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Resistant Material

International General Certification of

Secondary Education

Design and Technology 0445

Student Name: Tutor Group:

International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE) syllabuses are
designed as two year courses for examination at age 16-plus.

All IGCSE syllabuses follow a general pattern. The main sections are:

Assessment Objectives
Curriculum Content.

The IGCSE subjects have been categorised into groups, subjects within each group
having similar aims and assessment objectives.

Design and Technology falls into Group V, Creative Technical and Vocational, of the
International Certificate of Education (ICE) subjects.

The Design and Technology syllabus has been designed for Centres which are
attempting to move towards a greater emphasis on design the reasoned application
of the knowledge, skills and discipline normally taught in the subject in problem solving

The aims of the syllabus are the same for all students. The aims are set out below and
describe the educational purposes of a course in Design and Technology for the IGCSE
examination. They are not listed in order of priority.

The aims are to enable students to:

1. foster awareness, understanding and expertise in those areas of creative thinking

which can be expressed and developed through investigation and research,
planning, designing, making and evaluating, working with media, materials and

2. encourage the acquisition of a body of knowledge applicable to solving

practical/technological problems operating through processes of analysis,
synthesis and realisation;

3. stimulate the development of a range of communication skills which are central

to design, making and evaluation;
4. stimulate the development of a range of making skills;

5. encourage students to relate their work, which should demand active and
experimental learning based upon the use of materials in practical areas, to their
personal interests and abilities;

6. promote the development of curiosity, enquiry, initiative, ingenuity,

resourcefulness and discrimination

7. encourage technological awareness, foster attitudes of co-operation and social

responsibility, and develop abilities to enhance the quality of the environment;

8. stimulate the exercising of value judgements of an aesthetic, technical,

economic and moral nature.

Assessment Objectives
The four assessment objectives in Design and Technology are:

A Knowledge with understanding

B Problem solving
C Communication
D Realisation.

A description of each assessment objective follows.

Under each assessment objective heading is given a list of the activities a student
should be able to carry out.

A - Knowledge with Understanding

Students should be able to:

1. demonstrate the ability to state facts, recall and name items, recall and describe
2. demonstrate the ability to apply and relate knowledge to designing and making;
3. make reasoned arguments and anticipate consequences about the outcomes of
the Design and Technology process;
4. demonstrate a crucial awareness of the interrelationship between Design and the
needs of society.
B Problem Solving
Students should be able to:

5. recognise problems, identify clearly, from a problem situation, a specific need for
which a solution is required and compose a design brief;
6. analyse a problem by considering any relevant functional, aesthetic, human,
economic and environmental design factors and draw up a design specification;
7. investigate, research, collect and record relevant data and information;
8. generate a range of outline solutions to a design problem, giving consideration to the
constraints of time, cost, skill and resources;
9. develop, refine, test and evaluate the effectiveness of design solutions.

C - Communication
Students should be able to:

10. recognise information in one form and where necessary change it into a more
applicable form;
11. produce or interpret data in a variety of forms such as charts, diagrams, graphs, and
flow charts;
12. propose and communicate ideas graphically using a range of media;
13. develop ideas and represent details of form, shape, construction, movement, size,
and structure through graphical representation and three dimensional modelling.

D - Realisation
Students should be able to:

14. plan and organise the work procedure involved in the realisation of a solution;
15. select, from a range of resources, those appropriate for the realisation of the
16. demonstrate appropriate manipulative skills by showing an understanding of
materials and their characteristics in relation to their use;
17. evaluate the process and product in terms of aesthetic, functional and technical

The assessment objectives are weighted to give an indication of their relative

importance. They are not intended to provide a precise statement of the number of
marks allocated to particular assessment objectives.

Scheme of Assessment

Candidates who have followed this curriculum are eligible for the award of grades A*
to G.

Candidates must take Paper 1, Paper 3, and a Project.

It should be noted that the content of Part 1 of the syllabus is intended to underlie all
components of the assessment scheme and that a knowledge of the chosen option will
be demonstrated in Paper 1 in addition to the optional paper and the project.
Description of Papers
Paper 1

This question paper will be set on Part 1 of the syllabus. Candidates will be required to
answer one of 3 open ended questions intended to assess the candidates abilities of
analysis and synthesis.

The range of questions will reflect the breadth of optional content.

Paper 3

Candidates will be entered for this optional paper.

In each of these papers there will be a Section A and a Section B. Section A will consist
of compulsory questions, testing subject knowledge in the chosen option. Section B will
consist of longer structured questions. Papers 3 will provide a choice of one out of three
questions in this section.

Paper 5, School-based assessment

Each candidate will undertake a personally identified Project centred on the chosen
option from Part 2 of the syllabus. The Project, which will be internally marked and
externally moderated, is expected to be worked over the final two terms of the course.
While the Project will be option based, the nature of the Common Core within the
subject Design and Technology is such that each candidates work is likely to be of a
cross-optional character. The work presented for assessment will typically be in the form
of an A3 size folder and the made product. In the case of work from the Graphic
Products option the folder could contain all the preliminary design work, with the made
product being in the form of 2 dimension work and models.

The folder must include sufficient photographs of the made product, showing an overall
view together with detailed views of evidence to support the award of marks for
assessment criterion 6 Product Realisation. (See External Moderation section of the
Assessment Criteria for coursework).

Candidates whose work is required for external moderation will be selected by CIE.
Curriculum Content

The curriculum objectives in Part 1 are to be followed by all students. This will be
assessed specifically in Paper 1 (Design) and Coursework. It is envisaged that this core
content will also be covered, in an integrated manner in the teaching of the optional
specialist area from Part 2.


Candidates should be able to:

Observe need/requirement identify and describe needs and

opportunities for design and
technological improvement;

Design brief/specification analyse and produce design

specifications for problems which
have been self-identified or posed
by others;

Identification/research identify the constraints imposed by

knowledge, resource availability
and/or external sources which
influenced proposed solutions;

gather, order and assess information

relevant to the solution of
practical/technological problems;

produce and/or interpret data (e.g.

diagrams, flow charts, graphs,
experimental and test results);

Generation of possible ideas generate and record ideas as

potential solutions to problems using a
range of techniques;

identify the resources needed for the

solution of practical/technological

use a variety of media and

equipment to produce models and
mock-ups as a means of exploring a
problem and as a means of testing
the feasibility of a solution;

recognise the need for continuous

appraisal of their own progress,
thinking and decision making,
in order to provide themselves with
opportunities for review;

relate these judgements to the

purpose of their study, in particular the
specification which they set

Selection/organization select and develop a solution after

consideration of time, cost, skill and

organise and plan in detail the

production of the selected solution;

Evaluation evaluate existing products/systems,

the work of others and their own work;

check the performance of the

product/solution against the original

use different methods and sources to

assess the effectiveness of a product
(e.g. sampling, questionnaires,

suggest any possible modification

and improvements (consideration to
include functional, safety, aesthetic,
ergonomic and economic factors);

Implementation and realisation show an awareness of correct

procedures for their preparation;

show an awareness of the correct

and accurate methods of drawing,
marking out and testing;
select appropriate processes for
shaping, forming, cutting, joining,
fitting, assembling and finishing a
variety of materials;

Health and Safety show an awareness of the correct use

of hand and machine tools and

show a proper regard for all

mandatory and other necessary
safety precautions relevant to the use
of a variety of tools, machines,
materials and other resources;

show a concern for economy in the

use of materials, components, media,
time, energy and other resources;

Initiation and development of ideas, extract relevant information from

and recording of data sources(written, graphical, oral,
computer based);

interpret and record information and


Communicating ideas with others use technical vocabulary, number

skills, colour, shading and other media
to produce sketches, models,
diagrams, drawings (such as
perspective, isometric, orthographic,
sequential) and written materials,
which communicate their ideas with
precision and clarity;

Design and Technology in Society show awareness of the effect of

design and technology activity on
social, environmental and economic

demonstrate awareness of the role of

designers, craftsmen and
technologists in industry and
take account of human needs in
aspects as diverse as aesthetic,
ergonomic, economic, environmental,
cultural and social;

Aesthetics appreciate the use of line, shape,

form, proportion, space, colour and
texture as appropriate to their
designed solutions and the work of

Anthropometrics and Ergonomics demonstrate an understanding of the

concept of ergonomics and the use
of anthropometric data in their own
design work and that of others;

Energy recognise that different forms of

energy sources exist, namely, fossil
fuels, nuclear, solar, water power;

understand how different sources and

forms of energy can be stored,
converted and transmitted to
produce a work capability and to
improve the quality of life;

understand the inefficiencies of

energy conversion methods, e.g.
losses into by-products such as heat,
light and sound;

understand the difference between

the finite and almost finite nature of
energy sources and how through
design, all energy sources can be

use energy sources effectively and


Control identify the features of a control

system in terms of input devices,
processing elements, output devices,
Mechanical Control (Static) understand the use of common
fastenings and fittings applicable to
the holding of metal, wood, plastics,
card and paper;

Permanent Fastenings choose sensibly between common

and appropriate methods applicable
to most common materials; this should
include simple joining, the use of
adhesives, riveting and welding;

Mechanical Control (Dynamic) understand methods of transmitting

motion using simple systems only;
examples should include belts, chains,
pulleys, gears and cams.

Resistant Materials
It is recommended that the approach to the following objectives should be a practical
one wherever possible and that their delivery to students be used as the vehicle for
delivering the content of Paper 1 such that the syllabus is seen as an integrated area of


This area of study is concerned with developing the skills used by designers within the
context of materials and their processing. It is intended that practical experience be
used to create a broad understanding of materials and their processing rather than an
in-depth knowledge of any particular material, technology or process through the
following headings:

the general physical and working properties of common constructural materials, i.e.;
plastics, woods and metals, in relation to specific designing and making tasks;

simple comparative testing leading to the reasoned selection of materials and

processes for specific design and making tasks.
Candidates should be able to:

Practical Applications design and make practical products

using the concepts, knowledge and
skills listed in this syllabus;

Types of Material understand the physical and working

properties and application in relation
to plastics, woods and metals;

Plastics show a working knowledge of the


(i) thermoplastics - nylon,

polythene, polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), acrylic, polystyrene,

(ii) thermosetting plastics -

polyester resin including GRP,
melamine, urea formaldehyde
and phenol formaldehyde;

Woods show a working knowledge of natural

timbers, understand their classification,
properties and uses;

understand why timber is seasoned

and how to care for timber during
storage and construction;

show a working knowledge of the

following manufactured boards:
plywood, blockboard, chipboard,
hardboard and MDF;

Metals show a working knowledge of the

following metals:

ferrous metals (mild and high

carbon steels);

non-ferrous metals (aluminium,

duralumin and other common casting
alloys, copper and its alloys, zinc, lead
and tin);
Practical Applications
Preparation of Materials show knowledge of available market
forms, types and sizes;

understand methods of cutting by use

of hacksaw, guillotine, tenon saw,
cross-cut saw, panel saw and
portable power tools;

understand the use of datum

surfaces/lines/ edges and be able to
produce them by planing or filing;

explain the preparation for machine

processes and safe methods of
securing materials to work surfaces,
work tables, faceplates, lathe chucks
and between centres on a lathe;

Setting/Marking Out measure and/or mark out work using

rule, pencil, marker pen, scriber, try
square, bevel, dot/centre punch,
dividers, marking gauge, cutting
gauge and mortise gauge;

accurately produce datum lines by

surface plate and scribing block or

accurately measure using a

micrometer and a vernier gauge.

(a) Deforming/Reforming Have knowledge of the following

bending, simple casting, lamination;

vacuum forming; blow moulding;
injection moulding; extrusion;
(b) Wastage/Addition select and perform the following
forms of cutting and removal of
material, and joining and adding
to a material to produce the required
shape, form r contour:

use hand snips, saws, files, basic

planes and abrasive cutters;

simple hole boring by hand or

machine including pilot, clearance,
tapping, countersunk and
counterbored holes;

use taps and dies for screw cutting

by hand;
use planes, chisels, gouges, saws,
files and rasps;
use abrasive mops, discs and belts;

Special Treatments understand how the molecular

structure of a material can be
changed by the following processes,
to make it more or less suitable for the
task it has to perform:

work hardening, annealing all

metals, case hardening of mild steel
and hardening and tempering tool
steel (HCS);

understand the term plastic memory

and its significance;

understand steaming and bending of

timbers and have knowledge of
adhesives curing times and strengths;

Joining and Assembly use various methods of fabrication

and fitting to join parts of a desired
structure. Allow any required
movement, to enable it to perform its
task satisfactorily (permanently or
understand methods of carcase, stool
and frame construction using
permanent and temporary joints;

use holding devices, formers and jigs

to assist joining and assembly;

understand the use of KD (knock-

down) fittings for use with modern
materials such as veneered

use a variety of fittings and adhesives;

Finishing understand the preparation for and

application of surface treatments;

be aware of a range of different

finishes including oils, paints, laquers,
stains, satin polishes, dipcoating;

be aware of surface finishes available

for both interior and exterior use;

be aware of the special finishes

available that will prevent corrosion or
stains, or withstand heat or liquids.
Resistant Material

Topic: Materials

Student Name: Tutor Group:

Introduction to Materials
All products involve the use of materials whether they are electronic components or
resistant materials OR a combination of both.

