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Government Declares BS-VI Rollout From 2020

Why In News

The Union transport ministry has decided to notify the introduction of BS-VI emission norms for
all vehicles from April 2020, overriding a demand from auto manufacturers to push its rollout by
five years.
Bharat VI is the sixth stage or level of emissions control standards an Indian equivalent of Euro VI
Introduced in 2000, the Bharat norms are emission control standards put in place by the
government to keep a check on air pollution. Based on the European regulations (Euro norms),
these standards prescribe specifications/limits for the release of air pollutants from equipment
using internal combustion engines, including vehicles.

Why Urgency To Introduce Them?

Implementation of the BS V standard was originally scheduled for 2019. This has now been
skipped. BS VI, originally proposed to come in by 2024, has now been advanced to 2020 instead.
The urgency to maintain the deadline for the introduction of BS-VI, which is the strictest yet limit
on emissions in India, has been prompted by the rising concerns over air pollution, particularly in
large cities such as Delhi and Mumbai.
Emissions from vehicles account for at least 14% of the air pollution in cities. Courts have imposed
stringent restrictions on the sale of diesel vehicles in an effort to curb pollution, while there have
been calls for using cleaner fuels.

What Changes Bharat VI Norms Will Bring In Indian Vehicles?

Vehicles must be fitted with DPF (diesel particulate filter) for Particulate Matter (PM) reduction.
Vehicles will also have to be equipped with an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) module to reduce
oxides of nitrogen.
To attain the specified super low emissions, all reactions have to be precise, and controlled by
Manufacturers will also need to make petrol engines more fuel-efficient as CO emission levels will
also need to be controlled. This may lead to a shift towards gasoline direct injection engines.
Hybrids will get more and more popular as they help to cut down on emissions, maintain
performance levels and boost fuel economy.
Cars will get more expensive as emission cutting equipment on cars is pricey. This is particularly
true in case of diesels, which need much more effort to stay clean.
Alternate fuels like electric cars, CNG, ethanol blends, LPG and petrol-electric and diesel-electric
hybrids will be in much more demand.

Why Indian Automobile Industry Is Opposing It?

Moving to Bharat VI will need a 1.5 lakh Crores worth upgrade in oil refining infrastructure.
The biggest impediment to Bharat VI norms will be the availability of Bharat VI compliant fuel,
both petrol and diesel.
In India, where small cars are preferred, fitting DPF in the limited bonnet space would involve
major design and re-engineering work.