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104 International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering

ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 104-106

Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesionless Soils


Murugan M
Research Scholar, National Institute of Technology, Trichy 620 015, Email: muruganme@yahoo.co.in
Natarajan C
Professor, National Institute of Technology, Trichy 620 015, Email: nataraj@nitt.edu
Muthukkumaran K
Assistant Professor, National Institute of Technology, Trichy 620 015, Email: kmk@nitt.edu

ABSTRACT: Single piles and pile groups are designed for lateral loads due to impact of ship, wave action, wind and
earth quake forces. So, it is important to know the lateral load resistance capacity of pile foundation. This requires
estimation of ultimate loads based on which safe working loads will be assessed and also estimation of pile deflections
to ensure that serviceability aspects are accounted in the design. Several methods are available for predicting the
ultimate lateral resistance to piles in cohesionless soils. However, these methods often produce significantly different
ultimate resistance values. This makes it difficult for practicing engineers to effectively select the appropriate method
when designing laterally loaded piles in cohesionless soils. In this paper, lateral load behavior of single piles in
cohesionless soils was studied, for different L/D ratio by changing the diameter and length of pile. The analysis was
carried out considering fixed headed pile. The influence of soil type, effect of pile length and pile diameter on the pile
response was observed and the results obtained by IS2911Part1 (sec2) were compared with the Broms method. Also
deflection and moments were calculated for a typical pile for various L/D ratio and their results were presented. The
results were also validated with finite element analysis.

KEYWORDS: Pile, Cohesionless soil, Lateral load, Broms method, Finite Element Analysis.

INTRODUCTION METHODOLOGY
Piles are structural members that are made of steel, The various methods employed in this paper were
concrete or timber. They are used to build deep discussed with the results in the following topics.
foundations and which cost more than shallow
foundations. Despite the cost, the use of pile often is Effect of Diameter of the Pile on Lateral Load Capacity
necessary to ensure structural safety. Some time piles are To study the effect of diameter on lateral load capacity, 8
subjected to lateral load, for example piles used in quay m length of piles of different diameters such as 0.20 m,
and harbor structure. The sources of lateral load on harbor 0.25 m, 0.30 m, 0.35 m, 0.40 m, 0.45 m, and 0.50 m were
structure are impact of ship and wave action and off shore considered. The results were shown in Fig 1 to 3, which
structures are also subjected to wind and wave. High rise indicated that lateral load capacity increases with
building, tower are subjected to lateral load due to wind increasing diameter of the pile. This was due to the
and earth quake forces. So, it is important to know the increase in surface area. Also the pile stiffness, EI,
lateral load resistance capacity of pile foundation. increases with increase in moment of inertia I which
Several methods are available for predicting the ultimate depends on the diameter of pile. But there was no much
lateral resistance to piles in cohesion less soils. However, variation in axial load capacity. The lateral load capacity
these methods often produce significantly different of pile obtained from IS 2911 Part1 (sec2) was
ultimate resistance values. This makes it difficult for significantly less when compared with Broms method.
practicing engineers to effectively select the appropriate
method when designing laterally loaded piles in cohesion
less soils. Effect of Length of the Pile on Lateral Load Capacity
To study the effect of length of the pile on lateral load
OBJECTIVES capacity, 0.50 m diameter piles of different lengths such as
The objectives of this paper were 8 m, 8.9 m, 10 m, 11.4 m, 13.3 m, 16 m, and 20 m were
1. To find the lateral and vertical load carrying capacity considered. The results were shown in Fig 4 to 7, which
of single pile in sandy soil. indicated that the axial load capacity increases with
2. To compare the load carrying capacity of pile by IS increasing length of the pile. This was due to that the
2911 part 1(sec 2) with Broms method. friction was mobilized on increased embedment of pile.
3. To find the effect of diameter of the pile on lateral But there was no much variation in moment and lateral
load capacity. load capacity. The lateral load capacity of pile obtained
4. To find the effect of length of the pile on lateral load from IS 2911 Part1 (sec2) was significantly less when
capacity. compared with Broms method.

#020410126 Copyright 2011 CAFET-INNOVA TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved


Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesionless Soils 105

Fig.1 Ultimate Axial load capacity Fig.4 Lateral deflection at ground level

Fig.2 Ultimate resistance moment Fig.5 Ultimate Axial load capacity

Fig.3 Ultimate lateral resistance Fig.6 Ultimate resistance moment

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 104-106
106 Murugan M, Natarajan C, Muthukkumaran K

increased embedment of pile. The effect of pile diameter


was studied and it was concluded that lateral load capacity
increases with increase in diameter of the pile for same
length. This was due to the increase in surface area, pile
stiffness, moment of inertia and youngs modulus. The
lateral load capacity of pile obtained from IS 2911 Part1
(sec2) was significantly less when compared with Broms
method.

REFERENCES

[1] Braja M.Das (2005). Principles of foundation


Engineering Thomson Asia private limited.
[2] Broms, B. (1964a). The Lateral Resistance of Piles
in Cohesive Soils, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div.,
ASCE, 90. 27-63.
Fig.7 Ultimate lateral resistance [3] Budhu, M. & Davis, T. G. (1988). Analysis of
Laterally Loaded Piles in Soft Clays. J.
Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE. 114, 121-39.
[4] Matlock, H. and Reese, L. C. (1962). Generalized
Solutions for Laterally Loaded Piles. Transactions
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1220-1247.
[5] P.C.Varghese (2010). Foundation Engineering. PHI
Learning private limited.
[6] Pise, P. J. (1983). Lateral Response of Free-Head
Pile. J. Geotechnical Engineering, 109(8) 1126-
1131.
[7] Poulos, H.G. (1971a). Behavior of Laterally Loaded
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[8] Poulos, H.G. and Davis, E. H. (1980). Pile
Fig.8 Lateral deflection at ground level Foundation Analysis and Design. John Wiley &
Sons, New York.
CONCLUSIONS [9] Reese, L. C. (1977). Laterally Loaded Piles:
From the obtained data the following conclusions were Program documentation. J.Geotech. Eng. Div.,
made: ASCE, 103(4), 287-305.
The effect of pile length was studied and it was concluded [10] Reese, L. C. and Van Impe, W. F. (2001). Single
that axial load capacity increases with increase in length of Piles and Pile Groups under Lateral Loading. A. A.
the pile. This was because of the friction was mobilized on Balkema, Rotterdam 1.

International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering


ISSN 0974-5904, Volume 04, No 06 SPL, October 2011, pp. 104-106