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# Arizonas

Mathematics

## Standards Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples

StateBoardApprovedJune2010
October2013Publication

## TheNumberSystem(NS) MathematicalPractices (MP)

Knowthattherearenumbersthatarenotrational,andapproximatethemby 1. Makesenseofproblemsandpersevereinsolvingthem.
rationalnumbers.
2. Reasonabstractlyandquantitatively.
ExpressionsandEquations(EE)
3. Constructviableargumentsandcritiquethereasoningofothers.
Understandtheconnectionsbetweenproportionalrelationships,lines,and 5. Useappropriatetoolsstrategically.
linearequations.
6. Attendtoprecision.
Analyzeandsolvelinearequationsandpairsofsimultaneouslinear
equations. 7. Lookforandmakeuseofstructure.

Functions(F) 8. Lookforandexpressregularityinrepeatedreasoning.

Define,evaluate,andcomparefunctions.
Usefunctionstomodelrelationshipsbetweenquantities.
Geometry(G)
Understandcongruenceandsimilarityusingphysicalmodels,transparencies,
orgeometrysoftware.
UnderstandandapplythePythagoreanTheorem.
Solverealworldandmathematicalproblemsinvolvingvolumeofcylinders,
conesandspheres.
StatisticsandProbability(SP)
Investigatepatternsofassociationinbivariatedata.

## Eighth Grade: Mathematics Standards Mathematical Practices Explanations and Examples

datawithalinearequation,andsolvinglinearequationsandsystemsoflinearequations;(2)graspingtheconceptofafunctionandusingfunctionstodescribequantitative
relationships;(3)analyzingtwoandthreedimensionalspaceandfiguresusingdistance,angle,similarity,andcongruence,andunderstandingandapplyingthePythagorean
Theorem.
(1)Studentsuselinearequationsandsystemsoflinearequationstorepresent,analyze,andsolveavarietyofproblems.Studentsrecognizeequationsforproportions(y/x=mor
y=mx)asspeciallinearequations(y=mx+b),understandingthattheconstantofproportionality(m)istheslope,andthegraphsarelinesthroughtheorigin.Theyunderstand
thattheslope(m)ofalineisaconstantrateofchange,sothatiftheinputorxcoordinatechangesbyanamountA,theoutputorycoordinatechangesbytheamountmA.
fittingthemodel,andassessingitsfittothedataaredoneinformally.Interpretingthemodelinthecontextofthedatarequiresstudentstoexpressarelationshipbetweenthe
twoquantitiesinquestionandtointerpretcomponentsoftherelationship(suchasslopeandyintercept)intermsofthesituation.
Studentsstrategicallychooseandefficientlyimplementprocedurestosolvelinearequationsinonevariable,understandingthatwhentheyusethepropertiesofequalityandthe
conceptoflogicalequivalence,theymaintainthesolutionsoftheoriginalequation.Studentssolvesystemsoftwolinearequationsintwovariablesandrelatethesystemsto
pairsoflinesintheplane;theseintersect,areparallel,orarethesameline.Studentsuselinearequations,systemsoflinearequations,linearfunctions,andtheirunderstanding
ofslopeofalinetoanalyzesituationsandsolveproblems.
(2)Studentsgrasptheconceptofafunctionasarulethatassignstoeachinputexactlyoneoutput.Theyunderstandthatfunctionsdescribesituationswhereonequantity
determinesanother.Theycantranslateamongrepresentationsandpartialrepresentationsoffunctions(notingthattabularandgraphicalrepresentationsmaybepartial
representations),andtheydescribehowaspectsofthefunctionarereflectedinthedifferentrepresentations.
andanalyzetwodimensionalfiguresandtosolveproblems.Studentsshowthatthesumoftheanglesinatriangleistheangleformedbyastraightline,andthatvarious
configurationsoflinesgiverisetosimilartrianglesbecauseoftheanglescreatedwhenatransversalcutsparallellines.StudentsunderstandthestatementofthePythagorean
Theoremanditsconverse,andcanexplainwhythePythagoreanTheoremholds,forexample,bydecomposingasquareintwodifferentways.TheyapplythePythagorean
Theoremtofinddistancesbetweenpointsonthecoordinateplane,tofindlengths,andtoanalyzepolygons.Studentscompletetheirworkonvolumebysolvingproblems
andusingconceptsofratioandratetosolveproblems;(2)completingunderstandingofdivisionoffractionsandextendingthenotionofnumbertothesystemofrational
numbers,whichincludesnegativenumbers;(3)writing,interpreting,andusingexpressionsandequations;and(4)developingunderstandingofstatisticalthinking.