The chart below shows the wide range of facts and issues relating to materials research
that need to be considered when designing a product.

Properties of Materials

When studying materials and especially when selecting materials for a project / design,
it is important to understand key properties.

Various words are used to describe the properties of materials. It is important that when
we are discussing materials we should understand exactly what they mean, and use
them accurately.

The most commonly used terms are defined below:

The ability of a material to stand up to forces being applied without it bending,
breaking, shattering or deforming in any way.
The ability of a material to absorb force and flex in different directions, returning to its
original position.

The ability of a material to be change in shape permanently.

The ability of a material to change shape (deform) usually by stretching along its length.

Tensile Strength
The ability of a material to stretch without breaking or snapping.

Compressive Strength
The ability of a material to stand squeezing or crushing.

Shear Strength
The ability of a material to resist being parted.

The ability of a material to be reshaped in all directions without cracking

A characteristic of a material that does not break or shatter when receiving a blow or
under a sudden shock.

The ability of a material to resist scratching, wear and tear and indentation.

Heat and Electrical Conductivity

It is a measure of how well the material will conduct heat or electricity

Thermal conductivity
It relates to how heat travels, or is conducted through a material from a hotter part to a
colder part.

It is the resistance to changes in shape and size.

It is the ability to be permanently changed in shape by external blows or pressure
without cracking or breaking.
How a tree grows

Roots These absorb water and mineral salts, and make crude sap.

Sapwood This carries crude sap to the leaves.

Leaves Plant food is manufactured in the leaves by the process of

photosynthesis. In the process sugars are formed out of water (from
the sap) and carbon dioxide (from the air) using energy absorbed by
chlorophyll from sunlight.

Bast This carries plant food down from the leaves to all parts of the tree.

Medullary rays Carry plant food from the bast into the cambium layer, sapwood,
and heartwood, and store it.

Cambium layer This contains cells capable of division to produce sapwood cells on
the inside and bast cells on the outside, to make the tree grow.

Sapwood Is the living part of the tree. It consists of cellulose cells which have
thin walls capable of absorbing moisture from the roots, and plant
food to grow.

Heartwood Is the commercially most useful part of the tree. It consists of cells
which have become clogged with gum and die. They are stronger,
more durable, and more resistant to insect and fungal attack than
sapwood, and provide the strength to support the tree. A young
tree consists mainly of sapwood but as it grows it makes heartwood.
Waste products are stored here.

Pith Is the centre of the trunk consisting of the original sapling, from which
the tree grew, and is often soft.

Bark Is a protective covering to protect the tree from damage and

extremes of temperature. It is made from the outer layers of bast as
they die, and consists of a soft inner layer which expands as the tree
grows and a hard outer layer.

Annual rings Each represents one years growth. In spring, the cambium layer
makes wide thin-walled cells so that a large amount of sap can each
the leaves quickly. These cells are pale, soft and weak. In summer,
the tree needs less sap, and so it makes narrow cells with thick walls
which are dark, hard and strong. In winter, the tree rests and no sap
flows. This cycle gives alternate pale and dark annual rings from
which we can count the age of softwood trees.
Some hardwood trees (e.g. oak and ash) produce light and dark
growth rings similar to, but less distinct than, those of softwood.
Others (e.g. beech and mahogany) grow at an even rate
throughout the spring and summer and so we cannot tell their age.
Hardwoods and softwoods


These are produced by broad leaved trees (having leaves broad in width in proportion
to their length) whose seeds are enclosed in fruit (e.g. apple, acorn). They show a wide
range of colours and gain patterns and are divided into two groups.

Deciduous hardwoods
These trees lose their leaves in winter. They grow in warmer temperate climates
(including the British Isles, Europe, Japan, New Zealand, Chile and Central USA), and are
slow growing (100 years) and expensive. Common examples include: Oak, Ash, Elm,
Beech, Birch, Chestnut, Lime, Sycamore, Walnut, Apple and Pear.

Evergreen hardwoods
These trees keep their leaves all the year round, and therefore grow more quickly and
to a greater size. They are usually softer and easier to work than deciduous hardwoods.
They grow mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates (including most of South America,
Central America, Indo-China, Africa, Burma, India, and the East and West Indies).
Common examples include: Mahogany, teak, African Walnut, Afrormosia, Iroko,
Rosewood, Ebony, Balsa and Sapele. There are two European evergreen hardwoods,
the holly and the laurel.


These are produced by conifers (cone bearing trees). They are usually evergreen with
needle-like leaves, and grow mainly in colder and cooler temperate climates (including
Scandinavia, Canada, Northern Russia, and at high altitudes elsewhere. They grow
quickly (30 years) and are therefore cheaper, softer and easier to work than hardwoods.
The seeds are not enclosed, but are held in cones. Common examples include: the
many types of Pines, Spruce, Fir, Cedar, Larch and Giant redwood. Yew is a coniferous
three which does not produce cones. Larch is the only deciduous coniferous tree.

Note: The names softwood and hardwood describe the leaves, seeds and structure of
the trees, and not necessarily the timber produced. As a result, some hardwoods
(notably Balsa) are light in weight and very soft to work, while some softwoods (e.g. Yew
and Pitch Pine) are heavy and hard to work.
Commonly available forms of hardwoods and softwoods

Remember when ordering timber that the widths and thicknesses of all timbers are
given as the rough sawn sizes. You can buy machine-planed timber either planed on
both sides (PBS) or planed all round (PAR), but its size will still be describe as the nominal
(rough sawn)size, although it will actually be approximately 3mm smaller in thickness
and if PAR in width too.

A board is a piece of wood less than 40mm thick and 75mm, or over, wide.

Common thicknesses are 12, 16, 19, 22 and 25mm.

Common widths for softwood are from 75mm to 225mm.
Common widths for hardwood are from 150mm to 330mm.
Lengths normally start at 1.8 metres and go up to 6.3 metres.

A plank is a piece of wood over 40mm thick.

Squares are square sections.

Common sizes for square are 25mm x 25mm, 38mm x 38mm, and 50mm x 50mm.

Strips are rectangular sections narrower than 75mm wide. Common sizes for strips are
25mm x 38mm and 25mm x 50mm.
Conversion of timber

Conversion means the sawing of logs into usuable sizes with the minimum of waste.
There are many different methods to suit different timbers and purposes.

The two main ones are:

Plain sawing (also known as flat, through, and through and slash sawing). This is the
simplest, cheapest and quickly method, but the boards warp and shrink badly
because there are long annual rings in most boards. Only the centre board has
short annual rings and will stay flat.

Plain sawing is used mainly for softwoods.

Quarter or radial sawing. True quarter sawing produces boards with short annual
rings which are less liable to warp and shrink, are stronger, and show the figure of the
wood. This is the attractive grain exposed by sawing along the medullary rays of
some hardwoods.

True quarter sawing is more difficult, more expensive and slower than plain sawing,
and wastes a lot of wood. Therefore, several near-radial methods are used to
reduce wastage and simplify sawing.
Properties and uses of a few common hardwoods
Name Sources Colour Advantages Disadvantages Uses
Beech Europe White or Hard, tough, very Not suitable of Most used
including pinkish strong and straight. outdoor work hardwood in Britain.
Britain. brown, The close grain because it is not For furniture
with flecks polishes well and durable when (especially chairs),
in grain withstands wear exposed to floors, wooden tools,
from rays and shocks. changes in turnery. Good for
when moisture. Heavy, steam bending.
quarter difficult to work,
sawn. narrow planks
and warps.
Elm Europe, Light Tough, elastic, Tends to warp Garden furniture
including reddish durable, fairly unless well when treated with
Britain. brown. strong, fairly easy seasoned. Cross- preservative,
to work, medium grained. construction work,
weight, does not turnery, furniture.
split easily. Good
for use under
Iroko East and Initially Looks like Teak and Heavy, cross- Teak substitute.
west yellow but has the properties grained. Furniture, interior
Africa, e.g. darkens to of Teak, but is only and exterior joinery,
Nigeria, dark half the price. cladding, floors,
Ghana. brown. Naturally one of veneers,
the most durable constructional work.
timbers because it
is oily. Needs no
African West Pink to Plentiful supply, Some interlocking Shop fitting,
Mahoganies, Africa, e.g. reddish available in wide and variable furniture, cladding,
e.g. Sapele Nigeria, brown. and long boards, grain, warps, floors, veneers,
Utile Ghana. fairly easy to work, hardness varies. joinery plywood.
fairly strong, Because the name
medium weight, includes a wide
durable. Finishes range of timbers,
fairly well. the properties and
colours inevitably
Meranti Malaysia, Dark red or Red Meranti looks Does not polish as Interior joinery,
Indonesia, yellow. like Mahogany, but well as furniture,
Philippines. is cheaper. Fairly Mahogany. Fairly construction work,
strong, fairly hard to work. Mahogany
durable. substitute. Red and
yellow faced
plywood. Can be
used outside with
European Europe, Light to Very strong, very Heavy, expensive, Boat building,
Oak including, dark durable, hard, open-grain. garden furniture,
Britain, brown, tough. Little Contains tannic gate posts, floors,
Russia, with silver shrinkage. Usually acid which construction work,
Poland. grain or works fairly well corrodes iron and veneers, high-class
ray figure with sharp tools. steel fittings and furniture and fittings.
when Finishes well. causes
quarter permanent blue
sawn. stain on wood.
Splits. Some British
Oak is harder to
work. Sapwood
Japanese Japan Yellowish Strong, durable, Slightly weaker Interior woodwork
Oak brown slightly lighter, and less durable and furniture. Good
milder and easier than European for steam bending.
to work than Oak.
European oak.
Knot free.
Cheaper than
European oak.
Teak Burma, Rich Hard, strong, one Difficult to glue High class furniture,
India, golden of naturally most because oils form veneers, laboratory
Thailand. brown. durable timbers a barrier that will benches, ships
because it is oily. not readily absorb decks.
Highly resistant to adhesives. Gritty
moisture, fire, acids nature, blunts
and alkalis. Very tools quickly.
attractive straight Very expensive.
grain. Works fairly
easily. Does not
corrode iron and
Obeche West Pale Straight-grained Tends to be Hidden parts of
Africa, e.g. yellow. variety works well, corky when furniture. Interior
Cameroon, and strains and cutting joints. Not joinery, plywood
Nigeria, finishes well after durable outside. core making and for
Ghana. filling the open Sometimes cross veneering on. Work
grain. grained and to be painted.
difficult to work-
avoid this type.
Afrormosia Africa Yellow to Works fairly well. Stains in contact High class interior
generally. light Fairly durable. with iron in damp and exterior joinery.
brown with conditions. Grain Floors, windows, sills,
darker is variable. doors, gates, stairs,
streaks. external cladding,
Tends to furniture
darken on constructional work..
to light.
African West Bronze Works fairly well. Cross grain can High class internal
Walnut Africa. yellowish- Attractive make planing and external joinery,
brown with appearance. and finishing veneers, furniture.
irregular Available in larger difficult. Sometimes used as
dark lines. sizes. a Teak substitute.
Properties and uses of a few common softwoods
Name Sources Colour Advantages Disadvantages Uses
Redwood Northern Cream to One of cheapest and Knotty. Sometimes Most used
(scots Pine, Europe, pale most readily available has a blue stain softwood in
Red Baltic Scandinavi reddish- timbers. Straight grain. from a harmless Britain.
Pine, Fir) a, Russia, brown Fairly strong. Easy to fungus. Suitable for
Scotland. heartwood work. Finishes well. Fairly all inside work
, cream durable. and with
sapwood. suitable
for outside
work. Also for
Whitewood Northern Plain Fairly strong. Easy to Small hard knots. General
(Spruce) Europe, creamy work. Very resistant to Contains resin inside work.
Canada, white. splitting. pockets. Not Whitewood
USA. durable. furniture.
Douglas Fir Canada, Attractive Available in long and Splits easily. Open General
(Columbian USA. reddish- wide boards. Knot free, grain with outside
Pine) brown straight grain, slightly pronounced construction
heartwood resinous, therefore water annual rings. work, masts,
. Cream resistant. Fairly strong, ladders,
sapwood. fairly durable, tough, plywood.
fairly easy to work.
Western Red Canada, Dark Contains natural More expensive All kinds of
Cedar USA. reddish preservative oils, than red and joinery,
brown. therefore resists insects whitewood. Not especially
attack, weather and dry very strong. outside.
rot. Knot free, light Widely used
weight, soft, straight for cladding
grained. Fine, silky, the outside of
attractive surface. Very buildings, for
durable, stately. Very root shingles,
easy to work. for kitchens
and for
Parana Pine South Pale Available in long and Lacks toughness. Best quality
America, yellow with wide boards. Often knot As expensive as internal
Especially attractive free. Hard, straight grain. some hardwoods. softwood
Brazil. red and Fairly strong, works easily Tends to warp if not joinery,
brown and well. Smooth finish. carefully seasoned especially
streaks in Fairly durable. and used. where
heartwood attractive
grain colour
will show, e.g.
and built-in
Seasoning is the removal of excess moisture
from the wood by drying it after conversion.

