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A

Mini Project Report On

Digital Room Thermometer

1. Vivek Mishra 2. Sachin Bhagde 3. Shital Tribhuvan

Under The Guidance of

Prof. Deepali Bangar.

A Mini Project Report On “ Digital Room Thermometer ” 1. Vivek Mishra 2. Sachin Bhagde

Department of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Saraswati Education Society’s Group of Institution, Faculty of Engineering, Diksal Mumbai University, Karjat

2016-2017

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Saraswati Education Society’s Group of Institution, Faculty of Engineering, Diksal, Karjat

Saraswati Education Society’s Group of Institution, Faculty of Engineering, Diksal, Karjat Certificate This is to certify

Certificate

This is to certify that his mini project on “

has successfully completed

____________________ in the Electronics & Telecommunication

_______________ Engineering as prescribed by the Mumbai University, Karjat during academic year

2016-17

Prof. Deepali Bangar Guide

Prof. Nilesh Pawar H.O.D.

Prof. Praful Jawanjal.

Prof.

Principal

EXTERNAL

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ABSTRACT

Digital thermometer (Digital Thermometer) is a measuring device used in displaying Temperature values. Digital Thermometer displays temperature as discrete numerals instead of a pointer deflection on a continuous scale as in the analogue instruments. An analogue volt meter basically consists of an amplifier connected to a D’ Arsonval meter. In meter design for measuring DC quantities, the amplifier receives the signal under measurement, amplifies the signal to an indication using a pointer which moves along a calibrated scale. It is versatile and accurate measuring instrument that is employed in many laboratory measurements.

This project is divided into five topics, the chapter one is introduction of digital thermometer, chapter two deals with the literature review of the above work. Chapter three is the main body of the project, principles of operation and the circuit diagram. In Chapter four, implementation, testing, soldering and coupling is discussed.

Finally, chapter five deals with the recommendation and conclusion of the digital volt meter. Index Terms:- ATmega328,LCD display,Lm35

INDEX

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Sr. No.

 

Page No.

  • 1. Introduction

 
 
  • 1.1 Introduction

6

 
  • 1.2 History and Development

6

 
  • 1.3 Registering

6

 

1. Precision, accuracy, and reproducibility

7

  • 2. System Design

 
 
  • 2.1 Hardware Design

9

 
  • 2.2 Program

9

 
  • 2.3 System Architecture

11

 
  • 2.4 PCB Designing

14

 
  • 2.5 Working & Principle

17

3.

System Approach

 
  • 3.3 Advantages

18

 
  • 3.4 Limitations

18

 
  • 3.5 Applications

18

4.

Result and conclusions

 
  • 4.1 Result

19

 
  • 4.2 Conclusions

20

 

References

List of Figures

4

Figure

Title of Figure

  • 2.1 Block diagram

Page no.

8

  • 2.2 Layout of power supply module

11

  • 2.3 Layout of Microcontroller module

11

  • 2.4 Layout of Digital Thermometer

12

  • 2.5 Layout of LCD module

13

  • 2.6 PCB design converted

14

  • 2.7 Soldered side

15

  • 2.8 Components side

16

  • 2.9 Layout of overall hardware architecture

18

2.10

LED output for results

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1.1Digital Thermometer

INTRODUCTION

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Thermometers are useful apparatus being used since long time for temperature measurement. In this project we have made an Arduino based digital thermometer to display the current ambient temperature and temperature changes on a LCD unit in real time . It can be deployed in houses, offices, industries etc. to measure the temperature. This project is based on Arduino which communicates here with LM35 temperature sensor and a 16x2 display unit. We can divide this arduino based thermometer into three sections - one senses the temperature by using temperature sensor LM 35, second section converts the temperature value into a suitable numbers in Celsius scale which is done by Arduino, and last part of system displays temperature on LCD. The same is demonstrated in below block diagram.

The invention of the thermometer is attributed to Galileo, although the sealed thermometer did not come into existence until about 1650. The modern alcohol and mercury thermometers were invented by the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit, who also proposed the first widely adopted temperature scale, named after him, in which 32° F is the freezing point of water and 212° F is its boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure. Various temperature scales have been proposed since his time; in the centigrade, or Celsius, scale, devised by the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius and used in most of the world, the freezing point is 0°, the boiling point is 100°.