## The Number System (NS)

Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.NS.A.1.Knowthatnumbers 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Studentscanusegraphicorganizerstoshowtherelationshipbetweenthesubsetsoftherealnumber
thatarenotrationalarecalled quantitatively. system.
irrational.Understand
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
informallythateverynumber
decimalexpansionrepeats
eventually,andconverta
decimalexpansionwhich
repeatseventuallyintoa
rationalnumber.
Connections:8.EE.4;8.EE.7b;
68.RST.4;68.RST.7

## The Number System (NS)

Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.NS.A.2.Userational 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Studentscanapproximatesquarerootsbyiterativeprocesses.
approximationsofirrational quantitatively.
Examples:
numberstocomparethesizeof
8.MP.4.Modelwith Approximatethevalueof 5 tothenearesthundredth.
irrationalnumbers,locatethem
mathematics.
approximatelyonanumberline Solution:Studentsstartwitharoughestimatebaseduponperfectsquares. 5 fallsbetween
diagram,andestimatethevalue 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
2and3because5fallsbetween22=4and32=9.Thevaluewillbecloserto2thanto3.
ofexpressions(e.g.,2).For ofstructure.
example,bytruncatingthe Studentscontinuetheiterativeprocesswiththetenthsplacevalue. 5 fallsbetween2.2and
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
decimalexpansionof2,show 2.3because5fallsbetween2.22=4.84and2.32=5.29.Thevalueiscloserto2.2.Further
regularityinrepeated
that2isbetween1and2,then iterationshowsthatthevalueof 5 isbetween2.23and2.24since2.232is4.9729and2.242
reasoning.
between1.4and1.5,and is5.0176.
explainhowtocontinueonto
getbetterapproximations. Compare2and3byes ma ngtheirvalues,plottingthemonanumberline,andmaking
comparativestatements.
Connections:8.G.7;8.G.8;
68.RST.5;ET08S1C201

Solution:Statementsforthecomparisoncouldinclude:
o 2isapproximately0.3lessthan3
o 2isbetweenthewholenumbers1and2
o 3isbetween1.7and1.8

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Work with radicals and integer exponents.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.A.1.Knowandapplythe 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
propertiesofintegerexponents quantitatively. 43 64
togenerateequivalent 2

5 25
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
numericalexpressions.For
strategically.
example, 43 1 1
43 7 4 4
3235=33=1/33=1/27. 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. 47 44 256

8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
43 1 1 1 1 1 1
ofstructure. 2
43 2 3 2
5 5 4 5 64 25 16, 000
8.EE.A.2.Usesquarerootand 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
cuberootsymbolstorepresent quantitatively.
solutionstoequationsofthe 3 2 9 and 9 3
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
formx2=pandx3=p,wherep
strategically. 13 1
3
isapositiverationalnumber. 1 1 3
1 1
Evaluatesquarerootsofsmall 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
3 and 3
3 3 27 27 3
27 3
perfectsquaresandcuberoots
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofsmallperfectcubes.Know
Solve x 9
2
ofstructure.
that2isirra onal.
Solution: x 9
2
Connections:8.G.7;8.G.8;
68.RST.4
x2 9
x 3
Solve x 8
3

Solution: x 8
3

3
x3 3 8
x2

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Work with radicals and integer exponents.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.A.3.Usenumbers 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
expressedintheformofasingle quantitatively.
digittimesanintegerpowerof
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
10toestimateverylargeorvery
strategically.
smallquantities,andtoexpress
howmanytimesasmuchoneis 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
thantheother.Forexample,
estimatethepopulationofthe
UnitedStatesas3108andthe
populationoftheworldas
7109,anddeterminethatthe
worldpopulationismorethan
20timeslarger.
8.EE.A.4.Performoperations 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Studentscanconvertdecimalformstoscientificnotationandapplyrulesofexponentstosimplify
scientificnotation,including scientificnotation.Studentsshouldrecognizethattheoutputof2.45E+23is2.45x1023and3.5E4is
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
problemswherebothdecimal 3.5x104.StudentsenterscientificnotationusingEorEE(scientificnotation),*(multiplication),and^
strategically.
andscientificnotationareused. (exponent)symbols.
Usescientificnotationand 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
chooseunitsofappropriatesize
formeasurementsofverylarge
orverysmallquantities(e.g.,
usemillimetersperyearfor
scientificnotationthathasbeen
generatedbytechnology.
Connections:8.NS.1;8.EE.1;
ET08S6C103

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.B.5.Graphproportional 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Usinggraphsofexperiencesthatarefamiliartostudents increasesaccessibilityandsupports
relationships,interpretingthe problemsandperseverein understandingandinterpretationofproportionalrelationship.Studentsareexpectedtobothsketch
unitrateastheslopeofthe solvingthem. andinterpretgraphs.
graph.Comparetwodifferent
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
proportionalrelationships
quantitatively.
Forexample,comparea 8.MP.3.Constructviable ofeachscenarioincludingtheunitratesinyourexplanation.
distancetimegraphtoa argumentsandcritiquethe
Scenario1: Scenario2:
distancetimeequationto reasoningofothers.
determinewhichoftwomoving
8.MP.4.Modelwith y = 50x
objectshasgreaterspeed.
mathematics. x istimeinhours
Connections:8.F.2;8.F.3; y isdistanceinmiles
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
68.RST.7;68.WHST.2b;
strategically.
SC08S5C201;SC08S5C205
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.

