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Q-2-a: For a single-point cutting tool, seven tool geometry elements are:

1. Nose Radius (NR)


2. End Cutting Edge Angle (ECEA)
3. Side Cutting Edge Angle (SCEA)
4. Side Rake Angle (s)
5. Side Relief Angle (SRA)
6. Back Rake Angle (b)
7. End Relief Angle (ERA)
Cutting tool wears gradually at two principle locations: Top rake face and Flank. Tool
wear can be characterized as Crater wear and Flank wear. Considering a single-
point tool, these wears can be explained as.
Crater wear is a cavity in the rake face of the tool. It formulates and grows as the
chip slides against the surface. Tool-chip contact is governed by high stresses and
temperature causing the tool wear.
Flank wear happens at the flank or relief face of cutting tool. When newly generated
work surface rubs with flank face that is adjacent to cutting edge, flank wear takes
place.
Tools wear is governed by three main conditions, depth of cut, feed and spindle
speed. Crater wear is occurred because of larger depth of cut. Flank wear can be
controlled by optimizing feed rate and spindle speed.
Q-2-b:
Peripheral milling: When the tool axis is parallel to the surface being machined, its
called peripheral or plain milling. It has many types like slab milling, slot milling or
slotting, side milling, straddle milling etc.
Face milling: In face milling, tool axis is perpendicular to the surface being
machined. Machining is performed by cutting edges at both ends as well as outside
periphery of tool in face milling. Its types include conventional face milling, partial
face milling, end milling, profile milling etc.
Drill flutes: Drill flutes being spiral in shape provide an exit gateway or passage to
the chips that are being formed in a drilling process. Usually these flutes openings
are kept long to provide maximum clearance for chips extractions from a hole
Q-3-a
Grinding Wheel Parameters:
Grinding wheel is composed of abrasive particles and bonding material. Five
principle parameters for a grinding disk are:
1. Abrasive material
2. Grain Size
3. Bonding material
4. Wheel Grade
5. Wheel Structure
A commercial grinding wheel is specified as:
30 A 46 H 6 V XX
Here on the left is a 1-2 Digit number is called prefix and it is Manufactures symbol
for abrasive (Its optional)
Then comes an English Alphabet that tells about abrasive material. If its A its
aluminum oxide, C for silicon carbide
Next is again 1 or 2 digit number. Its grain size. Coarse grain= 8-24, Medium
grit/grain size= 30-60, Fine=70-180, Vey fine= 220-600
Then comes an Alphabet. It shows grade A-Z. A=soft, M=medium, Z= hard
Then again a number. It depicts structure and scales from 1-15. 1= very dense
structure, 15= very open structure
Then an Alphabet shows bond type B= Resinoid, BF = Resinoid reinforced, E =
Shellac,
R = Rubber, RF = rubber reinforced, S = Silicate, V = Vitrified.
Then at the end two alphabets show manufacturerss private marketing (this is
optional)
Q-3-b: For grinding process, material removal rate has below relation
RMR = vwwd
Here vw is speed with which work part moves against wheel and w is width of cut
and d is depth of cut. Hence to increase metal removal rate we can increase any of
these parameters like speed or depth of cut. We can also increase material removal
rate by increasing grit size. Larger the grit size, more the material rate. Material rate
can also be controlled by using suitable dense structure in grinding wheel.
Surface Finish: Mostly grinding is performed to achieve good surface finish
compared with other machining processes. Surface finish is highly dependent on
chip size during process which in turn is directly connected with grit size. Smaller
the grit size, more dense will be wheel structure and smaller will be chip size. Other
factors that effects chip size are wheel dia and depth of cut as they are related with
length of chip as lc=(Dd)1/2, where D= wheel dia and d=depth of cut.

References
FUNDAMENTALS OF MODERN MANUFACTURING by Mikell P. Groover, 4th Edition
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drill_bit (last visited May 23, 2016)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grinding_wheel (last visited May 23, 2016)