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SYLLABUS

MCA - IInd Year


CONTENTS

MCA - IInd Year (Lateral)


Semester-III
Paper-I : Database Management System
Paper-II : Computer Communication Networks
Paper-III : Communication Skills
Paper-IV : Advanced Unix Programming
Paper-V : Operation Research

Semester-IV
Paper-I : Software Engineering
Paper-II : Programming in Java
Paper-III : Computer Graphics and Multimedia Management
Paper-IV : Management Information System

M.C.A. - IIIrd Sem.


Paper - I
Database Management System
UNIT-I
Introduction : Database System Applications, Database System versus File Systems, View
of Data, Data Models, Database Languages, Database Users and Administrators, Transaction
Management, Database System Structure, Application Architectures, History of Database
Systems.
DATA MODELS : Entity- Relationship Model, Basic Concepts, Constraints, Keys, Design
Issues, Entity-Relationship Diagram, Weak Entity Sets, Extended E-R Features, Design of an
E-R Database Schema, Reduction of an E-R Schema to Tables, The Unified Modeling
language UML.
Relational Model : Structure of Relational Database, The Relational Algebra, Extended
Relational-Algebra Operations, Modification of the Database, Views, The Tuple Relational
Calculus, The Domain Relational Calculus.
RELATIONAL DATABASES : Background, Basic Structure, Set Operations, Aggregate
Functions, Null Values, Nested Subqueries, Views, Complex Queries, Modifications of the
Database, Jointed Relations, Data-Definition Language, Embedded SQL, Other SQL
Features.
UNIT-II
Other Relational Languages : Query-by-Example, Datalog, User Interfaces and Tools
Integrity and Security Domain Constraints, Referential Integrity, Assertions, Triggers,
Security and Authorization, Authorization in SQL, Encryption and Authentication
Relational-Database Design : First Normal Form, Pitfalls in Relational-Database Design,
Functional Dependencies, Decomposition, Desirable Properties of Decomposition,
Boyce-Codd Normal Form, Third Normal Form, Fourth Normal Form, More Normal Form,
Overall Database Design Process.
UNIT-III
OBJECT-BASED DATABASES
Object-oriented Databases : Need for Complex Data Types, The Object-Oriented Data
Model, Object-Oriented Languages, Persistent Programming Languages, Persistent C++
System, Persistent Java Systems.
Object-Relational Databases : Nested Relations, Complex Types, Inheritance, Reference
Types, Querying with Complex Types, Functions and Procedures, Object-Oriented versus
Object-Relational
XML : Background, Structure of XML Data, XML Document Schema, Querying and
Transformation, The Application Program Interface, Storage of XML Data, XML
Applications
UNIT-IV
DATA STORAGE AND QUERYING : Storage and File Structure, Overview of Physical
Storage Media, Magnetic Disks, RAID, Tertiary Storage, Storage Access, File Organization,
Organization of Records in Files, Data-Dictionary Storage, Storage for Object-Oriented
Databases.
Indexing and Hashing : Basic Concepts, Ordered Indices, B+tree Index Files, B-three Index
Files, Static Hashing, Dynamic Hashing, Comparison of Ordered Indexing and Hashing,
Index Definition in SQL, Multiple-key Access
UNIT-IV
Query Processing : Overview, Measures of Query Cost, Selection Operation, Sorting, Join
Operation, Other Operations, Evaluation of Expressions
Query Optimization : Overview, Estimating Statistics of Expression Result, Transformation
of Relational Expressions, Choice of Evaluation Plans, Materialized Views
TRANSACTION MANAGEMENT : Transactions, Transaction Concept, Transaction State,
Implementation of Atomicity and Durability, Concurrent Executions, Serializability,
Recoverability, Implementation of Isolation, Transaction Definition in SQL, Testing of
Serializability.
UNIT-V
Concurrency Control : Lock-Based Protocols, Timestamp-Based Protocol,
Validation-Based Protocols, Multiple Granularity, Multiversion Schemes, Deadlock
Handling, Insert and Delete Operations, Weak Levels of Consistency, Concurrency in Index
Structures
Recovery System : Failure Classification, Storage Structure, Recovery and Atomicity,
Log-Based Recovery, Shadow Paging, Recovery with Concurrent Transactions, Buffer
management, Failure with Loss of Nonvolatile Storage, Advanced Recovery Techniques,
Remote Backup System.
DATABASE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE : Centralized and Client-Server Architectures,
Server System Architectures, Parallel Systems, Distributed Systems, Network Types
Distributed Databases : Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Databases, Distributed Data
Storage, Distributed Transactions, Commit Protocols, Concurrency Control in Distributed
Databases, Availability, Distributed Query Processing, Heterogeneous Distributed Databases,
Directory System.
Parallel Databases : Introduction, I/O parallelism, Interquery Parallelism, Intraquery
Parallelism, Intraoperation Parallelism, Interoperation Parallelism, Design of Parallel
Systems.
Paper - II
Computer Communication Networks
UNIT-I
INTRODUCTION: USES of COMPUTER NETWORKS, NETWORK HARDWARE,
NETWORK SOFTWARE, REFERENCE MODELS, EXAMPLE NETWORKS,
NETWORK STANDARDIZATION, METRIC UNITS.
THE PHYSICAL LAYER: THE THEORETICAL BASIS for DATA COMMUNICATION,
GUIDED TRANSMISSION MEDIA, WIRELESS TRANSMISSION, THE PUBLIC
SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK, THE MOBILE TELEPHONE SYSTEM, CABLE
TELEVISION.