Green timber is saturated with moisture (85%

water). Timber with less than 20% moisture
content is immune from decay, especially dry
rot, and therefore seasoning aims to reduce
moisture content to below 18% for general use,
and 12% for use in centrally heated and air-
conditioned buildings.

Correctly seasoned timber has:

1 Increases strength.
2 Increased stability.
3 Increased resistance to decay.

The two methods of seasoning are air and kiln


1. Air seasoning - The Natural method

Boards are stacked in the open air with sticks

(thin strips of wood) between them to allow air
to circulate. The stack is raised clear of the
ground on piers and has a roof to protect it
from the weather.

The ends of the boards are painted, or have

cleats (wood or metal strips) nailed across
them to prevent the end grain drying more
quickly than the rest of the board, as this
causes splitting (checking).

Advantages. It is cheap and needs little

skilled attention.
Disadvantages. It takes 3 to 6 years to dry.
(Allow one year for every 25mm thickness of

The moisture content can only be reduced to

2 Kiln seasoning The Artificial method

Boards are stacked on trolleys with sticks

between them, and pushed into a kiln. The
kiln is sealed and seasoning proceeds in
three stages.

Stage 1. Steam is injected at low

temperature to force free moisture out of the
wood cells.

Stage 2. Steam is reduced and the

temperature is increased to dry the wood.

Stage 3. Finally there is a flow of hot, almost

dry, air.

Advantages. It takes only a few days or

weeks and kills insect eggs in the wood
(e.g. woodworm). It is possible to reduce
moisture content to below 12%, making
the wood suitable for use in centrally
heated and air-conditioned buildings.

Disadvantages. Kilns are expensive to

build and to run.

It needs more attention and a lot of skill as

incorrect drying will ruin the wood.

Testing moisture content

Wood is never completely dry in normal use and moisture content (m.c.) is the amount
of water contained in the wood, as a percentage of its oven-dry weight. During
seasoning, a sample is usually put in with the main stock and checked at intervals.

Method 1 - Weighing

(a) Weigh a sample of the wood to be tested (initial weight).

(b) Dry it in an oven until there is no further weight loss.
(c) Weigh the dry sample (dry weight).
(d) Initial weight dry weight X 100 = %m.c.
dry weight
Method 2 Electric moisture content meter

This works on the principle that wet wood is a better conductor of electricity than dry
wood. Two prongs are pressed into the wood, and the meter gives a direct reading of
the moisture content by measuring the current, which flows between them.

Faults in timber

(A) Shrinkage

When seasoning removes water from timber, it shrinks considerably.

Most shrinkage takes place round the annual rings.

About half as much shrinkage takes place across the diameter as around the annual

Very little shrinkage takes place along the length. (Can be ignored.)

If a log is allowed to dry before conversion it will split

along the medullary rays as the annual rings shrink and try
to shorten themselves.

When timber is seasoned after conversion, shrinkage

affects the shape of the boards. As shrinkage shortens
the annual rings, the most shrinkage occurs in those
boards with the longest annual rings, and the shape of
each board depends on which part of the log it comes
from and on how it is sawn.
(B) Warping

Warping is the general name for any distortion

from the true shape. There are four ways in
which wood warps.
1 Cupping a curve across the grain.
2 Bowing a curve along the grain on the wide
surface of the board.
3 Springing a curve along the edge of the
4 Twisting or wind curved like a propeller
(remember use of winding strips to test face-
sides for twist).

These faults are caused by poor seasoning,

uneven shrinkage ad poor vertical stacking.

(C) Defects in timber

Defects are faults in the structure of the timber,

which may reduce its strength, durability or
usefulness. Natural defects are caused by
strong winds, lightning, fire, insect and fungal
attack. Artificial defects are caused by careless
felling, conversion and seasoning.

1 Shakes. The separation of adjoining layers of

wood usually caused by strong winds, poor
felling, or shrinkage.

Cup shake a partial separation of the

annual rings
Ring shake a cup shake, which has
separated all the way round an annual ring.
Heart shake a split along the medullary rays
starting in the pith.
Star shake several heart shakes forming an
approximate star shape.
Radial shakes or splits splits along the
medullary rays starting on the outside, and
caused by shrinkage around the annual rings
after felling.
2 Knots are where branches grew from the tree. A large knot weakens the timber.

Live knots are where a living branch joined the tree. They are hard, tightly knit into
the wood, light in colour and free from decay.

Dead knots are where a branch died or was cut off while the tree was growing.
They are often dark in colour, soft, decayed, or loose.

3 Pitch pockets are saucer shaped hollows along the grain full or resin. The resin
runs out when the pocket is opened. They are caused by damage to the growing
4 Checks are splits in the length of a board caused by bad seasoning.
5 Thunder shakes are hair-line cracks across the grain which are often impossible to
see until the timber is converted. The board will usually break along the shake. This
is especially seen in mahoganies.
6 Irregular grain is any variation of the grain from approximately parallel to the
surface, which makes planing very difficult and weakens the wood.

Cross-grain is where the grain fibres are at varying angles to the surface, usually only
in small areas of a board. Caused by cutting from logs where the grain is not
straight, or around a knot in the wood.

Short or diagonal grain is where the fibres are

not parallel to the surface although the board
is cut from straight-grained timber. Caused by
careless conversion.

Interlocking grain is where adjacent strips of

grain fibre are angled in opposite directions so
that whichever way you plan, some strips tear.
7 Waney edge. A board which shows part of
the natural circumference of the tree.

8 Sapwood is the young, soft part of the tree,

and is much more vulnerable to fungal and
insect attack than heartwood.

It should, therefore, be removed during

conversion before the timber is used for most

9 Case-hardening and honeycombing is

when the timber is seasoned too quickly in a
kiln, leaving the outer layers very hard, and
causing the cell walls in the centre to collapse,
resulting in short splits along the medullary rays.
(D) Insect attack

Most insect damage to wood in Britain is caused by beetles. They all have a similar four-
stage life cycle, and the tree most important are furniture beetle (commonly called
woodworm), death-watch beetle, and powder post beetle (lyctus).

The life cycle

1 Eggs are laid by beetles in cracks in timber.
2 Eggs hatch into larvae which bore into the wood, and feed on it for 1-50- years.
3 When full grown, the larvae hollow out tiny caverns just below the surface and grow
into pupae.
4 Pupae hatch into beetles and bite their way out of the wood through the flight holes
which we see in infested timber, mate, and restart the cycle.

The infestation is not visible until the flight holes appear, by which time it may be too late.

Furniture beetle
This attacks hardwood, softwood and some plywoods, especially sapwood and old
wood, and is responsible for 75% of known damage to timber in buildings. It produces
pellets of coarse, gritty powder, and honeycombs the inside of the timber with tunnels.

Death watch beetle

This attacks hardwoods, especially old oak structural timbers, and occasionally
softwood, usually where there is also damp ad fungal attack (see section E). it is not
normally found in houses or furniture and produces bun-like pellets of coarse dust which
are easily seen.

Powder post beetle

This attacks only the sapwood of hardwoods. It reduces the inside of the timber to a
very fine powder and produces flour-like bore dust.

1 Apply preservative to timber, e.g. creosote or insecticides.
2 Keep furniture clean and wax polished to seal small cracks.
1 In a building, cut-out and burn infested timber wherever possible. This may not be
possible when repairing furniture.
2 Apply a deep penetrating insecticide to kill larvae and give protection from
renewed attacked.
3 Fill old holes with stopper so that new holes can be spotted.

Treatment of serious infestation requires expert help.

(E) Fungal attack

All fungi which attack timber develop under similar conditions. They require:

1 Food. The cells of non-durable wood, especially sapwood.

2 Moisture. The moisture content of the wood must be at least 20% (see Seasoning).
3 Oxygen from the air.
4 Correct temperature. Unfortunately the temperature in Britain is never too hot or too
cold for fungus.
5 Lack of air circulation.

Decay can be recognized by:

1 Softening and change of colour of the wood.

2 Loss of weight of wood.
3 A musty smell.

The main types of fungal attack are wet rot and dry rot.

Wet rot (or white rot)

This is a general name for a group of fungi, which attack timber with 30% or more
moisture content. It is the commonest form of rot, especially on outside woodwork. The
wood becomes dark and spongy when wet, and brittle when dry.
The manufacture of plastics

Plastics are man-made materials. They are distinguished from other chemical
compounds by the large size of their molecules. While most substances have molecules
made up of less than 300 atoms, plastics molecules contain thousands of atoms.

They are therefore known as macromolecules.

Sources of Plastics

A few plastics are made by modifying natural substances which already have large
molecules but most of those used today are man-made and are therefore known as
synthetic plastics

Animals: Horn Insects: Lac Shellac (French polish)

Milk - Casein (glue)
- Formaldehyde (glue)

Plants: Cellulose celluloid (table tennis balls)

cellulose acetate (cloth, photographic film, handles)
cellophane (wrapping)
Bitumen (roads, flat roofs)
Latex (rubber)

Trees: Bitumen (roads, flat roofs)

Latex (rubber)
Gutta Percha (golf ball casings)
Rosin resin (paint)
Amber (semi-precious decoration)

The main source of synthetic plastics is crude oil, but coal and natural gas are also used.
During the refining of crude oil, liquids of various densities, such as petrol, paraffin and
lubricating oils and highly volatile petroleum gases are produced. These gases form the
basis of the plastics industry. Although complex and expensive equipment is needed to
manufacture plastics, the basic process is simple.

The gases are broken down into monomers, which are chemical substances consisting
of a single molecule and thousands of these are then linked together in a process
called polymerization to form new compounds called polymers. Most polymers are
made by combining the element carbon with one or more of the elements oxygen,
hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and nitrogen
Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics

There are two basic types of polymer chain formation and each behaves differently
when heated. This difference allows us to separate plastics into two main groups.


These plastics are made up of lines of molecules with very few cross linkages. This allows
them to soften when heated so that they can be bent into different shapes and to
become stiff and solid again when cooled. This process can be repeated many times.

Plastic Memory

Each time a thermoplastic is reheated, it will try to return to its original flat state, unless it
has been damaged by over-heating or over-stretching. This property is known as
plastics memory.

Three quarters of the plastics used are thermoplastics.

Thermosetting plastics

These plastics are made up of lines of molecules which are heavily cross-linked. This
results in a rigid molecular structure. Although they soften when heated the first time
and can therefore be shaped, they then become permanently stiff and solid and
cannot be reshaped.

Properties, uses and commonly available forms of plastics

Before the raw materials can be converted into finished products, other substances
may have to be added to give the required properties.

These may include:

Plasticisers to soften the final product and make it less brittle

Dyes and pigments to give the required colour
Heat stabilizers to give resistance to heat during manufacture or in use
Catalysts to control the speed of a chemical
Fire-retarding additives
Foaming agents to make plastics foams
The identification of common plastics

Although it is difficult to identify all the many different plastics, especially where two or
more have been used together or when additives have been used to alter their
properties, it is used to be able to recognize the most used ones.