8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.B.6.Usesimilartrianglesto 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
explainwhytheslopemisthe quantitatively.
samebetweenanytwodistinct Explainwhy ACB issimilarto DFE ,anddeducethat AB hasthesameslopeas BE .
8.MP.3.Constructviable
pointsonanonverticallinein Expresseachlineasanequation.
argumentsandcritiquethe
thecoordinateplane;derivethe
reasoningofothers.
equationy=mxforaline
throughtheoriginandthe 8.MP.4.Modelwith
equationy=mx+bforaline mathematics.
interceptingtheverticalaxisat
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
b.
strategically.
Connections:8.F.3;8.G.4;
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
68.RST.3;68.WHST.1b;
ofstructure.
ET08S1C201;ET08S6C103
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.C.7.Solvelinearequations 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Asstudentstransformlinearequationsinonevariableintosimplerforms,theydiscovertheequations
inonevariable. quantitatively. canhaveonesolution,infinitelymanysolutions,ornosolutions.
a. Giveexamplesoflinear 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools Whentheequationhasonesolution,thevariablehasonevaluethatmakestheequationtrueasin
equationsinonevariable strategically. 124y=16.Theonlyvalueforythatmakesthisequationtrueis1.
withonesolution,infinitely
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. Whentheequationhasinfinitelymanysolutions,theequationistrueforallrealnumbersasin
manysolutions,orno
7x+14=7(x+2).Asthisequationissimplified,thevariabletermscancelleaving14=14or0=0.Since
solutions.Showwhichof 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
theexpressionsareequivalent,thevalueforthetwosidesoftheequationwillbethesameregardless
thesepossibilitiesisthecase ofstructure.
whichrealnumberisusedforthesubstitution.
bysuccessivelytransforming
thegivenequationinto Whenanequationhasnosolutionsitisalsocalledaninconsistentequation.Thisisthecasewhenthe
simplerforms,untilan twoexpressionsarenotequivalentasin5x2=5(x+1).Whensimplifyingthisequation,studentswill
equivalentequationofthe findthatthesolutionappearstobetwonumbersthatarenotequalor2=1.Inthiscase,regardless
formx=a,a=a,ora=b whichrealnumberisusedforthesubstitution,theequationisnottrueandthereforehasnosolution.
results(whereaandbare
Examples:
differentnumbers).
Solveforx:
b. Solvelinearequationswith
rationalnumbercoefficients, o 3( x 7) 4
includingequationswhose
solutionsrequireexpanding o 3x 8 4 x 8
expressionsusingthe
distributivepropertyand o 3( x 1) 5 3 x 2
collectingliketerms.
Solve:
Connections:8.F.3;8.NS.1;
68.RST.3;ET08S1C301 o 7( m 3) 7
1 2 3 1
o y y
4 3 4 3

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.C.8.Analyzeandsolvepairs 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Systemsoflinearequationscanalsohaveonesolution,infinitelymanysolutionsornosolutions.
ofsimultaneouslinear problemsandperseverein Studentswilldiscoverthesecasesastheygraphsystemsoflinearequationsandsolvethem
equations. solvingthem. algebraically.
a. Understandthatsolutionsto 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Asystemoflinearequationswhosegraphsmeetatonepoint(intersectinglines)hasonlyonesolution,
asystemoftwolinear quantitatively. theorderedpairrepresentingthepointofintersection.Asystemoflinearequationswhosegraphsdo
equationsintwovariables notmeet(parallellines)hasnosolutionsandtheslopesoftheselinesarethesame.Asystemoflinear
8.MP.3.Constructviable
correspondtopointsof equationswhosegraphsarecoincident(thesameline)hasinfinitelymanysolutions,thesetofordered
argumentsandcritiquethe
intersectionoftheirgraphs, pairsrepresentingallthepointsontheline.
reasoningofothers.
becausepointsof
Bymakingconnectionsbetweenalgebraicandgraphicalsolutionsandthecontextofthesystemof
intersectionsatisfyboth 8.MP.4.Modelwith
linearequations,studentsareabletomakesenseoftheirsolutions.Studentsneedopportunitiesto
equationssimultaneously. mathematics.
workwithequationsandcontextthatincludewholenumberand/ordecimals/fractions.
b. Solvesystemsoftwolinear 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
Examples:
equationsintwovariables strategically.
Findxandyusingeliminationandthenusingsubstitution.
algebraically,andestimate
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
solutionsbygraphingthe o 3x+4y=7
equations.Solvesimple 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
o 2x+8y=10
casesbyinspection.For ofstructure.
example,3x+2y=5and3x
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress PlantAandPlantBareondifferentwateringschedules.Thisaffectstheirrateofgrowth.
+2y=6havenosolution Comparethegrowthofthetwoplantstodeterminewhentheirheightswillbethesame.
regularityinrepeated
because3x+2ycannot
reasoning. LetW=numberofweeks
simultaneouslybe5and6.
LetH=heightoftheplantafterWweeks
PlantA PlantB
W H W H
0 4 (0,4) 0 2 (0,2)
1 6 (1,6) 1 6 (1,6)
2 8 (2,8) 2 10 (2,10)
3 10 (3,10) 3 14 (3,14)
Continuedonnextpage Continuedonnextpage