UNIT-II
THE DATA LINK LAYER: THE DATA LINK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES, DETECTION and
CORRECTION, ELEMENTARY DATA LINK PROTOCOLS, SLIDING WINDOW
PROTOCOLS, PROTOCOL VERIFICATION, EXAMPLE DATA LINK PROTOCOLS
UNIT-III
MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL SUBLAYER: CHANNEL ALLOCATION PROBLEM,
MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOLS, ETHERNET, WIRELESS LANS, BROADBAND
WIRELESS, BLUETOOTH, DATA LINK LAYER SWITCHING.
UNIT-IV
THE NETWORK LAYER: NETWORK LAYER DESIGN ISSUES, ROUTING ALGORITHMS,
CONGESTION CONTROL ALGORITHMS, QUALITY of SERVICE, INTERNETWORKING,
THE NETWORK LAYER IN THE INTERNET.
THE TRANSPORT LAYER: THE TRANSPORT SERVICE, ELEMENTS of TRANSPORT
PROTOCOLS, SIMPLE TRANSPORT PROTOCOL, THE INTERNET TRANSPORT
PROTOCOLS : TCP, PERFORMANCE ISSUES.
UNIT-V
THE APPLICATION LAYER: DNS- THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM, ELECTRONIC MAIL,
THE WORLD WIDE WEB, MULTIMEDIA
NETWORK SECURITY: CRYPTOGRAPHY, SYMMETRIC-KEY ALGORITHMS,
PUBLIC-KEY ALGORITHMS, DIGITAL SIGNATURES, MANAGEMENT of PUBLIC KEYS,
COMMUNICATION SECURITY, AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS, E-MAIL SECURITY,
WEB SECURITY, SOCIAL ISSUES.
Paper - III
Communication Skill
UNIT - I
INtroduction : Introduction of Communication, Objective of Communication, Media of
Communication, Types of Comunication, Barriers to Communication, Principles of
Communication
UNIT - II
Aids to Correct Writing, Foreign Words and Phrases Sometimes Used in Correspondence,
Spelling, Enriching Vocabulary, Need, Functions and Kinds of Business Letters, Essentials
of an Effective Business Letter, The Lay-out, Planning the Letter, Enquiries and Replies,
Orders and Their Execution, Credit and Status Enquiries.
UNIT - III
Complaints and Adjustments Collection Letters, Circular Letters, Sales Letters, Bank
Correspondence, Insurance Correspondence, Import-Export Correspondence, Agency
Correspondence, Correspondence of a Company Secretary, Office Memorandums, Office
Orders, Office Circulars, Office Notes : Tools of Internal Communication, Form Messages,
Correspondence with Public Authorities and Other Agencies, Telegrams and Cables
UNIT - IV
Application Letters, Interview Letters, Reference, Testimonials, Letters of Appointment,
Confirmation, Promotion, Retrenchment, and Resignation, Public Relations Letters,
Representations and Requests, Letters to the Edicots ,Report Writing, Agenda and Minutes
of Meetings, Copy Writing for Advertisements, Direct Mail Advertising, Classified
Advertisements, Press Releases, Manuscripts for Publication and Elements Reading, Proof
reading, Proof reading symbols, Precis Writing
UNIT - V
Speeches ,Committees and Conferences ,Interviews ,Public Relations Department :
Suggestion Schemes ,Oral, Visual and Audio-visual Means of Communication
Information Technology of the Future ,House Organs and Bulletins,Essay Writing
Essays in Outlines : Computer in Business, The Problem of Industrial Sickness, The Policy
of Liberalisation, The Role of chambers of commerce, Industrial Popullation.
Paper - IV
Advanced Unix Programming
UNIT-I
The File System : The basics of files, What's in a file?, Directories and filenames,
Permissions, Inodes, The directory hierarchy, Devices.
Using the Shell : Command line structure, Metacharacters, Creating new commands,
Command argument and parameters, Program output as arguments, Shell variables, More on
I/O redirection, Looping in shell programs, bundle : putting it all together, Why a
programmable shell?
UNIT-II
Filters : The grep family, Other filters, The stream editor sed, The awk pattern scanning and
processing languages, Good files and good filters.
Shell Programming : Customizing the cal command, Which command is which? While and
until loops : watching for things, Traps : catching interrupts, Replacing a file : overwrite, zap
: killing processes by name, The pick command : blanks vs. arguments, The news command :
community service messages, get and put : tracking file changes.
UNIT-III
Programming with Standard I/O : Standard input and output : vis, Program arguments, File
access, A screen-at-a-time printer : p, on bugs and debugging, An interactive file comparison
program, Accessing the environment.
UNIT-IV
Unix System Call : Low level I/O, File system : directories, File system : inodes, Processes,
Signals and interrupts.
UNIT-V
Program Development : Stage 1 : A four-function calculator, Stage 2 : Variables and error
recovery, Stage 3 : Arbitrary variable names; built-in functions, Stage 4 : Compilation into a
machine, Stage 5 : Control flow and relational operators, Stage 6 : Functions and procedures;
input/output, Performance evaluation.
Document Preparation : The ms macro package, The troff level, The tbl and eqn
preprocessors, The manual page, Other document preparation tools.

