Mesa.
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