## Expressions and Equations (EE)

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. continued
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.EE.C.8.continued Giveneachsetofcoordinates,graphtheircorrespondinglines.
c. Solverealworldand Solution:
mathematicalproblems
equationsintwovariables.
Forexample,given
coordinatesfortwopairsof
points,determinewhether
thelinethroughthefirstpair
ofpointsintersectstheline
throughthesecondpair.
Connections:68.RST.7;
ET08S1C201;ET08S1C202
WriteanequationthatrepresentthegrowthrateofPlantAandPlantB.
Solution:
PlantAH=2W+4
PlantBH=4W+2
Atwhichweekwilltheplantshavethesameheight?
Solution:
Theplantshavethesameheightafteroneweek.
PlantA:H=2W+4PlantB:H=4W+2
PlantA:H=2(1)+4PlantB:H=4(1)+2
PlantA:H=6PlantB:H=6
Afteroneweek,theheightofPlantAandPlantBareboth6inches.

Functions (F)
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.F.A.1.Understandthata 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
functionisarulethatassignsto quantitatively.
Therulethattakesxasinputandgivesx2+5x+4asoutputisafunction.Usingytostandforthe
eachinputexactlyoneoutput.
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. outputwecanrepresentthisfunctionwiththeequationy=x2+5x+4,andthegraphofthe
Thegraphofafunctionisthe
equationisthegraphofthefunction.Studentsarenotyetexpectedusefunctionnotation
setoforderedpairsconsisting
suchasf(x)=x2+5x+4.
ofaninputandthe
correspondingoutput.(Function
notationisnotrequiredin
Connection:SC08S5C205

Functions (F)
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.F.A.2.Comparepropertiesof 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Examples:
twofunctionseachrepresented problemsandperseverein Comparethetwolinearfunctionslistedbelowanddeterminewhichequationrepresentsa
graphically,numericallyin
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Function1: Function2:
tables,orbyverbal
quantitatively. Thefunctionwhoseinputxandoutputyare
descriptions).Forexample,
8.MP.3.Constructviable relatedby
givenalinearfunction
representedbyatableofvalues argumentsandcritiquethe y = 3x + 7
andalinearfunction reasoningofothers.
representedbyanalgebraic
8.MP.4.Modelwith
expression,determinewhich
mathematics.
functionhasthegreaterrateof
change. 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
Connections:8.EE.5;8.F.2;
68.RST.7;68.WHST.1b; 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. Comparethetwolinearfunctionslistedbelowanddeterminewhichhasanegativeslope.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress amagazine.Letybetheamountremainingasafunctionofthenumberofweeks,x.
regularityinrepeated x y
reasoning.
0 20
1 16.50
2 13.00
3 9.50
4 6.00
Function2:CalculatorRental
Theschoolbookstorerentsgraphingcalculatorsfor\$5permonth.Italsocollectsanon
refundablefeeof\$10.00fortheschoolyear.Writetheruleforthetotalcost(c)ofrentinga
calculatorasafunctionofthenumberofmonths(m).
Continuedonnextpage

Functions (F)
Define, evaluate, and compare functions. continued
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.F.A.2.continued Solution:
Function1isanexampleofafunctionwhosegraphhasnegativeslope.Samanthastartswith
decreaseswithSamanthasweeklymagazinepurchase.Function2isanexampleofafunction
whosegraphhaspositiveslope.Studentspayayearlynonrefundablefeeforrentingthe
calculatorandpay\$5foreachmonththeyrentthecalculator.Thisfunctionhasapositive
slopeof5whichistheamountofthemonthlyrentalfee.AnequationforExample2couldbe
c=5m+10.
8.F.A.3.Interprettheequationy 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
=mx+basdefiningalinear quantitatively.
Determinewhichofthefunctionslistedbelowarelinearandwhicharenotlinearandexplain
function,whosegraphisa
8.MP.4.Modelwith yourreasoning.
straightline;giveexamplesof
mathematics.
functionsthatarenotlinear.For o y=2x2+3 nonlinear
example,thefunctionA=s2 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
o y=2x linear
givingtheareaofasquareasa strategically.
functionofitssidelengthisnot o A=r2
nonlinear
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
linearbecauseitsgraph
o y=0.25+0.5(x2)linear
containsthepoints(1,1),(2,4) 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
and(3,9),whicharenotona ofstructure.
straightline.
Connections:8.EE.5;8.EE.7a;
68.WHST.1b;ET08S6C103