Paper - V
Operation Research
UNIT-I
Introduction : Historical Development, models and modeling, classification, general
methods for solving OR models, Basic O.R. models and their computer software’s.
Linear Programming : LP Formulations, Graphical method for solving LP’s with 2 variables,
Simplex method, Duality theory in linear programming and applications, Integer linear
programming, dual simplex method, Transportation problem, Assignment problem.
UNIT-II
Project Management: PERT and CPM : Project management origin and use of PERT,
origin and use of CPM, Applications of PERT and CPM, Project Network, Diagram
representation, and Critical path calculation by linear programs, Critical path Calculation by
network analysis and critical path method (CPM), Determination of floats, Construction of
time chart and resource labeling, Project cost curve and crashing in project management,
Project Evaluation and review Technique (PERT).
UNIT-III
Dynamic Programming : Basic Concepts, Bellman’s optimality principles, Dynamics
programming approach in decision making problems, optimal subdivision problem.
Queuing Models : Essential features of queuing systems, operating characteristics of
queuing system, probability distribution in queuing systems, classification of queuing
models, solution of queuing M/M/1 : ¥ /FCPS,M/M/1 : N/FCPS, M/M/S : ¥/FCPS, M/M/S
:/FCPS, M/E/1:¥/FCPS
UNIT-IV
Sequencing Models : Sequencing problem, Johnson’s Algorithm for processing n jobs
through 2 machines, Algorithm for processing n jobs through 3 or more machines,
Processing 2 jobs through n machines.
UNIT-V
Inventory Models : Introduction to the inventory problem, Deterministic Models, The
classical EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) model, Inventory models with determinist
demands (no shortage & shortage allowed), Inventory models with probabilistic demand
models.