1.2 History and Development

The first physician that put thermometer measurements to clinical practice was

Herman

(1836–1925) invented a Boerhaave (1668–1738). <a href= In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt clinical In thermometer 1999, Dr. that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal which scans the forehead in about two sensor Francesco Pompei artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperature " id="pdf-obj-5-16" src="pdf-obj-5-16.jpg">

(1836–1925) invented a

Boerhaave

(1836–1925) invented a Boerhaave (1668–1738). <a href= In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt clinical In thermometer 1999, Dr. that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal which scans the forehead in about two sensor Francesco Pompei artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperature " id="pdf-obj-5-22" src="pdf-obj-5-22.jpg">
(1836–1925) invented a Boerhaave (1668–1738). <a href= In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt clinical In thermometer 1999, Dr. that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal which scans the forehead in about two sensor Francesco Pompei artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperature " id="pdf-obj-5-24" src="pdf-obj-5-24.jpg">

(1668–1738). ]

In 1866, Sir

Thomas Clifford Allbutt

clinical

In

thermometer

1999, Dr.

that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty.

of the

Exergen Corporation

(1836–1925) invented a Boerhaave (1668–1738). <a href= In 1866, Sir Thomas Clifford Allbutt clinical In thermometer 1999, Dr. that produced a body temperature reading in five minutes as opposed to twenty. of the Exergen Corporation introduced the world's first temporal which scans the forehead in about two sensor Francesco Pompei artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperature " id="pdf-obj-5-47" src="pdf-obj-5-47.jpg">

introduced the world's first temporal

which scans the forehead in about two

sensor

Francesco Pompei

artery thermometer, a non-invasive temperature

seconds and provides a medically accurate body temperature.

1.3 Registering

Old thermometers were all non-registering thermometers. That is, the thermometer did not hold the temperature after it was moved to a place with a different temperature. Determining the temperature of a pot of hot liquid required the user to leave the thermometer in the hot liquid until after reading it.

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1.4

Precision, accuracy, and reproducibility

The precision or resolution of a thermometer is simply to what fraction of a degree it is possible to make a reading. For high temperature work it may only be possible to measure to the nearest

  • 10 °C or more. Clinical thermometers and many electronic thermometers are usually readable to

    • 0.1 °C. Special instruments can give readings to one thousandth of a degree However, this

precision does not mean the reading is true or accurate, it only means that very small changes can be observed.

A thermometer calibrated to a known fixed point is accurate (i.e. gives a true reading) at that point. Most thermometers are originally calibrated to a constant-volume thermometer In between fixed calibration points, interpolation is used, usually linear. This may give significant differences between different types of thermometer at points far away from the fixed points. For example, the expansion of mercury in a glass thermometer is slightly different from the change in resistance of a platinum resistance thermometer, so these two will disagree slightly at around

  • 50 °C. There may be other causes due to imperfections in the instrument, e.g. in a liquid-in-glass

thermometer if the capillary tube varies in diameter.

For many purposes reproducibility is important. That is, does the same thermometer give the same reading for the same temperature (or do replacement or multiple thermometers give the same reading)? Reproducible temperature measurement means that comparisons are valid in scientific experiments and industrial processes are consistent. Thus if the same type of thermometer is calibrated in the same way its readings will be valid even if it is slightly inaccurate compared to the absolute scale.

An example of a reference thermometer used to check others to industrial standards would be a platinum resistance thermometer with a digital display to 0.1 °C (its precision) which has been calibrated at 5 points against national standards (−18, 0, 40, 70, 100 °C) and which is certified to an accuracy of ±0.2 °C.

According to British Standards, correctly calibrated, used and maintained liquid-in-glass thermometers can achieve a measurement uncertainty of ±0.01 °C in the range 0 to 100 °C, and a larger uncertainty outside this range: ±0.05 °C up to 200 or down to −40 °C, ±0.2 °C up to 450 or down to −80 °C.

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2. SYSTEM DESIGN

2.1 HARDWARE DESIGN

2. SYSTEM DESIGN 2.1 HARDWARE DESIGN Fig 1: Block diagram of Digital Thermometer Arduino Uno is

Fig 1: Block diagram of Digital Thermometer

Arduino Uno is used here to control the whole process. An LM35 temperature sensor is used for sensing environment temperature which gives 1 degree temperature on every 10mV change at its output pin. You can easily check it with voltmeter by connecting Vcc at pin 1 and Ground at pin 3 and output voltage at pin 2 of LM35 sensor. For an example if the output voltage of LM35 sensor is 250m volt, that means the temperature is around 25 degree Celsius.