Functions (F)
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.F.B.4.Constructafunctionto 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Examples:
modelalinearrelationship problemsandperseverein
betweentwoquantities. solvingthem.
Determinetherateofchange
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand forthecostindollars,c,asafunctionofthenumberofdays,d.
andinitialvalueofthefunction
quantitatively.
relationshiporfromtwo(x,y) 8.MP.3.Constructviable atable.
values,includingreadingthese argumentsandcritiquethe Days(d) Cost(c)indollars
fromatableorfromagraph. reasoningofothers. 1 70
Interprettherateofchangeand 2 115
8.MP.4.Modelwith
initialvalueofalinearfunction 3 160
mathematics.
intermsofthesituationit 4 205
models,andintermsofits 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
graphoratableofvalues. strategically. Studentsshouldrecognizethattherateofchangeis45(thecostofrentingthecar)andthat
8.SP.3;ET08S1C201; situations.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
SC08S5C201;SC08S1C302
reasoning. relationshipbetweenthetimeoftheascentinseconds(t)andthedistancefromthesurfacein
feet(d).
o Willtheybeatthesurfacein5minutes?Howlongwillittakethediverstosurfacefrom
theirdive?
o Makeatableofvaluesshowingseveraltimesandthecorrespondingdistanceofthe
diversfromthesurface.Explainwhatyourtableshows.Howdothevaluesinthetable
relatetoyourequation?

Functions (F)
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.F.B.5.Describequalitatively 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
thefunctionalrelationship quantitatively.
Thegraphbelowshowsastudentstriptoschool.Thisstudentwalkstohisfriendshouseand,
betweentwoquantitiesby
8.MP.3.Constructviable together,theyrideabustoschool.Thebusstopsoncebeforearrivingatschool.
analyzingagraph(e.g.,where
argumentsandcritiquethe
thefunctionisincreasingor DescribehoweachpartAEofthegraphrelatestothestory.
reasoningofothers.
decreasing,linearornonlinear).
Sketchagraphthatexhibitsthe 8.MP.4.Modelwith
qualitativefeaturesofa mathematics.
functionthathasbeen
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
describedverbally.
strategically.
Connections:68.WHST.2af;
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
ET08S1C201;SC08S5C205
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Geometry (G)
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.A.1.Verifyexperimentally 8.MP.4.Modelwith Studentsneedmultipleopportunitiestoexplorethetransformationoffiguressothattheycan
thepropertiesofrotations, mathematics. appreciatethatpointsstaythesamedistanceapartandlinesstayatthesameangleaftertheyhave
reflections,andtranslations: 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools beenrotated,reflected,and/ortranslated.
a. Linesaretakentolines,and strategically. Studentsarenotexpectedtoworkformallywithpropertiesofdilationsuntilhighschool.
linesegmentstoline 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
segmentsofthesame 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
length. ofstructure.
b. Anglesaretakentoanglesof 8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress
thesamemeasure. regularityinrepeated
reasoning.
c. Parallellinesaretakento
parallellines.
8.G.A.2.Understandthatatwo 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
dimensionalfigureiscongruent quantitatively. IsFigureAcongruenttoFigureA?Explainhowyouknow.
toanotherifthesecondcanbe
8.MP.4.Modelwith
obtainedfromthefirstbya
mathematics.
sequenceofrotations,
reflections,andtranslations; 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
giventwocongruentfigures,
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
describeasequencethat
ofstructure.
exhibitsthecongruence
betweenthem. DescribethesequenceoftransformationsthatresultsinthetransformationofFigureAto
Connections:68.WHST.2b,f; FigureA.
ET08S6C103

Geometry (G)
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
dilations,translations,rotations, argumentsandcritiquethe center,andmultipliesdistancesfromthecenterbyacommonscalefactor.Indilatedfigures,the
andreflectionsontwo reasoningofothers. dilatedfigureissimilartoitspreimage.
dimensionalfiguresusing
8.MP.4.Modelwith Translation:Atranslationisatransformationofanobjectthatmovestheobjectsothateverypointof
coordinates.
mathematics. theobjectmovesinthesamedirectionaswellasthesamedistance.Inatranslation,thetranslated
Connections:68.WHST.2b,f; objectiscongruenttoitspreimage.
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
ET08S6C103
strategically. ABC hasbeentranslated7unitstotherightand3unitsup.TogetfromA(1,5)toA(8,8),
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. moveA7unitstotheright(fromx=1tox=8)and3unitsup(fromy=5toy=8).PointsB+C
alsomoveinthesamedirection(7unitstotherightand3unitsup).
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Reflection:Areflectionisatransformationthatflipsanobjectacrossalineofreflection(ina
coordinategridthelineofreflectionmaybethexoryaxis).Inarotation,therotatedobjectis
congruenttoitspreimage.