The following chart shows some simple tests which will help in this, and the results of
them for some common plastics. In general, most thermoplastics will cut cleanly,
become flexible at 200C or less and melt to a viscous liquid if heating continues while
thermosets will produce powdery chips when cut and bubble and decompose before

Common Cut with Hit with Bend at room Put in Scratch

Name Sharp knife hammer temperature water With fingernail
1. Polythene Easy and Very LD Flexible Floats Yes
smooth strong HD Fairly stiff
2. Polyvinyl Easy and Fairly Plasticised Sinks Plasticised
Chloride (PVC) smooth strong Flexible Yes
Rigid Rigid
stiff No

3. Polystyrene Fairly hard Weak Stiff Sinks No

4. Expanded Crumbles Crumbles Breaks Very Yes
polystyrene buoyant
5. Acrylic Splinters Brittle Breaks Sinks No
6. Polypropylene Easy and Very Stiff Floats No
fairly smooth strong
7. Nylon Fairly easy Very Stiff Sinks Yes
and smooth strong
8. Cellulose Easy and Strong May be Sinks No
acetate smooth flexible
9. Urea Chips Brittle Very stiff Sinks No
10. Melamine Chips Brittle Very stiff Sinks No
11. Phenol Chips Brittle Very stiff Sinks No
12. Polyester resin Difficult and Brittle Very stiff Sinks No
Properties and uses of a few common thermoplastics

Common name Properties Uses Common forms

Low density Wide range of colours. Squeeze bottles and toys. Powder, granules,
polythene Tough. Plastics sacks and sheets. films and sheet
Good chemical Packaging film.
Good electrical insulator
High density Wide range of colours. Milk crates. Bottles, barrels, Powder, granules,
polythene Fairly stiff and hard. High tanks, pipes and buckets films and sheet
impact and shock
Rigid PVC Stiff, hard. Tough at Pipes, guttering and fittings. Powder, paste,
(polyvinyl room temperature. Can Bottles and containers. Brush liquids and sheet
chloride) be used outdoors. Light bristles
Plasticised PVC Soft, flexible. Good Suitcase, tabletop Powder, paste,
(polyvinyl electrical insulator coverings. Electrical wiring liquids and sheet
chloride) insulation, floor coverings
Polystyrene Stiff, hard. Wide range Food containers. Disposable Powder, granules
of colours. Can be cups, cutlery, plates. Model and sheet
made impact resistant kits, toys
Expanded Very buoyant. Light Sound insulation. Heat Sheets, slabs,
Polystyrene weight. Absorbs shocks. insulation. Packaging beads. Usually
Very good sound and white
heat insulator
Acrylic Stiff, hard, glass-clear. Light units and illuminated Rods, tubes. Sheets
Very durable outdoors. signs. Watch and clock are clear,
Easily machined and glasses, aircraft canopies translucent and
polished. Scratches and windows opaque. Wide
easily range of colours.
Polypropylene Very light, floats. Very Crates, chair shells and Powder, granules,
good chemical seats. Chemical pipes and chips, rod, tube.
resistance. Good fittings. Containers with
fatigue resistance. integral hinges
Nylon Hard, tough, rigid, creep Gear wheel, bearings, Powder, granules,
resistant. Self-lubricating. power tool casings, clothing, chips, rod, tube,
Resistant to oil, fuels and combs, telecommunication extruded section.
chemicals. High melting equipment Usually white or
point cream
Cellulose Tough. Can be made Photographic film. Tool Powder, sheet, film
acetate flexible. Hard, stiff, light handles. Transparent, rods and extruded
weight flexible box lids. Pen cases, sections
toothbrush handles
Properties and uses of a few common thermosetting plastics

Common name Properties Uses Common forms

Polyester resin Good electrical GRP boats, car Liquids, paste
insulator, good heat bodies. Chair shells,
resistance. Stiff, ducting, garden
hard, brittle alone furniture.
but strong. Resistant
to ultraviolet light
Urea formaldehyde Stiff, hard, strong, Light coloured Powder, granules.
(UF) brittle. Heat electrical fittings Colours: white,
resistant. Wide and domestic cream
range of colours appliance parts.
Melamine Stiff, hard, strong. Tableware such as Powder, granules,
formaldehyde (MF) Heat resistant. Wide Melaware. laminate sheets.
range of colours. Decorative Colour- clear unless
Resistant to weak laminates, electrical pigmented
chemicals. Stain insulation. Synthetic
resistant resin, paints
Phenol Stiff, hard, strong. Dark coloured Powder, granules.
formaldehyde (PF) Heat resistant. electrical fittings Reinforced sheet
Makes high strength and parts for and rod. Colours:
fabric or paper domestic black, brown, red
reinforced appliances such as and green
engineering electric kettle,
laminates. Limited saucepan handle,
colours because it door handles
darkens under light
Cleaning-up and finishing plastics

The following instructions apply particularly to acrylic but will be found suitable for most
hard plastics. Take care to avoid scratching the surface of plastics at all times. Leave
the protective paper covering on, where supplied, for as long as possible. After
removing the paper the last traces of adhesive can be washed off with warm, soapy

Stage 1
After cutting, plane, file or sand the edges to remove saw marks. If using a disc or belt
sander on thermoplastics, use a coarse abrasive and light pressure to avoid
overheating. If filling, finish by draw filing.

Stage 2
Use a scraper or wet and dry paper, to obtain a completely smooth edge. Scraping will
leave the edges ready for machine polishing. By using progressively finer grades of wet
and dry paper, the edges can be made ready for hand finishing. Use the wet and dry
paper on a cork block to keep the edges square.

Stage 3
To avoid overheating when machine polishing thermoplastics, keep the work moving,
lightly against a soft mop coated with a mild abrasive.

When hand polishing use progressively finer grades of abrasive polish. Domestic metal
polish is a fine finishing abrasive

Deep surface scratches can be removed from most plastics by using progressively finer
grades of wet and dry paper or rubbing down compound.

Wet and dry paper (silicone carbide paper) is graded by grit sizes.
Common grades are:

60-120 grit coarse

200-300 grit medium
400-600 grit fine
800-2000 grit super fine
Metals make up a major portion of all the naturally occurring elements and form about
a quarter of the Earths crust by weight. All metals, with the exception of gold, are
found chemically combined with other elements in the form of oxides and sulphates.

The production of iron

Iron ore, usually in the form of iron oxide in rocks, is mined or quarried and taken to a
steelworks. There it is graded and crushed to reduce it to a maximum size of 100mm
cubes. Small particles are mixed with coke and heated to form a clinker of similar size
called sinter.

Once lit, a blast furnace runs continuously until the heat-resistant bricks of the refractory
lining start to burn away, usually after about 2 years. The raw materials, coke, limestone,
iron-ore and sinter are continuously poured in through the double bell charging system
which prevents hot gases from escaping during charging

Heated air is blasted into the bottom of the furnace from the blast or bustle pipe
through the tuyres, to make the coke burn effectively.

The iron in the ore melts and collects in the well at the bottom of the furnace. The
limestone acts as a flux to make impurities float on the surface of the molten iron in the
form of a liquid slag, which can be tapped off. The iron and slag are tapped off at
regular intervals.

The hot waste gases go through a gas cleaning plant before either being reused to
heat the blast to 800C or being burnt off.

The iron produced is 90 to 95% pure and it is used in one of three ways.

1. In a modern integrated steel works it is conveyed in its molten state straight to the
steel-making furnaces.
2. It is fed into a pig casting machine which makes it into small iron bars (pig iron) for
future remelting, for example, in an electric arc furnace.
3. It is refined into cast iron which is a strong but brittle metal especially suitable for
making intricate castings such as engine cylinder blocks and cylinder heads
simply, easily and economically.
The production of steel

The raw materials for steel making are iron from the blast furnaces, scrap iron and steel.
The amount of each used depends on the type of steel being made and the process
used. Because there are many different types of steel, for example, mild steel, tool steels,
stainless steel and steel alloys, there are many variations in the techniques used. All steel
making however, involves removing impurities and excess carbon from the iron and
adding small of other elements.

The basic oxygen furnace

The furnace is tilted and charged with 30% scrap and then with 70% molten iron. With
the furnace upright, a water-cooled oxygen lance is lowered to just above the surface
of the metal and oxygen is blown into the melt at very high speed. It combines with
carbon and other unwanted elements to remove them from the charge. During the
blow, lime is added as a flux so that the oxidized impurities form a slag on the surface
ready for tapping off later.

After the blow, the steel which has been made is tapped out through the tap hole into
a ladle. The converter is then tipped upside down to empty out the slag.

Ferrous and Non-Ferrous metals

All metals belong to one of these two groups

Ferrous metals are those which are made mainly of iron with small amounts of
other metals or other elements added to give the required properties. Almost all
ferrous metals can be picked up with a magnet

Non-ferrous metals are those which do not contain iron, for example, aluminium,
copper, lead, zinc and tin.

Pure metals and Alloys

All metals are also either pure metals or alloys

A pure metal consists of a single element which means that it is a substance

having only one type of atom in it. The common pure metals are aluminium,
copper, iron, lead, zinc, tin, silver and gold

An alloy is a mixture of two or more pure metals or one or more pure metals
mixed with other elements. Alloys are made in order to create materials which
have combinations of properties not available in the pure metals and to fulfil
needs for which no pure metal is suitable.
The heat treatment of metals

Heat treatment is a way of making metals more suitable for processing or for the jobs
which they have to do.

For example, a piece of high carbon steel being used to make a cold chisel must be
annealed (softened), so that it can be shaped, and then hardened and tempered so
that it can cut other metals.

There are three stages in heat treatment:

1. Heat the metal to the correct temperature

2. Keep it at that temperature for the required length of time (soaking)
3. Cool it in the correct way to give the desired properties.

Annealing makes the metal as soft as possible to relieve internal stresses, and to make it
easier to shape.

Mild Steel is heated to bright red heat, soaked for a short time and left to cool

Aluminium is covered with soap, heated gently until the soap turns black and left
to cool

Tool Steel is heated to bright red heat, soaked for a short time and left to cool
very slowly in hot ashes. The more slowly the metal cools, the softer it will be.

Normalising returns work hardened steel to its normal condition after forging or previous
heat treatment. Steel is heated to red hot and left to cool.

Hardening increases the hardness and tensile strength of tool steel in order to make
cutting tools, springs, etc. Hardening can only be carried out on carbon and alloy steels.
The higher the carbon content of the steel, the harder it will be.

Steel is heated to cherry red heat, soaked for a short time and quenched
vertically in oil, brine or tepid water. Quenching horizontally or in cold water can
cause cracking. Hardened metal is brittle and unusable.

Case Hardening is a method of putting a hard surface coating onto steels which do not
contain enough carbon for hardening and tempering. Carbon is burnt into the surface
of the metal so that it can be hardened to give a wear resistant shell and a tough break
resistant core.
Tempering removes the extreme hardness and brittleness from hardened steel and
makes it tougher so that it can be used. Increasing the tempering temperature reduces
the hardness, but increases toughness, and the final compromises between hardness
and toughness depends on the purpose for which the steel is to be used. The hardened
steel is cleaned so that the tempering colours can be seen, heated to the required
tempering colour and immediately quenched in water.

Tempering colours as the metal is heated it changes colour.

Properties and uses of common non-ferrous metals

Name Melting Composition Properties Uses

Aluminium 650C Pure metal Greyish-white, light, soft, Aircraft, boats, railway
malleable, ductile and highly coaches, engine,
conductive to heat and saucepans, aluminium foil,
electricity. Corrosion resistant. electrical cables.
Can be welded and soldered
by special processes.

Aluminium 650C Aluminium +4% Ductile, malleable, light, work- Aircraft and vehicle parts.
alloys, e.g. copper and 1% hardens and machines well.
Duralumin manganese.

Copper 1100C Pure metal Red, malleable, ductile, Wire, especially electrical
tough. High heat/electrical cables and conductors.
conductor. Corrosion resistant. Water and central heating
Hot or cold work is possible pipes. Printed circuits and

Castings, forgings,
Copper 980C 65% copper + Yellow, very corrosion resistant ornaments, valves,
alloys 35% zinc though it tarnishes easily. propellers.
Brass Harder than copper. Good
heat/electrical conductor.
Bearings, springs, instrument
Copper 980C 90 to 95% Reddish-yellow, harder and parts, gears. Air, water and
alloys copper + 5 to tougher than brass. Hard steam valves.
Bronze 10% tin wearing corrosion resistant
and easily machined

Lead 330C Pure metal Bright and shiny when new Coverings for power and
but rapidly oxidizes to a dull- telephone cables. Protection
grey. The heaviest common against x-rays and radiation.
metal. Soft, malleable, Used in paint and printing
corrosion resistant and type.
immune to many chemicals.