Arduino reads output voltage of temperature sensor by using Analog pin A0 and performs the calculation to convert this Analog value to a digital value of current temperature. After calculations arduino sends these calculations or temperature to 16x2 LCD unit by using appropriate commands of LCD.

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2.2 Program and Code Explanation

To program for this project, we include library for LCD unit and then we defines data and control pins for LCD and temperature sensor.

Ex:

2.2 Program and Code Explanation To program for this project, we include library for LCD unit

After getting analog value at analog pin we reads that value using Analog read function and stores that value in a variable. And then by applying given formula converts it in temperature.

float analog_value=analogRead(analog_pin);

float Temperature=analog_value*factor*100

where

factor=5/1023

analog_value= output of temperature sensor

2.2 Program and Code Explanation To program for this project, we include library for LCD unit

Here degree symbol is creates using custom character method

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Code: /*-----------Digital Thermometer Using Arduino-------------*/ #include<LiquidCrystal.h> LiquidCrystal lcd(7,6,5,4,3,2); #define sensor A0 byte degree[8] = { 0b00011,

Code:

/*-----------Digital Thermometer Using Arduino-------------*/

#include<LiquidCrystal.h> LiquidCrystal lcd(7,6,5,4,3,2);

#define sensor A0

byte degree[8] = {

0b00011,

0b00011,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000,

0b00000

};

void setup()

{

lcd.begin(16,2);

lcd.createChar(1, degree);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print(" Digital ");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(" Thermometer ");

delay(4000);

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lcd.clear(); lcd.print(" Circuit Digest ");

delay(4000);

lcd.clear();

}

void loop()

{

/*---------Temperature-------*/ float reading=analogRead(sensor); float temperature=reading*(5.0/1023.0)*100;

delay(10);

/*------Display Result------*/ lcd.clear();

lcd.setCursor(2,0);

lcd.print("Temperature");

lcd.setCursor(4,1);

lcd.print(temperature);

lcd.write(1);

lcd.print("C");

delay(1000);

}

About the program.

The voltage output of the LM35 is scanned using the analogRead function. The analogRead function will read the voltage at a particular analog input pin and converts it into a digital value between 0 and 1023. If 30°C is the temperature, the LM35 output will be 300mV. The code value=digitalRead(sensor) will read this voltage, convert it into a digital value and stores it in the variable “value”. So, for 30°C the number stored in variable “value” will be 3oomV/ (5/1023)=61. This number is multiplied by 5 to get 305 a decimal point is place before the last digit while displaying on the seven segment display.The result will be 30.5°C.

The program also checks the status of the unit selector switch by reading the digital pin 4. If this pin is held high the temperature is displayed in °Celsius and if this pin is low the temperature in °Celsius scale is converted to °Fahrenheit and then displayed. The method used for displaying the number on the three digit seven segment display is same as that of used in Voltmeter using arduino.

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2.3 System Architecture

Fig 2:-Bread board Connection for Digital Thermometer 2.3.1 Power Supply Module Arduino Board already have an

Fig 2:-Bread board Connection for Digital Thermometer

2.3.1 Power Supply Module

Arduino Board already have an inbuilt power supply section. Here connect a 9 volt or 12 volt adaptors with the board.

we only need to

Fig 2:-Bread board Connection for Digital Thermometer 2.3.1 Power Supply Module Arduino Board already have an

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2.3.2Microcontroller Module

Fig 3. The Atmel 8-bit AVR The Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32 kB ISP
Fig 3. The Atmel 8-bit AVR
The Atmel 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller combines 32 kB ISP flash memory with read-
while-write capabilities, 1 kB EEPROM, 2 kB SRAM, 23 general purpose I/O lines, 32 general
purpose working registers, three flexible timer/counters with compare modes, internal and
external interrupts, serial programmable USART, a byte-oriented 2-wire serial
interface, SPI serial port, 6-channel 10-bit A/D converter (8-channels
in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages), programmable watchdog timer with internal oscillator, and

five software selectable power saving modes. The device operates between 1.8-5.5 volts. The

device achieves throughput approaching 1

MIPS per MHz

2.4 PCB designing

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Fig.4 PCB Layout 2.4 PCB DESIGN A PCB is a printed circuit board, also known as