Continuedonnextpage

Geometry (G)
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. continued
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.A.3.continued Whenanobjectisreflectedacrosstheyaxis,thereflectedxcoordinateistheoppositeofthepre
imagexcoordinate.

ofrotation.Afigurecanberotatedupto360.Rotatedfiguresarecongruenttotheirpreimage
figures.
Considerwhen DEF isrotated180clockwiseabouttheorigin.Thecoordinatesof DEF
areD(2,5),E(2,1),andF(8,1).Whenrotated180, D ' E ' F ' hasnewcoordinatesD(2,5),
E(2,1)andF(8,1).Eachcoordinateistheoppositeofitspreimage.

Geometry (G)
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.A.4.Understandthatatwo 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
dimensionalfigureissimilarto quantitatively.
IsFigureAsimilartoFigureA?Explainhowyouknow.
anotherifthesecondcanbe
8.MP.4.Modelwith
obtainedfromthefirstbya
mathematics.
sequenceofrotations,
reflections,translations,and 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
dilations;giventwosimilartwo strategically.
dimensionalfigures,describea
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
sequencethatexhibitsthe
similaritybetweenthem. 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
Connections:8.EE.6;
68.WHST.2b,f;ET08S6C103;
ET08S1C101
DescribethesequenceoftransformationsthatresultsinthetransformationofFigureAto
FigureA.

Geometry (G)
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.A.5.Useinformal 8.MP.3.Constructviable Studentscaninformallyproverelationshipswithtransversals.
argumentstoestablishfacts argumentsandcritiquethe Example:
Showthatm 3 +m 4 +m 5 =180iflandmareparallellinesandt1&t2aretransversals.
exteriorangleoftriangles,
8.MP.4.Modelwith 1 + 2 + 3 =180.Angle1andAngle5arecongruentbecausetheyarecorresponding
mathematics.
parallellinesarecutbya angles( 5 1 ). 1 canbesubstitutedfor 5 .
transversal,andtheangleangle 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools 4 2 becausealternateinterioranglesarecongruent.
criterionforsimilarityof strategically. 4 canbesubstitutedfor 2 .
triangles.Forexample,arrange
threecopiesofthesame
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. Thereforem 3 +m 4 +m 5 =180
trianglesothatthesumofthe 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
threeanglesappearstoforma ofstructure.
line,andgiveanargumentin
termsoftransversalswhythisis
so.
Connections:68.WHST.2b,f;
68.WHST.1b;ET08S6C103;
ET08S1C101;ET08S1C303 Studentscaninformallyconcludethatthesumofatriangleis180o(theanglesumtheorem)by
applyingtheirunderstandingoflinesandalternateinteriorangles.
Examples:
Inthefigurebelow,linexisparalleltolineyz:

Angleais35obecauseitalternateswiththeangleinsidethetrianglethatmeasures35o.
Anglecis80obecauseitalternateswiththeangleinsidethetrianglethatmeasures80o.
Becauselineshaveameasureof180o,andanglesa+b+cformastraightline,thenangleb
mustbe65o(18035+80=65).Therefore,thesumoftheanglesofthetriangleare
35o+65o+80o.

Geometry (G)
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.B.6.Explainaproofofthe 8.MP.3.Constructviable Studentsshouldverify,usingamodel,thatthesumofthesquaresofthelegsisequaltothesquareof
PythagoreanTheoremandits argumentsandcritiquethe thehypotenuseinarighttriangle.Studentsshouldalsounderstandthatifthesumofthesquaresof
converse. reasoningofothers. the2smallerlegsofatriangleisequaltothesquareofthethirdleg,thenthetriangleisarighttriangle.
Connections:68.WHST.2af; 8.MP.4.Modelwith
ET08S1C201 mathematics.
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
8.G.B.7.ApplythePythagorean 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Throughauthenticexperiencesandexploration,studentsshouldusethePythagoreanTheoremto
Theoremtodetermine problemsandperseverein solveproblems.Problemscanincludeworkinginbothtwoandthreedimensions.Studentsshouldbe
unknownsidelengthsinright solvingthem. familiarwiththecommonPythagoreantriplets.
trianglesinrealworldand
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
mathematicalproblemsintwo
quantitatively.
andthreedimensions.
8.MP.4.Modelwith
Connections:8.NS.2;
mathematics.
ET08S2C201
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Geometry (G)
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.B.8.ApplythePythagorean 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Example:
Theoremtofindthedistance problemsandperseverein
Studentswillcreatearighttrianglefromthetwopointsgiven(asshowninthediagrambelow)
betweentwopointsina solvingthem.
andthenusethePythagoreanTheoremtofindthedistancebetweenthetwogivenpoints.
coordinatesystem.
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand
Connections:8.NS.2; quantitatively.
ET08S6C103
8.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.