Tin 230C Pure metal White, soft, corrosion resistant Tinplate, making bronze, soft
in damp conditions solders.

Zinc 420C Pure metal Bluish-white, ductile, a layer of Making brass. Zinc chloride
oxide protects it from further soft soldering flux and wood
corrosion. Easily worked preservative. Coating for
steel galvanized corrugated
iron roofing. Rust proof paints
and intricate die castings.
Properties and uses of common ferrous metals

Name Melting Composition Properties Uses

Cast iron 1000 to Remelted pig iron A wide range of alloys with varying Used for heavy
1200C with small properties. Hard, brittle, cheap, crushing machine
additions strong, rigid in compression and
depending on use self-lubricating.
and scrap steel.
White cast iron is very hard, brittle
and almost unmachineable The most used type.
Used for car cylinder
Grey cast iron is readily blocks and heads.
machineable, easily cast into Vices and machine
intricate shapes and corrosion tool parts.
resistant in damp conditions.

Steels 1400C Alloys of iron and Properties, working, qualities and

carbon uses vary considerably with the
different types of steel.

Low 1400C Less than 0.15% Soft, ductile, tough and malleable Wire, rivets, thin sheets,
carbon carbon. cold pressings, drawn
steels tubes.

Mild 1400C 0.15% to 0.30% High tensile strength, ductile, tough, General purpose steel,
steels carbon fairly malleable, softer than angle iron, plates,
medium and high carbon steels. sheets, tubes, bolts and
Because of low carbon content it nuts
cannot be hardened and
tempered. Must be case-

Medium 1400C 0.30% to 0.70% Stronger and harder than mild steel Garden tools, shafts,
carbon carbon but less ductile, tough and axles, springs, wire
steels malleable. ropes.

High 1400C 0.70% to 1.4% Hardest of all carbon steels, but less Hammers, wood, metal
carbon carbon ductile, tough and malleable. and plastic cutting
steels Hardness and toughness are tools such as chisels,
improved by heat treatment. drills, files, lathe tools,
taps and dies. Silver
steel is a high carbon

Alloy Any steel to which Properties depend on elements

steels other elements added.
have been added.

Stainless 18% chromium and Corrosion resistance Sink units, kitchen ware,
steel 8% nickel added tanks, pipes, aircraft
High medium carbon Retains hardness at high Cutting tools for lathes
speed steel, tungsten, temperatures. Brittle. Can be
steel chromium and hardened and tempered

High low carbon steel, Exceptional strength and Gears, shafts, engine
tensile nickel and toughness parts
steel chromium

Commonly available forms

Metals can be bought in a wide range of shapes and sizes and you should always try to
design jobs which use these standard sections. It is advisable to check what materials
are in stock before starting or to look in a stockholders catalogue to find out what is
available. The following sketches show the common shapes and some of the most used

Round rod 5, 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50mm diameter.

Squares - 5, 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 25mm square

Flats 12 x 1.5mm 20 x 1.5mm 25 x 1.5mm

12 x 3mm 20 x 3mm 25 x 3mm
32 x 3mm 40 x 3mm 50 x 3mm
12 x 6mm 20 x 6mm 25 x 6mm
32 x 6mm 40 x 6mm 50 x 6mm

Hexagons - 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 22, 25mm across flats.

Octagons - 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 22, 25mm across flats.

Sheets 0.6, 0.8, 1.00, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 3mm thick

Round tubes - 5, 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 25, 32, 40mm outside diameter

Square tubes - 6, 8,10,12,16, 20, 25, 32, 40, 50mm square

Rectangular tubes 50 x 30mm

Angles 12 x 12mm, 18 x 18mm, 25 x 25mm.

Cleaning-up and finishing metal

Painting metal

Stage 1
Thoroughly clean and degrease the metal. Paraffin or special degreasers will clean
badly affected parts while hot water with soda or detergent will remove light oil and dirt

Stage 2
Find a dust-free place to work and make arrangements for supporting the work while
painting and drying before starting.

Stage 3
For maximum protection apply primer, undercoat and topcoat. For inside work, one or
two coats alone are adequate. Do not allow the paint to collect in corners or run. Paint
awkward parts first and then larger, flat, more noticeable areas. Two thin coats are
always better than one thick one. Keep brushes clean and paint tin lids sealed.

Cleaning Copper and Brass

Dip into an acid pickle consisting of one part sulphuric acid to ten parts water. Always
use brass tongs as steel will contaminate the pickle.

Stage 2
Clean the metal with pumice powder and a damp cloth and then remove any
blemishes with wetted water of Ayr stone.

Stage 3
Finally polish on a polishing machine with a linen mop and Tripoli buffing compound
and or by hand using metal polish.


Stage 1
Thoroughly clean, polish and degrease the metal.

Stage 2
Apply the lacquer or varnish with a best quality soft paint brush or spray gun to preserve
the finish.
Resistant Material

Topic: Hand tools

Student Name: Tutor Group:

Working Safely
To avoid the risk of damaging tools and equipment or getting injured in the workshop
there are some basic rules that should be followed.

General Workshop

Make sure your apron

is buttoned up or tied.

Tie up long hair

Do not run or play

within the workshop

Use the appropriate

safety gear when

Safety with hand tools

Never use a hammer

that has a loose
head; the head may
fly off

File handles must be

secure. The tangs of
some file blades are
sharp and can pierce
the skin

Keep fingers away

from sharp edges of
cutting tools.

Dont use excessive


Do not use tools

which are blunt.
Safety with machinery

Never use a machine

unless you have been
shown how to use it by
your teacher.

Put on the appropriate

safety gear.

Clamp the workpiece

firmly when drilling.

Always remove the

chuck key before
switching on a drilling

If the machine has safety

guards, use them.

The on-off switch should

only be operated by the
person using the

Good Housekeeping

Keep your work area

clean and tidy

Return all tools to their

proper place after use

Report damaged or
broken tools to your
Marking out and measuring materials

Before a piece of materials is cut or shaped, it should be carefully marked out.

Accurate marking out will help to ensure that the design looks right after it is made.

Where do I start? Checking the datum references

Marking out usually requires two
straight edges on the materials. The straightness of an edge can
Marks can then be made with be checked with the use of a
reference to these straight steel rule.
edges. The straight edges are at
right angles to each other and
are called datum references.

Datum References
For a metal or plastics
workpiece, a datum reference is
called a datum edge.

Use a try square to check

whether two edges are at right
angles to each other. A try
square has a wooden stock
and a steel blade. Use an
engineers square for checking
metal workpieces. An
The datum references on a engineers square is made
wooden workpiece are called entirely from steel. The stock
the face side and the face should always be placed
edge. Symbols are used to against the datum references.
denote these datum
references and are normally
marked with a pencil.
Making Marks Marking lines at 90 to an edge

Different materials are marked using Use an engineers square and a

different tools. scriber to mark a line at right angles
to the datum edge of a metal
Use a scriber to mark lines on workpiece.
a metal workpiece.

Use a sharp pencil to mark

lines on a wooden

Use a spirit-based felt pen on

bare plastics.

Use a try square with a pencil to

mark a line at right angles to the
face side or edge on a wooden

A marking knife is used with a try square to cut a line across the grain of a
piece of wood where a section of the wood needs to be removed.
Marking lines parallel to an edge

Use a pair of odd-leg calipers to mark Use a marking gauge to mark lines
lines parallel to the datum edge on a parallel to the face side or face edge
metal or plastics workpiece. on a wooden workpiece.

Odd-leg calipers can also be used to A marking gauge can be set using a
find the centre of a round bar. steel rule
Marking curves, arcs and circles Marking Freeform shapes

Use a pair of spring dividers to mark Use a template to mark out a

circles or arcs on a metal workpiece. freeform shape. A template can be
made from card. Templates are also
useful when a shape needs to be
marked out more than once.

Use a pencil compass to mark arcs and Alternatively, a freeform shape may be
circles on wood or plastics workpiece. drawn on paper, cut and pasted
directly on the material surface.
Punching Marks Marking lines at an angle to an
Punch marks are made on metal
workpieces by striking a punch with a Use a sliding bevel to mark a line at
ball-pein hammer. an angle to the datum reference of
a workpiece.
Use a centre punch to mark the centre
of a hole that is to be drilled. A centre
punch has a point angle of 90.

The sliding bevel can be used to

check the angle between two flat
surfaces of a workpiece.

Use a dot punch to punch small dots

along a scribed line on a metal
workpiece. The small dots are called
witness marks. A dot punch has a point
angle of 60.

These are used to measure with great accuracy. The commonest type is the 0 to 25mm
external micrometer. It measures to an accuracy of 0.01mm
Vernier calipers

A caliper is a device used to measure the distance between two symmetrically

opposing sides. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing
points. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured, the
caliper is then removed and the distance read by measuring between the tips with a
measuring tool, such as a ruler.

They are used in many fields such as metalworking, mechanical engineering,

gunsmithing, handloading, woodworking and woodturning.
Marking out on the surface plate

This is a much more accurate way of marking out than those already described.

Surface plate
This consists of an iron casting with a very accurate flat top and a ribbed underframe to
prevent distortion. The flat top provides a true surface from which measurements can
be taken, parallel lines can be scribed and other flat surfaces can be tested. It is
protected by a cover and light oiling when not in use.

Surface gauge
This is used to transfer measurements from the surface plate, to scribe lines parallel to
the surface plate and to test heights. The surface gauge has a fine adjustment screw
and the spindle and scriber can be set to almost any angle.

A scribing block simply supports a scriber and has no fine adjustment.

Vee blocks
These are used to hold cylindrical work for marking out and while machining. They are
made in sets consisting ot two matched vee blocks and a clamp.
Angle Plate
This is a very accurately made 90 angle used to hold work at right angles to the surface
plate. It is machined on the ends to enable work mounted on it to be marked both
horizontally and vertically. Work with only one true face such as machined casting can
be mounted on an angle plate.
Holding tools.

Engineers vice

This is bolted to thebench top so that the back jaw is

just forward of the bench edge. Soft metal or plastic
vice jaw covers are used to protect work from the
diamond-pattern gripping surfaces of the jaws when
finish is more important than grip.

Folding bars

Used when folding metal in order to obtain a straight,

neat bend and are usually held in the vice for small scale

Mole wrench

The mole wrench can be firmly locked onto

pieces of work to clamp them together or to hold
them while drilling, grinding or welding. It is now
often used instead of a hand vice.

Woodworkers bench vice

The vice is fixed to the bench so that the top of the

wooden jaw facing is level with the bench top and
is used for holding work.
Bench hook

This clips over the bench or in the vice and is used to hold
wood while sawing. The bench hook helps you tohold the
work steady, prevents the wood from splitting by supporting it
under the kerf and protect the bench top.

Mitre Box

This is used to cut wood at 45 accurately. The 90 saw cut in

the centre is for squaring wood accurately. Boxes can usually
be made for cutting mitres at any angle.

Sash cramp

This is used to hold frames, carcases and butt joints together

while the glue sets and while welding large metal frames.


This is used to hold work down onto the bench and to

clamp small pieces of glued wood together. There are
several different types. The swivel shoe enables the
cramp to grip angled pieces of wood. Protect the work
with scrapwood.
Driving tools.

Warrington Pattern Hammer

The Warrington or cross-pein hammer is used for light

nailing and general work in cabinet-making. The cross-
pein is used for starting small nails held between the fingers.

Pin hammer

This is a light weight cross-pein hammer with a long

shaft for driving small tacks, panel pins and thin nails.


This is used for heavy nailing and for removing larger nails.

Ball-pein hammer

Various sizes of ball-pein hammer are used for

almost all general metalwork. Smaller sizes are
used for dot and centre punching, rivetting and
bending while larger sizes are used for forging.
The ball-pein is used for shaping rivets.

Carpenters mallet

This is used in woodwork for striking chisels and

when assembling jobs. The shaft and the
mortise through the head are tapered so that
the head cannot fly off. The striking faces are
sloped so that they strike the chisel squarely
when the mallet is swung from the elbow, while
standing at a bench.

Tinmans mallet

Wooden mallets are used for shaping sheet metal

without damaging the surface. The faces can be
shaped for special jobs.