Fig.4 PCB Layout

2.4 PCB DESIGN

A PCB

is a printed circuit board, also known as a printed wiring board. It is used in

electronics to build electronic devices. A

PCB

serves two purposes in the construction of an

electronic device; it is a place to mount the components and it provides the means of electrical

connection between the components

  • 2.4.1 STEPS FOR PCB DESIGN

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» STEP 1: Prepare a layout of the circuit on any commonly used PCB designing software. A layout is a design which interconnects the components according to the schematic diagram (circuit diagram). Take a mirror image print of the layout on the OHP sheet using a laser printer. Make sure that the design is correct with proper placement of the components.

» STEP 1: Prepare a layout of the circuit on any commonly used PCB designing software.PCB ; it can be single layer, double layer or multi layer board. Single layer copper board has copper on one side of the PCB, they are used to make single layer PCBs, and it is widely used by hobbyist or in the small circuits. A double layer copper board consists of copper on both the sides of the PCB. These boards are generally used by the industries. A multilayer board has multiple layers of copper; they are quite costly and mainly used for complex circuitries like mother board of PC. 16 " id="pdf-obj-15-7" src="pdf-obj-15-7.jpg">

Fig 2.4: PCB Design Converted

»

STEP 2:

Cut the copper board according to the size of layout. A copper board is the base of

a PCB; it can be single layer, double layer or multi layer board. Single layer copper board has copper on one side of the PCB, they are used to make single layer PCBs, and it is widely used by hobbyist or in the small circuits. A double layer copper board consists of copper on both the sides of the PCB. These boards are generally used by the industries. A multilayer board has multiple layers of copper; they are quite costly and mainly used for complex circuitries like mother board of PC.

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»

STEP 3:

Rub the copper side of PCB using steel wool. This removes the top oxide layer of

copper as well as the photo resists layer if any.

 

»

STEP 4:

Place the OHP sheet (wax paper) which has the printed layout on the PCB sheet.

Make sure that the printed/mirror side should be placed on the copper side of PCB.

 

»

STEP 5:

Put a white paper on the OHP sheet and start ironing. The heat applied by the

electric iron causes the ink of the traces on the OHP sheet to stick on the copper plate exactly in the same way it is printed on the OHP sheet. This means that the copper sheet will now have the layout of the PCB printed on it. Allow the PCB plate to cool down and slowly remove the OHP sheet. Since it is manual process it may happen that the layout doesn’t comes properly on PCB or some of the tracks are broken in between. Use the permanent marker and complete the tracks properly.

»

STEP 6:

Now the layout is printed on PCB. The area covered by ink is known as the

masked area and the unwanted copper, not covered by the ink is known as unmasked area. Now make a solution of ferric chloride. Take a plastic box and fill it up with some water. Dissolve 2-3 tea spoon of ferric chloride power in the water. Dip the PCB into the Etching solution (Ferric

chloride solution, Fecl 3 ) for approximately 30 mines. The Fecl 3

reacts with the unmasked copper

reacts with the unmasked copper

and removes the unwanted copper from the PCB. This process is called as Etching.

Use pliers to

take out the PCB and check if the entire unmasked area has been etched or not. In case it is not etched leave it for some more time in the solution.

»

STEP 7:

Take out the PCB wash it in cold water and remove the ink by rubbing it with

steel wool. The remaining area which has not been etched is the conductive copper tracks which connect the components as per the circuit diagram.

»

STEP 8:

Now carefully drill the PCB using a drilling machine on the pads.

 

»

STEP 9:

Put the components in the correct holes and solder them

Put the components in the correct holes and solder them

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Fig 2.5: Soldered Side Fig 2.6: Components Side 18

Fig 2.5: Soldered Side

Fig 2.5: Soldered Side Fig 2.6: Components Side 18

Fig 2.6: Components Side

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This completes PCB fabrication

now put the components on mounting side and solders

them.

Make sure that you properly dispose of the FeCl3 solution, clean your tools and wash your

hands after this exercise. You can also store the solution in a plastic box for future use but not for

too long.