Geometry (G)
Solve realworld and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.G.C.9.Knowtheformulasfor 8.MP.1.Makesenseof Example:
thevolumesofcones,cylinders, problemsandperseverein
Jameswantedtoplantpansiesinhisnewplanter.Hewonderedhowmuchpottingsoilhe
andspheresandusethemto solvingthem.
solverealworldand
8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand volume.
mathematicalproblems.
quantitatively.
Connections:68.RST.3;
8.MP.3.Constructviable
68.RST.7;ET08S2C201;
argumentsandcritiquethe
ET08S1C401
reasoningofothers.
8.MP.4.Modelwith
mathematics.
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
strategically.
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
8.MP.8.Lookforandexpress

regularityinrepeated
reasoning.

## Statistics and Probability (SP)

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.SP.A.1.Constructand 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Studentsbuildontheirpreviousknowledgeofscatterplotsexaminerelationshipsbetweenvariables.
interpretscatterplotsfor quantitatively. Theyanalyzescatterplotstodeterminepositiveandnegativeassociations,thedegreeofassociation,
bivariatemeasurementdatato andtypeofassociation.Studentsexamineoutlierstodetermineifdatapointsarevalidorrepresenta
8.MP.4.Modelwith
investigatepatternsof recordingormeasurementerror.StudentscanusetoolssuchasthoseattheNationalCenterfor
mathematics.
associationbetweentwo EducationalStatisticstocreateagraphorgeneratedatasets.
quantities.Describepatterns 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools (http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/default.aspx)
suchasclustering,outliers, strategically.
Examples:
positiveornegativeassociation,
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision. Datafor10studentsMathandSciencescoresareprovidedinthetablebelow.Describethe
linearassociation,andnonlinear
associationbetweentheMathandSciencescores.
association. 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure. Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Connections:68.WHST.2b,f; Math 64 50 85 34 56 24 72 63 42 93
ET08S1C301;ET08S1C302; Science 68 70 83 33 60 27 74 63 40 96
ET08S6C103;SS08S4C101;
SS08S4C203;SS08S4C105; Datafor10studentsMathscoresandthedistancetheylivefromschoolareprovidedinthe
SC08S1C302;SC08S1C303 tablebelow.DescribetheassociationbetweentheMathscoresandthedistancestudentslive
fromschool.
Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Mathscore 64 50 85 34 56 24 72 63 42 93
Distfromschool(miles) 0.5 1.8 1 2.3 3.4 0.2 2.5 1.6 0.8 2.5
Datafromalocalfastfoodrestaurantshowingthenumberofstaffmembersandtheaverage
timeforfillinganorderareprovidedinthetablebelow.Describetheassociationbetweenthe
numberofstaffandtheaveragetimeforfillinganorder.
Numberofstaff 3 4 5 6 7 8
Averagetimetofillorder(seconds) 180 138 120 108 96 84
ThetablebelowliststhelifeexpectancyinyearsforpeopleintheUnitedStateseveryfive
yearsfrom1970to2005.WhatwouldyouexpectthelifeexpectancyofapersonintheUnited
Statestobein2010,2015,and2020baseduponthisdata?Explainhowyoudeterminedyour
values.
Date 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
LifeExpectancy(inyears) 70.8 72.6 73.7 74.7 75.4 75.8 76.8 77.4

## Statistics and Probability (SP)

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.SP.A.2.Knowthatstraight 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
linesarewidelyusedtomodel quantitatively.
Thecapacityofthefueltankinacaris13.5gallons.Thetablebelowshowsthenumberof
relationshipsbetweentwo
8.MP.4.Modelwith milestraveledandhowmanygallonsofgashavebeenused.Describetherelationship
quantitativevariables.For
mathematics. betweenthevariables.Ifthedataislinear,determinealineofbestfit.Doyouthinktheline
scatterplotsthatsuggesta
representsagoodfitforthedataset?Whyorwhynot?Whatistheaveragefuelefficiencyof
linearassociation,informallyfit 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
thecarinmilespergallon?
astraightline,andinformally strategically.
assessthemodelfitbyjudging MilesTraveled 0 75 120 160 250 300
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
theclosenessofthedatapoints
GallonsUsed 0 2.3 4.5 5.7 9.7 10.7
totheline. 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
Connections:8.EE.5;8.F.3;
ET08S1C301;ET08S6C103;
SS08S4C105
8.SP.A.3.Usetheequationofa 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Examples:
linearmodeltosolveproblems quantitatively. Givendatafromstudentsmathscoresandabsences,makeascatterplot.
inthecontextofbivariate
8.MP.4.Modelwith
measurementdata,interpreting
mathematics.
theslopeandintercept.For
example,inalinearmodelfora 8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
biologyexperiment,interpreta strategically.
slopeof1.5cm/hrasmeaning
8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
sunlighteachdayisassociated 8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
matureplantheight.
Connections:8.EE.5;8.F.3;8.F.4;
ET08S1C303;ET08S2C201