Bossing mallet

This has rounded faces of different sizes and is

used for hollowing out sheet metal

The screwdriver is a device specifically

designed to insert and tighten, or to loosen
and remove, screws. The screwdriver
comprises a head or tip which engages with
a screw, a mechanism to apply torque by
rotating the tip, and some way to position
and support the screwdriver. A typical hand
screwdriver comprises an approximately
cylindrical handle of a size and shape to be
held by a human hand, and an axial shaft
fixed to the handle, the tip of which is
shaped to fit a particular type of screw.

There are many types of screw heads, of

which the most common are the slotted
(Flat), Phillips, PoziDriv/SupaDriv (crosspoint),
Robertson, TORX, and Allen (hex).

Screwdrivers come in a large variety of sizes

to match those of screws, from tiny jeweler's
screwdrivers up.

If a screwdriver that is not the right size and

type for the screw is used, it is likely that the
screw will be damaged in the process of
tightening it. This is less important for PoziDriv
and SupaDriv, which are designed
specifically to be more tolerant of size
mismatch. When tightening a screw with
force, it is important to press the head hard
into the screw, again to avoid damaging the

Some manual screwdrivers have a ratchet

action whereby the screwdriver blade is
locked to the handle for clockwise rotation,
but uncoupled for counterclockwise rotation
when set for tightening screws; and vice
versa for loosening.

Many screwdriver designs have a handle

with detachable head, allowing a set of one
handle and several heads to be used for a
variety of screw sizes and types.
Drlling machines

Hand drill or wheel brace

The hand drill is used to rotate twist drills up to 8mm

diameter. The side handle can be unscrewed to allow
the drill to work close against obstructions.

Portable electric drill

These are usually chosen for their chuck size and their
number of speeds. Common chuck sizes are6, 8 and
13mm maximum drill shank diameter. The safest portable
tools are the double-insulated type.

Cordless drill

Cordless drills are continually improving, as higher

voltage batteries are becoming available, a top of
the line cordless drill is a very impressive tool,
unfortunately there are lower voltage units that are
totally inadequate. Because these drills are used so
much for driving screws many have an adjustable
clutch to regulate the depth that screws are driven
in and are now frequently referred to as Driver-Drills.
Voltage ranges from 4.8 to 24, speeds are usually
around 0 - 700 or 350 - 1200 rpm, many are dual
speed offering both ranges.

These are mainly used to grip small items. Combination pliers are also able to cut wire.
There are many shapes and sizes and only some of the most used are shown here.


Chain nose


These are used to tighten or loosen nuts and bolts.

Open ended spanner Adjustable spanner Ring spanner

Cutting tools
Saws are used for making straight and cruved cuts in wood, metal and plastics.

Saws for wood

Saws for straight cuts.

Handsaws are for straight cuts in large pieces of wood

Backsaws are for accurate straight cuts in small pieces of wood. The back of the saw
limits the depth of cut.
Saws for Curves

Coping saw
Teeth usually point towards handle to cut as saw is pulled.
Saws for metal

Saws for straight cuts

Hacksaws are for straight cuts in metal. The blade is held in tension in the frame with the
teeth facing forward.

The junior hacksaw is for straight cuts on small, light work. The blade is held in tension by
the sprung steel frame.

Blade length: 150mm

Saws for plastics

Saws for straight cuts

Backsaws (tenon and dovetail).

Hacksaws with 24 and 32 teeth per 25mm blades
Junior hacksaws.

Saws for curves

Coping saws
Abrafile saws
Piercing saw (for intricate work)


These are used for cutting thin sheets of metal and soft plastics.

Files are used for shaping and smoothing, mainly metal and hard plastics but also wood.

Safety: never use an engineers file without a handle. The tang could stab your hand.


These are for rough shaping of wood and other soft

materials. The common sizes are 200 and 250mm long
and the common shape is half-round.

These are used for shaping and smoothing wood and acrylic plastics.

Name Approx. Uses

Smoothing 250 mm For cleaning up work to remove all previous tool marks and
plane leave the surface clean and smooth.
For planing end grain.
Because it is small and light, this plane is popular for all kinds
of general planing jobs, but its short sole will not produce a
flat surface

Jack plane 350 mm For planing wood to size. The general purpose plane. Its
greater length produces a flatter surface.
Foreplane 450 mm For trueing-up large surfaces and long edges.
Jointer plane 600 mm The sole is longer for accurate long work.

Chisels for wood

These are for cutting and shaping wood where planes cannot be used and especially
for cutting joints.

Firmer chisels: general purpose chisels.

Strong enough for cutting with hand
pressure called paring or with light mallet

Bevel-edge firmer chisel: for cutting into

acute corners such as in dovetails.

Motise chisel: for heavy duty work such as

cutting mortises. Made to withstand
heavy mallet blows and the levering-out
of waste. The thick blade also prevents
twisting in the mortise.
Resistant Material

Topic: Ways of working materials (processes)

Student Name: Tutor Group:

Wasting process
The term wasting is used to describe those processes that produce waste
by cutting bits out or cutting bits off. For example, sawing will produce
sawdust. Waste is not always something that is discarded it is increasingly
more cost effective and responsible to look at waste material as a
recyclable commodity.

Wasting processes include:

Centre lathe turning
Wood turning
Screw cutting

Chiselling and Planing

It is convenient to look at chiseling of both wood

and metal and planning at the same time. The
single edge cutting action of these processes is
very similar. Metal cutting are called cold chisels;
they are a hardened and tempered cutting
edge and the other end is left soft to withstand
hammer blows. Wood chisels are used for:

Paring the removal of small shavings using

hand pressure
Chopping driving the chisel with blows
from a mallet to remove large quantities of
Planes are used to work wood; their action
is like that of a chisel.

There are many types of saw. The choice of saw

depends on the material to be cut and it is
important to get the choice right. The kerf, or cut,
that the saw makes must be wider than the blade
to avoid it jamming and getting stuck. This is
achieved by the saws teeth having a set which
creates clearance as it cuts.

Sawing curves

Sawing curves requires a saw with a narrow blade,

the disadvantage of which is that the blade can
break easily. All narrow-bladed saws have
replaceable blades

Coping saws are used for wood and plastic.

The blade has backward facing teeth that cut
on the back stroke.

Piercing saws are similar to coping saws but

have finer blades suitable for fine curves in
metal and plastic.

Abrafiles are toothed circular blades that fit into hacksaws frames.
They are used for metal and plastic.

Filing is a versatile process. Files are made from high-carbon steel that is
hardened and tempered. Cutting is achieved by rows of small teeth that
remove particles of material called filings.

Files are classified by


Files are normally double cut, with small diamond teeth. There are various
grade of cut:

Rough and bastard cuts for course work and soft materials
Second cut for general use
Smooth and dead smooth for finer cuts before finishing and polishing
Other types of file

Needle file are small files in a wide range of shapes with dead smooth cuts.

Rasps have individual teeth instead of a true cut and are used for working

Surforms have replaceable blades with many cutting edges. There are
many shapes and types of cut to suit a wide range of applications and

Drilling and cutting holes

Twist drills made from HSS (High Speed Steel) are

the most commonly used tool for making holes in
wood, metal and plastic materials. Twist drill use the
same basic wedge cutting action as chisels and
saws by using two rotating cutting edges.

For large diameter holes in thin sheet

materials it is best to use an adjustable tank
cutter or a hole saw which has
interchangeable toothed cutting rings
ranging from 20 75mm diameter.

Countersinks and counterbores

When it is required to have screw heads that finish flush with the surface,
countersink bits and counterbores are used to provide the seating for the
screw head.
Countersinks have a 90 point angle for countersunk wood screws.
Counterbores create a flat bottom recess for cheese head screws or
bolt heads.
Hand drills and drilling machines

Portable electric power drills and hand drills can be used for straight shank
drills up to 13mm diameter. Machine pedestal and bench mounted
machines have larger capacity chucks and can also accommodate taper
shank drills.

Centre lathe turning

Centre lathes are used to make cylindrical components from metals and
plastic materials. The process is called turning. The principle of turning is
straight forward. Work is held firmly and is rotated whilst a single point
cutting tool, located in the tool post, cuts the work using the familiar
wedge cutting action. The shape of the work produced depends upon the
path taken by the tool, the two principle shapes being cylindrical and flat,
produced by parallel turning and facing.

Centre lathes have four main elements:

Lathe bed very rigid and usually made from cast iron. The bed
keeps the other parts in alignment.
Headstock containing the gearbox, controls and the means of
holding the work, most commonly a three or four jaw chuck.
Tail stock for location of drills and drill chucks and for supporting long
Saddle travels along the bed and carries a cross slide upon which is
mounted the tool post.
Work holding

When turning, the cutting forces are considerable, so

work must be held securely. The method of holding
work will depend upon the shape and size of the
material and the turning operation that is to be
carried out.

The methods of holding work are:

Self-centering three-jaw chuck the most

common device for holding cylindrical and
hexagonal work. The jaws are stepped so that
work can also be held from the inside; a second
set of jaws that step in the opposite direction can
be used to hold larger diameters.
Independent four-jaw chuck used to hold
square, rectangular and irregular shapes and for
off centre turning. Each jaw is adjusted
Face plate for clamping awkward shapes, often
in conjunction with an angle bracket.
Between centres for long pieces of work. Work must first be
prepared by facing and centre drilling

Turning tools

Turning tools need to be both hard and tough. They are made from high
carbon steel, high speed steel or have replaceable tungsten carbide tips.

The shape (profile) of the tool is determined by the turning operation being
carried out.

Roughing tools normally have a broad radiused point for strength and
are used to reduce work to within 1mm of the finished shape.
Finishing tools are used for fine cutting, normally with a small raduised
Knife edge tools in left and right-hand forms are used to finish turning
sharp internal corners.
Parting-off tools are used to produce grooves and to cut the work off
from the material remaining in the chuck.
The geometry of turning tools is important to ensure efficient cutting. The
tools clearance and rake angles must be correct and the tool must be set
on the centre line height of the workpiece.

Turning speeds

The speed at which a lathe rotates is determined by the material and the
diameter of the work. The speed is calculated and the right speed is set.
Cutting lubrication

Most turning operations benefit from the use of a cutting lubricant that acts
as a coolant and lubricant for the operation, reducing friction and heat
and assisting the waste removal. Examples of lubricants are Paraffin and
soluble oil.


Drilling on the centre lathe is undertaken using

a drill in a Jacobs chuck held in the tailstock
of the lathe or using a taper shank drill. It is
necessary when drilling on the lathe to start
the process with a centre drill to create a
small location to start the drill.


Boring is internal turning. The process must start with a drilled hole to enable
the boring tool to enter. It is a process that requires great care as it is not
possible to see what is happening.

Taper turning

Short tapers or chamfers can be created by grinding to the required

chamfer angle, using a tool that is shaped. Longer tapers are turned using
the compound slide of the lathe that is set over at the required taper angle
and the slide hand wheel is used to move the tool along the work.

Knurling is a means of creating a diamond or straight line textured

surface on cylindrical work by using a special wheeled knurling tool.

Wood turning

Wood lathes are used for turning wooden products

such as bowls, dishes, spindles, legs and lamps. The
process is carried out with work mounted on the
headstock for bowl-type products or between
centres for long thin products.

There is a wide range of wood turning tools

including scrapers, gouges and chisels. The tools
are hand held against a rest that must be adjusted close to the work and
at a height that suits the tool being used.

Milling uses rotating multi-toothed cutters to work metal, plastic and

composite materials. The two main types of machine are horizontal and
vertical milling machines, so named because of the way that the cutters
are mounted.
Milling processes

Horizontal milling vertical milling

Horizontal and vertical milling of vertical flat surfaces the horizontal

machine is using a side and face cutter that cuts on its side and on its

Horizontal and vertical milling of slots.

Screw cutting

Screw cutting is appropriate for

metal and plastic materials.

Tapping is the process of cutting

internal screw threads using a set
of three taps in sequence: taper,
second and plug. The hole must
first be drilled to the correct
tapping size; the taps are held in a
tap wrench.

Threading is the process of cutting external threads using a split die held in
a die stock.
When screw cutting by hand, it is important to remember to use a cutting
sequence that involves half a turn clockwise followed by a quarter turn
anti-clockwise. This breaks off the swarf (waste) and stops the tap or die
from getting jammed or breaking.

a centre lathe for screw cutting

Screw threads can also be cut using a single point tool on a centre lathe.
This is a very precise process requiring a tool that is ground to the exact
profile of the screw thread and very accurate setting up the lathe to
achieve the correct pitch of the thread.
Deforming and reforming processes
Deforming processes bring about a change in shape such as bending,
without the loss of material that is associated with the wasting process.