2. 4.1 LCD Module

This completes PCB fabrication now put the components on mounting side and solders them. Make sure

Fig 5 .LCD Module

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel electronic visual display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7- segment displays as in a digital clock. We have used 16x2 LCD

16x2 LCD unit is widely using in embedded system projects because it is cheap, easily availablet, small in size and easy to interface. 16x2 have two rows and 16 columns, which means it consist 16 blocks of 5x8 dots. 16 pin for connections in which 8 data bits D0-D7 and 3 control bits namely RS, RW and EN. Rest of pins are used for supply, brightness control and for backlight

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2.5 Working & Principle

2.5 Working & Principle Fig 6 Circuit Diagram and Explanation Circuit digram for arduino based digital

Fig 6 Circuit Diagram and Explanation

Circuit digram for arduino based digital thermometer is shown in the above figure. Make the connections carefully as shown in the schematic. Here 16x2 LCD unit is directly connected to arduino in 4-bit mode. Data pins of LCD namely RS, EN, D4, D5, D6, D7 are connected to arduino digital pin number 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. A temperature sensor LM35 is also connected to Analog pin A0 of arduino, which generates 1 degree Celsius temperature on every 10mV output change at its output pin.

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2.5.1 LM35 Temperature Sensor

LM35 is a 3 pin temperature sensor which gives 1 degree Celsius on every 10mVolt change. This sensor can sense up to 150 degree Celsius temperature. 1 number pin of lm35 sensor is Vcc, second is output and third one is Ground.

2.5.1 LM35 Temperature Sensor LM35 is a 3 pin temperature sensor which gives 1 degree Celsius

Fig 7 LM35

Pin No

Function

Name

  • 1 Supply voltage; 5V (+35V to -2V)

Vcc

  • 2 Output voltage (+6V to -1V)

Output

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3

Ground (0V)

Ground

Table 1 Specifications of LM35 Sensor

3. SYSTEM APPROACH

  • 3.1 ADVANTAGES

    • 1. Digital Thermometers can accurately the temperature figure out and measure

    • 2. Digital display, Does not have a pointer or mercury display

    • 3. .Wide temperature measurement range of -55degree to 150 degree Celsius

  • 3.2 LIMITATIONS

    • 1. Dead batteries are a drawback of digital thermometers.

    • 2. While it is easy to submerge a regular thermometer in warm, soapy water, it is more difficult to do so with a digital thermometer. You have to be careful not to get a digital thermometer too wet or you will mess up the mechanical system

    • 3. Not all digital thermometers are as reliable as others. For example, you want to steer clear of using digital ear thermometers

  • 3.3 APPLICATIONS

    • 1. A Digital thermometer has a wide range of applications, is often used to measure gas, liquid and solid temperature.

    • 2. In many fields it to appear, such as hospitals and schools. Digital probe thermometer,

  • 22

    4. RESULT AND CONCLUSIONS

    4.1 RESULT

    The diagram of the overall hardware implementation is shown below.

    4. RESULT AND CONCLUSIONS 4.1 RESULT The diagram of the overall hardware implementation is shown below.

    Result I:-ON Powering on the Circuit, Room temperature is displayed on the LCD Display in terms of Degree Celsius

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    Fig 7: LCD output for Result I 4.2 CONCLUSION As Thermometers are useful apparatus being used

    Fig 7: LCD output for Result I

    4.2 CONCLUSION

    As Thermometers are useful apparatus being used since long time for temperature measurement. In this project we have made an Arduino based digital thermometer to display the current ambient temperature and temperature changes on a LCD unit in real time .

    It can be deployed in houses, offices, industries etc. to measure the temperature. This project is based on Arduino which communicates here with LM35 temperature sensor and a 16x2 display unit.

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    REFERENCES

    [2] The Atmel

    8-bit

    AVR by Kenneth J. Ayala

    [3]

    [4]

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

    We highly indebted to Prof. Deepali Bangar for his guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project.

    We would like to express my gratitude towards our Head of Department Prof. Nilesh Pawar for his kind co-operation and encouragement which helped me in completion of this project.

    We would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Principal Prof. Praful Jawanjal for giving me such attention and time.

    We Are Also Thankful To Our Colleagues.

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