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Coastal Navigation Course

Chapter X

Answers to Practice Chart Lesson #6

Note: The compass rose in this exercise is in intervals of 5. Your answers

may vary by 5.

1. Course to make good: 090T

Speed = 5 knots
Set = 210 T
Drift = 2.0 knots
Course to Steer = 070 T
Speed made good = 3.7 kts
Deviation is 4 W
Course to steer psc = 084

2. Course to make good: 045T

Speed = 6.55 knots
Set = 135 T
Drift = 2.0 knots
Course to Steer = 025 T
Speed made good = 6.2 kts
Deviation is 4 E
Course to steer psc = 031 C

3. Course to make good: 235T

Speed = 6.2 knots
Set = 315 T
Drift = 3.5 knots
Course to Steer = 200 T
Speed made good = 5.8 kts
Deviation is 6 W
Course to steer psc = 216 C
4. Course to make good: 265T
Speed = 5.2 knots
Set = 070 T
Drift = 2.3 knots
Course to Steer = 260 T
Speed made good = 3.0 kts
Deviation is 6 E
Course to steer psc = 264 C

5. Course to make good: 150T

Speed = 5.3 knots
Set = 050
Drift = 3.5 knots
Course to Steer = 190 T
Speed made good = 3.4 kts
Deviation is 3 W
Course to steer psc = 203 C

6. Course to make good: 020T

Speed = 5.9 knots
Set = 090 T
Drift = 1.9 knots
Course to Steer = 000 T
Speed made good = 6.2 kts
Deviation is 2 E
Course to steer psc = 008 C
SOG is the ships actual speed with respect to the earth along the COG. In current
sailing, SMG (not SOG) is used.

In navigation, "current" is to include all factors that introduce geographical error in

dead reckoning. When a fix is obtained, one assumes that the current has set from
the DR position at the same time as the fix and the drift equals the distance in miles
between these two positions divided by the hours since the last fix. This is true,
regardless of the number of changes of course and speed since the last fix.

If set and drift can be estimated, a better position is obtained by applying the
correction to the DR position. This is referred to as an estimated position. If a current
is setting in the same direction as the course of the ship or its reciprocal, the course
made good is the same, only the speed changes. If course and set are in the same
direction, the speeds are added. If in opposite directions, the smaller speed is
subtracted from the larger.

For ships crossing a current, three current vector diagrams can be made to give the
information needed to determine speed and courses to be steered. These diagrams
can be made on scrap paper or an area on the plotting sheet.

Find course and speed made good through a current with ships speed 10 knots,
course 080 , current set 140 , and drift 2 knots.

Solution: From point A draw the line AB. This represents the course and speed (080
at 10 knots) in length.

From B draw in BC, the set and drift of the current, 140 at 2 knots. The direction and
length of AC are the estimated course made good (089 ) and speed made good (11.2
knots ).

For this types of problems I like to use a Radar Transfer Plotting Sheet # 5089 or you
can use a Maneuvering Board Sheet # 5090.