Reforming processes involve a change of material state such as solid to

liquid and return to solid.

Deforming processes

Deforming processes rely upon materials being in a malleable condition to

allow the material to be deformed by the application of force without
fracture taking place. The deforming processes often require the
application of heat to bring about a softening of the material concerned.

The deforming processes include:

Bending and forming thermoplastics

Hot and cold forming metals
Bending and laminating wood
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic (glass fibre)

Bending and forming thermoplastic

Thermoplastic materials such as acrylic are very

easy to bend and form with the application of a
moderate amount of heat only 160C. This makes
acrylic particularly suitable for school project work
as this is a temperature that can be achieved
easily and safely.

Strip heater, sometimes called a line bender, which

is used to provide local heating for line bending
acrylic sheet. When forming more than one bend, it
is a good idea to use card to work out the sequence of bends. The position
of the bends should be marked out on the acrylic using a fibre-tipped pen.
Have all necessary formers or bending jigs to hand before applying heat
and apply the heat equally to both sides of the sheet; this will avoid
blistering the acrylic.
With any process that involves heating plastics, it is difficult to judge the
time required. This is because darker coloured materials will absorb the
heat more quickly than light coloured materials.

For more complex forms, it may be necessary to

heat the sheet all over using an oven. The oven
temperature should be set to 170C. A curved
form can be achieved using a former made
from PVC pipe. The softened acrylic is pulled
over the former using a cloth stretcher. This
process is called drape forming.

More complex forms, such as trays and dishes, can be made form thin
acrylic sheet using a plug and yoke press forming technique. For this
process a two-part former is needed. The male half, the plug, needs to
have tapered edges and rounded corners to assist the flow of material and
removal. The female part, the yoke, needs to be slightly larger to allow for
the material thickness.
Vacuum forming

Vacuum forming is a popular school workshop process and examination

topic. It is a process that you should make a point of seeing or preferably,

Vacuum forming works by removing air creating a partial vacuum from

underneath soft and flexible thermoplastic sheet and allowing atmospheric
pressure to push the plastic down onto a mould

Moulds must be made with care and should have regard for the following:

Sides should all be tapered towards the top so that the formed plastic can
be removed. This taper is called a draft.

Deep draws should be vented to ensure that air does not get trapped.

Corners should be raduised so that the material flows and does not
become thinned on the corners.

There must be no undercuts where plastic could get drawn in, so

preventing the formed shape from being removed.
The mould should have a smooth finish so that the material flows easily.

The vacuum forming process may start with a blow that stretches the
plastic all over or it may be started by raising the mould on the platen to
create a drape forming. On some machines a combination of these
processes is used. The aim is always to create a high definition outcome
without any excessive thinning having taken place.
Blow moulding

In its simplest form blow moulding forms flexible hot plastic material into a
dome shape.

More complex forms are achieved by using

a hollow mould. The industrial version of this
process is very common for the production
of bottles, bowls and containers.

Extrusion Blow Molding

Extrusion Blow Molding is the simplest type of

blow molding. A hot tube of plastic material is dropped from an extruder
and captured in a water cooled mold. Once the molds are closed, air is
injected through the top or the neck of the container; just as if one were
blowing up a balloon. When the hot plastic material is blown up and
touches the walls of the mold the material "freezes" and the container now
maintains its rigid shape.

Extrusion Blow molding allows for a wide variety of container shapes, sizes
and neck openings, as well as the production of handle-ware. Some
extrusion machines can produce 300 to 350 bottles per hour. Extrusion
blown containers can also have their gram weights adjusted through an
extremely wide range, Extrusion blow molds are generally much less
expensive than injection blow molds and can be produced in a much
shorter period of time.
Advantages of extrusion blow molding include a high rate of production,
low tooling cost, and a vast majority of machine manufactures. Some
disadvantages usually include a high scrap rate, a limited control over wall
thickness, and some difficulty of trimming away excess plastic.

Extrusion blow molding can be used to process many different plastics,

including HDPE, PVC, PC, PP, and PETG.
Extrusion blow molding requires relatively small capital investment in
Extrusion blow molding is suitable for small production runs.

Extrusion blow molding: (1) extrusion of parison; (2) parison is pinches

at the top and sealed at the bottom around a metal blow pin as the
two halves of the mold come together; (3) the tube is inflated so that
it takes the shape of the mold cavity; and (4) mold is opened to
remove the solidified part.

Injection blow molding

Injection blow molding is part injection molding and part blow molding.
Injection blow molding is generally suitable for smaller containers and
absolutely no handles ware. Injection blow molding is often used for
containers that have close tolerance threaded necks, wide mouth
openings; solid handles, and highly styled shapes. Injection blown
containers usually have a set gram weight which cannot be changed
unless a whole new set of blow stems are built. Generally injection blow
molded container's material is distributed evenly throughout, and generally
do not need any trimming or reaming. The air is injected into the plastic at
a rate between 75 to 150 PSI.

Injection molding can be broken down into three stages.

The first stage is where the melted plastic is injected into a split steel
mold cavity from the screw extruder.
The mold produces a preform parison which resembles a test tube with
a screw finish on the top.
The preform is then transferred on a core rod to the second part of the
injection blow molding stage. The preform is then placed inside another
cold and usually aluminum blow mold cavity.
Air is then injected through the core rod till the preform takes the shape
of the cavity.
While still on the core rod, the container is then transferred to a desired
location for the third stage, where it is ejected from the machine

Injection blow molding: (1) parison is injection molded around a blowing rod; (2)
injection mold is opened and parison is transferred to a blow mold; (3) soft polymer is
inflated to conform to a blow mold; and (4) blow mold is opened and blown product is
Injection Moulding

The process is used to produce large quantities of identical plastic items.

One of the most common types of thermoplastics used in injection
moulding is high impact polystyrene (HIPS).

Injection Moulding is the most important plastics manufacturing process. It

produces such small products as bottle tops; sink plugs, children's toys,
containers, model kits, disposable razors and parts of cameras. It is also
used to manufacture larger items such as dustbins, and milk crates.
The process can even mould such large items as dingy hulls and kit car
body shell parts.

Injection moulding used to be operated by people on the factory floor but

these days it is a form of highly automated form of production. The whole
process is controlled by a central processing unit.

Stages of Injection moulding

Stage 1

Granulated or powdered thermoplastic plastic is fed from a hopper into

the Injection Moulding machine.

Stage 2

The Injection Moulding machine consists of a hollow steel barrel, containing

a rotating screw (Archemidial Screw). The screw carries the plastic along
the barrel to the mould.

Heaters surround the barrel melt the plastic as it travels along the barrel.
Stage 3

The screw is forced back as the melted plastic collects at the end of the
Once enough plastic has collected a hydraulic ram pushes the screw
forward injecting the plastic through a sprue into a mould cavity.
The mould is warmed before injecting and the plastic is injected quickly to
prevent it from hardening before the mould is full.

Stage 4

Pressure is maintained for a short time (dwell time) to prevent the material
creeping back during setting (hardening). This prevents shrinkage and
hollows, therefore giving a better quality product.
The moulding is left to cool before removing (ejected) from the mould. The
moulding takes on the shape of the mould cavity.

Important Features of the Mould

It is important that the mould can be easily opened

and the moulding easily ejected. A slot can often
be made along the joint line of the mould so that a
screwdriver can be inserted and turned to
separate the parts.

Deep shapes must be tapered to help with the

removal of the moulding and ejector pins are
usually built into the mould to push the moulding

All moulding cavity surfaces must be smooth and

highly polished to ensure a good quality of finish to
the mouldings.

Sharp corners and sudden changes in wall thickness

should be avoided because the interrupt the flow of
plastic and weaken the mouldings.

Large flat surfaces should be avoided because the finished mouldings will
often not come out completely flat.

Extrusion is the process where a solid plastic (also called a resin),

usually in the form of beads or pellets, is continuously fed to a heated
chamber and carried along by a feedscrew within. The
feedscrew is driven via drive/motor and tight speed and torque
control is critical to product quality.
As it is conveyed it is compressed, melted, and forced out of the chamber
at a steady rate through a die. The immediate cooling of the melt results in
resolidification of that plastic into a continually drawn piece whose cross
section matches the die pattern. This die has been engineered and
machined to ensure that the melt flows in a precise desired shape.

Examples of extruders products are blown film, pipe,

coated paper, plastic filaments for brush bristles,
carpet fibers, vinyl siding, just about any lineal shape,
plus many, many more. There is almost always
downstream processing equipment that is fed by the
extruder. Depending on the end product, the
extrusion may be blown into film, wound, spun,
folded, and rolled, plus a number of other possibilities.

Plastics are very common substances for

extrusion. Rubber and foodstuffs are also
quite often processed via extrusion.
Occasionally, metals such as aluminum are
extruded plus trends and new technologies
are allowing an ever-widening variety of
materials and composites to be extruded at
continually increasing throughput rates.
In the extrusion of plastics, raw thermoplastic
material in the form of small beads (often
called resin in the industry) is gravity fed from
a top mounted hopper into the barrel of the extruder. Additives such as
colorants and UV inhibitors (in either liquid or pellet form) are often used
and can be mixed into the resin prior to arriving at the hopper.

The material enters through the feed throat (an opening near the rear of
the barrel) and comes into contact with the screw. The rotating screw
(normally turning at up to 120 rpm) forces the plastic beads forward into
the barrel which is heated to the desired melt temperature of the molten
plastic (which can range from 200 C/400 F to 275 C/530 F depending on
the polymer).

Extra heat is contributed by the

intense pressure and friction taking
place inside the barrel. In fact, if an
extrusion line is running a certain
material fast enough, the heaters can
be shut off and the melt temperature
maintained by pressure and friction
alone inside the barrel. In most
extruders, cooling fans are present to
keep the temperature below a set
value if too much heat is generated. If
forced air cooling proves insufficient
then cast-in heater jackets are
employed, and they generally use a
closed loop of distilled water in heat
exchange with tower or city water.

After passing through the breaker

plate molten plastic enters the die.
The die is what gives the final product
its profile and must be designed so
that the molten plastic evenly flows
from a cylindrical profile, to the
product's profile shape. Uneven flow
at this stage would produce a product with unwanted stresses at certain
points in the profile. These stresses can cause warping upon cooling. Almost
any shape imaginable can be created so long as it is a continuous profile.

The product must now be cooled and this is usually achieved by pulling the
extrudate through a water bath.

Compression moulding

This process can be pressed into service for

forming several different materials. On the one
hand, it is used for producing ceramics and on
the other it can be used to mould thermoset
plastics (it was the original method for forming
Bakelite), as well as fibre-based plastic

The two-part male and the female moulds can

be used to process anything from thick, solid
shapes to thin-walled containers.

Can be equally suitable for batch or high-volume production. Compression

moulding is often used for large plastic parts with thick wall sections, which
can be more economically produced with this process than with injection
moulding. Ceramics and thermoset plastics such as melamine and
phenolics and fibre composites and cork can be used. Melamine
kitchenware, electrical housings, switches and handles are made through
this process.


Ideal for forming thermosetting plastics

Ideal for producing parts that require large, thick-walled, solid
Allows for variable sections and wall thicknesses.


Limited in terms of complexity of shapes, but good for producing flat

shapes such as dinner plates.

Transfer moulding

An alternative to compression moulding and with some of the benefits of

injection moulding, trasnfer moulding is typically used to make large
mouldings with varying wall thickness and fine surface detail.
The process involves a polymer
resin being heated and loaded into
a charger, where a plunger
compresses the material. The
heated material then transferred
to a close mould cavity. The
defining characteristics of transfer
moulding are this heating of the
material before it is transferred and
the use of a closed mould. They
allow the easy flow of the material
through the cavity, which results in
a finer degree of control over thin-walled sections and the ability to
achieve fine detail on parts. Composite materials can be made by mixing
fibres with the resin, or by laying the reinforcing fibres in the mould itself.


Reasonably fast production rates

Allows complex and intricate parts to be produced
Allows large components with varying thin and thick-walled sections
to be produced


Inefficient use of materials due to excess material left in the runners

during the moulding process
Expensive tooling.