Continuedonnextpage

## Statistics and Probability (SP)

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. continued
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.SP.A.3.continued
o Drawalineofbestfit,payingattentiontotheclosenessofthedatapointsoneitherside
oftheline.

o Fromthelineofbestfit,determineanapproximatelinearequationthatmodelsthegiven
data(abouty= 25 x 95)
3
o Studentsshouldrecognizethat95representstheyinterceptand 25 representsthe
3
slopeoftheline.
o Studentscanusethislinearmodeltosolveproblems.Forexample,throughsubstitution,
theycanusetheequationtodeterminethatastudentwith4absencesshouldexpectto

## Statistics and Probability (SP)

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
Studentsareexpectedto:
8.SP.A.4.Understandthat 8.MP.2.Reasonabstractlyand Example:
patternsofassociationcanalso quantitatively.
beseeninbivariatecategorical
8.MP.3.Constructviable haveacurfew?andDoyouhaveassignedchores?Isthereevidencethatthosewhohavea
databydisplayingfrequencies
argumentsandcritiquethe curfewalsotendtohavechores?
andrelativefrequenciesina
reasoningofothers.
twowaytable.Constructand
interpretatwowaytable 8.MP.4.Modelwith
summarizingdataontwo mathematics.
categoricalvariablescollected
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools
fromthesamesubjects.Use
strategically.
relativefrequenciescalculated
forrowsorcolumnstodescribe 8.MP.6.Attendtoprecision.
8.MP.7.Lookforandmakeuse
ofstructure.
collectdatafromstudentsin Fromthissample,thereappearstobeapositivecorrelationbetweenhavingacurfewand
yourclassonwhetherornot havingchores.
theyhaveacurfewonschool
nightsandwhetherornotthey
haveassignedchoresathome.
Isthereevidencethatthosewho
haveacurfewalsotendtohave
chores?
Connections:68.WHST.2b,f;
ET08S1C101;ET08S1C302;
ET08S1C303;SS08S4C203;
SS08S4C105;C08S1C302

## Standards for Mathematical Practice (MP)

Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
leveldocumentinthe2ndcolumn
toreflecttheneedtoconnectthe
mathematicalpracticesto
mathematicalcontentin
instruction.
problemsandperseverein Studentsseekthemeaningofaproblemandlookforefficientwaystorepresentandsolveit.Theymay
quantitatively. variablesinmathematicalexpressions,equations,andinequalities.Theyexaminepatternsindataandassess
thedegreeoflinearityoffunctions.Studentscontextualizetounderstandthemeaningofthenumberor
variableasrelatedtotheproblemanddecontextualizetomanipulatesymbolicrepresentationsbyapplying
propertiesofoperations.
reasoningofothers. histograms).Theyfurtherrefinetheirmathematicalcommunicationskillsthroughmathematicaldiscussions
inwhichtheycriticallyevaluatetheirownthinkingandthethinkingofotherstudents.Theyposequestions
likeHowdidyougetthat?,Whyisthattrue?,andDoesthatalwayswork?Theyexplaintheirthinking
toothersandrespondtoothersthinking.
mathematics. formexpressions,equations,orinequalitiesfromrealworldcontextsandconnectsymbolicandgraphical
representations.Studentssolvesystemsoflinearequationsandcomparepropertiesoffunctionsprovidedin
differentforms.Studentsusescatterplotstorepresentdataanddescribeassociationsbetweenvariables.
Studentsneedmanyopportunitiestoconnectandexplaintheconnectionsbetweenthedifferent
representations.Theyshouldbeabletousealloftheserepresentationsasappropriatetoaproblemcontext.

## Standards for Mathematical Practice (MP)

Standards MathematicalPractices ExplanationsandExamples
leveldocumentinthe2ndcolumn
toreflecttheneedtoconnectthe
mathematicalpracticesto
mathematicalcontentin
instruction.
8.MP.5.Useappropriatetools Studentsconsideravailabletools(includingestimationandtechnology)whensolvingamathematical
setofdatagivenintabularformtoagraphicalrepresentationtocompareittoanotherdataset.Students
mightdrawpictures,useapplets,orwriteequationstoshowtherelationshipsbetweentheanglescreated
byatransversal.
languageintheirdiscussionswithothersandintheirownreasoning.Studentsuseappropriateterminology
ofstructure. propertiestogenerateequivalentexpressionsandsolveequations.Studentsexaminepatternsintablesand
effectsoftransformationsanddescribethemintermsofcongruenceandsimilarity.
regularityinrepeated patterns.Studentsuseiterativeprocessestodeterminemorepreciserationalapproximationsforirrational
reasoning. numbers.Duringmultipleopportunitiestosolveandmodelproblems,theynoticethattheslopeofalineand
rateofchangearethesamevalue.Studentsflexiblymakeconnectionsbetweencovariance,rates,and
representationsshowingtherelationshipsbetweenquantities.

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