Hot and cold forming metals


Hot forging is one of the oldest techniques for

working metal. It is however a process that
has been considerably developped within
manufacturing industry. Hammering hot metal
improves the structure of the material by
refining the grain flow. Strenght is increased
because the grain flow follows the shape
rather than being cut into.

The basic tools for forge work are a hammer

and an anvil, although there is a wide range
of tools such as flatters, swagers and fullers
that have been developped for all of the
various tasks.

Beaten metal work

It is important that metal for beaten metal

working is malleable. As metal is worked it
becomes harder, this is known as work
hardening, and it needs regular annealing
to restoe its malleability. Silver is an ideal
metal for beaten work but it is very
expensive. Other commonly used metals are:
copper, brass, gilding metal and aluminium.
Hollowing is a process of thinning the metal to produce shallow bowl
shapes typically using a boxwood bossing mallet and a sand-filled
leather bag.
Sinking is similar to hollowing but the centre is beaten down leaving a
rim with surplus material to be beaten out flat.
Raising is the process used to deep bowls and tall-sided forms. Unlike
the previous proceses, raising the metal increases its thickness.
Planishing is a final process that removes blemishes and produces an
accurate finish. Planishing also work hardens the material giving it
mechanical strength.

Sheet metal working

Boxes, trays, pipework,cylinders and cones can all be made from sheet
metal such as mild steel, tin-plate, aluminium, brass and copper. Sheet
metal can be folded cold using a mallet and folding bars, but it is much
better to use a folding machine in order to achieve sharp and accurate
Before carrying out any sheet metal work it is best to make a full size or
scaled card model or prototype. Card is easy to work and this enables you
to work out the position of flaps for joining and the sequence of bends. The
card can then also be used as a template for the development of your
product. Safe edges are used to prevent exposed sharp edges.


Pressing a form from a sheet material produces a

strong monocoque (shell-like) structure. Many
products ranging from kettles to car bodies are
made in this way.

Bending and laminating wood

Bending wood

Wood will only bend by a limited amount before it

fractures and breaks. One way to overcome this
problem is to make a number of cuts in the surface
so that effectively only a thin surface layer ot the
wood is actually bending. This process called
kerfing is used in the manufacture of musical
instruments such as guitars.

Another wayto assist bending is to use a steam chest

where wood is made to absorb moisture so that it
behaves like a live or green stick.


Thin layers of wood are called lamina or veneers and because they are
thin they bend more easily. Laminating is like constructing plywood. Using
strong adhesive, forms can be built up that stay in shape once the
adhesive has hardened.
GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic (Glass Fibre)

GRP is a popular manufacturing process for cars, caravans and boats. It is

also a process that lends itself easily to school project work. GRP involves
bounding together flexible glass fibre mat using a polyester resin.

The product made takes its form completely from the mould. The finished
surface of the product is the surface that is in contact with the mould.
Moulds therefore must be made to the highest standard and have a good
quality surface finish. It is also necessary to apply a release agent to the
mould surface to assits removal.

Aluminium sand casting is the only metal casting process that is commonly
available for school use. This is because the material (aluminium) is cheap
and the temperature required for casting 750C is not hard to achieve. The
process involves six distinct stages:

1. making a pattern for the required workpiece

2. encasing the pattern in moulding sand
3. removing the pattern thereby leaving a sand mould
4. pouring the molten metal into the mould
5. removing the sand from around the solidified workpiece
6. cleaning up the workpiece.

Patter making

The quality of the casting depends upon the quality

of the pattern. The requirements are similar to those
for vacuum forming moulds:
radiused corners
drafted sides
good surface finish

most moulds are made from wood and they may

be flat backed for simple forms or split. Notice that the two halves are
pegged together for location.

Mould making

The moulding must be sieved to get rid of lumps

and any foreign matter, and a damp enough to
hold its shape. The mould box to cotain the sand is
a two-part construction with pins to locate the
halves together.
The mould is built in stages:

1. the lower half, the drag is placed on

a flat noard around the lower half of
the pattern. Parting powder is
dusted onto the pattern and the
mould is then filled with sand.

2. the drag is turned over and the cope and

top half of the pattern are put in place. The
spure pins are then added and the mould
box filled with sand.

3. pouring basins are made in the sand and

the sprue pins are carefully removed.

4. the mould box is opened, the pattern is

removed and gates are made in the sand
to allow the molten metal to flow
into the cavity. The mould is re-
assembled ready for pouring.

Aluminium melts at 600C but needs to be at 750C for pouring. Pouring

ahould be slow and continous into ther pouring basins until a pool forms at
the top of the risrs. Great care is needed, the satefy issues are important.

Always have adult supercision

Wear protective clothing: gloves, apron, leggings, stout shoes and a
full face mask
Ensure that there is fume extraction and good ventilation.

Fabrication and assembly

Manufactured products are not often made using only a single piece of
material. Most produts are built up (fabricated) and jointed together
(assembled). These processes often make use of the components such as
screws, nails, nuts and bolts etc. that are convered early in this book.

Adhesives for fabrication and assembly

There are many adhesives (glues) available that have been developed
over recent years. Some adhesives such as wood glues are for specific
materials, whilst others like epoxy resin will bond dissimilar materials.
Adhesives may be rigid or they may be flexible. Some will alloew time for
repositioning and adjustment whilst others bond instantly on contact. You
must check instructions and if you are not certain then try a test join,

It is important to select the correct adhesive to suit the application and to

ensure that the correct preparation is carried out and that clamping or
curing time instructions are followed. Adhesives will not normally bond to
greasy, dusty or wet surfaces. Adhesive bonds often fail because the
surface has been handled without care and a layer of natural oil from your
skin is left deposited on the surface.
PVA glue(polyvinyl acetate) is the most
popular wood glue. It is white in colour and
comes ready mixed. PVA glue is strong and
does not stain; excess glue can be wiped off
with a damp cloth. It requires only light
clamping and sets within 2-3 hours
depending upon temperature.

Tensol cements are a range of solvent-

based adhesives for joining thermoplastics. It is important to have the
correct adhesive the most popular for acrylic is Tensol 12.

Epoxy resin is a two-part adhesives for unlike materials. It will bond glass,
ceramic, wood, metal and hard plastics. Mixing the two parts resin and
hardener, triggers a chemical reaction that begins the setting process. A
popular brand is Araldite.

Contact (impact) adhesive, such as Evostick, is

used for fixing plastic lamintes and other sheet
and strip materials. Surfaces are coated and left
until touch dry. Correct positioning is essentail as
bonding is immediate.

Hot-melt glue comes in glue stick form and is used

in conjunction with a glue gun. It is popular for modelling and temporary
work. It tends to be messy, is not very strong and gives a poor quality finish.

Double-sided tape is used increasingly for large flat areas of metal and
plastics. Clean surfaces are essential for effective joining.

Joints in wood

Wooden structures are either of a frame or box type of construction and

they always require joining at the corners or where pieces cross over each
Frame construction

There are a number of joints used in frame construction for:

T joints for joining rails to frame
cross joints where pieces cross over.

Below are some of these but there are many more that are associated with
traditional woodworking. The current trend in construction is for joints that
can be machine made such as dowel joints.

Box construction

Box construction methods are for joining wide pieces of solid timber and
some manufactured board. They are used for boxes and shelves, etc. The
aim of this construction is to provide mechanically strong joints such as
dovetails or large gluing areas such as dowels and comb joints.
Nailing wooden pieces together

A fast way of joining two wooden pieces together is by nailing. This forms a
permanent joint. Nails come in all shapes and sizes and are usually made
from mild steel.

Round wire nails are used for general joinery.

Panel pins are used for finer joinery such as for fixing thin sheets.
Nails are driven into the wood using a cross-pein hammer. The striking pein
is used to drive the nail into the joint.

Nails are usually driven straight into the wood but a stronger joint is
achieved by dovetail nailing.
Nails are sometimes staggered to avoid splitting the grain of the wood.

The head of a panel pin may be driven below the surface of the wood
using a dot punch. The small hole is then filled with wood filler.

Joining materials with screws

Joining materials to wood using screws.

Wooden pieces can be temporarily joined together or joined to other

materials using wood screws. Wood screws come in many shapes and sizes
and are normally made of mild steel or brass. They produce a stronger joint
than nails because the threads of the screw becomes enmeshed with the
grain fibres of the wood.
Two common types of wood screw are the countersunk head screw and
the round head screw. Countersunk head screw are used in joints where
the screw heads are used in joints where the screw heads must be flush
with the surface. Hinges and handles are normally fixed in place using
countersunk head screws.

Round head screws are used in joints where the head of the screw does
not need to be flush with the surface.

Joining metals and plastics with screws

Metal and plastics workpieces can be joined together temporarily using

screws. Machine screws are available in a range of diameters and can be
fastened directly into the pilot hole of the material.
Fastening screws

Screws are fastened using a screwdriver.

Screws with a straight slot are fastened with a
straight blade screwdriver. Screws with a cross
slot are fastened with a cross blade (Phillips)

Joining plastics permanently

Use liquid solvent to permanently join acrylic

pieces together. For polystyrene pieces, use
liquid poly.

Chloroform and liquid poly are examples of solvents that are applied with a
brush. They work by dissolving the surfaces that are in contact and fusing
them together.
Joining sheet materials

Sheet metals can be joined using rivets. The common types of rivet are
shown below.

After the rivet is inserted through the hole drilled in the workpiece, the end
of the rivet is then spread out or shaped to form another head. In this way,
the workpieces are held together permanently.

The stages below show how two metal parts can be joined together using
a countersunk head rivet.
Thin sheet materials can also be joined quickly and permanently by pop
riveting. Pop riveting is normally used to join metal sheets together but
other materials may also be joined to metals in this way.
Joining metal

Joining metal to itself or to other materials by mechanical means includes

rivets, nuts and bolts, and a range of other threaded fasteners. These are
called mechanical fixing devices because they rely upon mechanical
forces to fix and hold the joint in place. Nuts and bolts and screw type
fixings are regarded as temporary fixings as they can always be taken
Heat processes soldering and brazing

Soldering is a process that affects a joint by introducing another metal to

the surface of the metal to be joined; this is called local alloying. The
solder actually becomes part of the surface of the material and forms a
permanent joint. There are a wide range of solders that have different
strenghts and melting points. For all soldering processes joints must be
prepared and cleaned and the correct flux used. Flux is a chemical
cleaning agent.

Soft solder is the weakest solder and has the lowest melting point. It is used
mainly for electrical work and joints in tin-plate. Soft soldering can be
carried out using either a flame or a soldering iron. It is an alloy of tin and
lead. Use resin flux for soft soldering.

Silver solders are hard solders and have melting points in the range 625C -
800C. They are used for many beaten metal work applications. Silver
soldering is carried out using either a brazing hearth or an oxy-acetylene
flame. Silver solders are alloys of copper and zinc with some added silver.
Use easy-flo flux for silver soldering.

Brazing is the hardest form of hard solder and melts at the highest
temperature, 875C. this is too hot for brass and copper work but ideal for
mild steel. Brazing spelter, the rod used for brazing, is an alloy of copper
and zinc. Use borax flux for brazing.

Making soldered joints

Joints must be prepared and held securely in place for all soldering
processes. Joints will always be stronger if they have a mechanical strength
built into them such as interlocking or slotting together. Fire bricks should be
used around joints to retain and concentrate the heat from the flame.

Welding joins materials together by the process of melting the parent metal
and allowing it to fuse together as it solidifies. It is a permanent joining
process best suited to steel but can also be applied to aluminium provided
that the surface is shielded from oxidisation by an inert gas or a controlled
atmosphere. With all welding, preparation is necessary to ensure a sound
joint. This is particularly true with thick material.

There are three welding processes common to school workshops although

familiarity with any one of these should ensure competence when
answering examination questions.
Oxy-acetylene welding uses a mixture of the two gases to produce a very
hot flame ( 3500C) that is used to melt the metal. The molten pool is
moved along the joint line and additional material is introduced to it from a
filler rod of the same metal.

Electric arc welding makes use of a flux

coated filler rod that acts as an electrode.
A low voltage, high electrical current is
struck between the electrode rod and the
work piece. The heat produced by the
resulting electric arc melts both the rod
and the material to be joined. The rod acts
as a filler for the joint and so is consumed in
the welding process.
Metal inert gas (MIG) welding is
another electric arc welding process.
In this instance a continuous wire
electrode is fed from a coil through
the welding torch. The process is
shielded by an inert gas enabling it to
be used for aluminium welding. MIG
welding has developped into a very
controllable process and is now one
of the most popular applications for