M.C.A. - IVth Sem.


Paper - I
Software Engineering
UNIT-I
Introduction: The software problem, software engineering problem, the software
engineering approach, definitions of S.E. Goals of S.E.
Software Processes:Processes, projects and products, component software processes,
characteristics of a software process, software Development Process, project management
process, software configuration management process, and process management process.
UNIT - II
Software requirement Analysis and Specification:Software requirement, need for SRS,
requirement process, problem analysis, analysis issues. Informal approach, structured
analysis, object oriented modeling, other modeling approaches, prototyping, requirement
specification, characteristics of an SRS, component of an SRS, specification languages,
structure of a requirement document, validation, requirement reviews, other method metrics,
size measures, quality metrics.
UNIT - III
Planning a software project : Cost estimation, uncertainties in cost estimation, building
cost estimation models, on size estimation, COCOMO model, project scheduling, average
duration estimation, project scheduling and milestones, staffing and personnel planning, ray
Leigh curve, personnel plan, team structure, software configuration management plans,
quality assurance plans, verification and validation, project monitoring plans, risk
management.
UNIT - IV
Function Oriented Design:Design principles, coupling, cohesion, design notation and
specification, structured design methodology, verification, network metrics, stability metrics,
information flow metrics Software Testing
Methods:Software testing fundamentals, test case design, white box testing, control
structure-testing, black box testing, testing for specialized environments.
UNIT - V
Software Testing Strategies:A Strategic Approach to software testing, strategic issues,
unit testing, integration testing, validation testing, system testing, the art of debugging.
Paper - II
Programming with Java
UNIT-I
Fundamentals of Object-oriented Programming. : Introduction,
Object-OrientedProgramming. Basic concepts of object-oriented programming, Benefits of
OOP, Applications of OOP. JAVA Evolution: Java History. Java Features, How Java Differs
from C and C++, JavaInternet, Java and World Wide Web, Web Browsers, Hardware and
Software Requirements, Java Support Systems. Java Environment .Overview of Java
Language: Introduction, Simple Java Program, More of Java, Application with .Two Classes,
Java Program Structure, Java Tokens, Java Statements, Implementing a Java Program,
Java Virtual Machine, Command Line Arguments, Programming Style.' Constants,
Variables and Data Types: Introduction, Contents, Variables, Data Types, Declaration of
Variables, Giving Values of Variables, Scope to Variables, Symbolic Constants, Type
Casting, Getting Values of Variables, Standard Default Values. Operators and Expressions
Decision Making and Branching: Introduction, Decision Making with if-Statement, Simple if
Statement, The it.... else Statement, Nesting of it—, else Statements, The else if Ladder,
The Switch Statement. The?: Operator.

UNIT-II
Decision Making and Looping: Introduction, The while Statement, The do Statement, The for
Statement. Jumps in Loops, Labelled Loops. Classes, Objects and’ Methods: Static
Members, Nesting of Methods, Inheritance: Extending a Class, Overriding Methods, Final
Variables and Methods, Final Classes, Finalizes Methods. Abstract Methods' and Classes,
Visibility Control.
UNIT-III
Arrays, Strings And. Vectors: Arrays, One-Dimensional Arrays, Creating An
Array,Tow-Dimensional Arrays Strings, Vectors, Wrapper Classes.
Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance: Introduction, Defining Interfaces, Extending Interfaces,
Implementing Interfaces, Accessing Interface Variables.
UNIT-IV
Packages: Putting Classes Together: Introduction, Java API Packages, Using
SystemPackages, Naming Conventions, Creating Packages, Accessing a Package, Using
aPackage, Adding a Class to a Package, Hiding Classes. Multithreaded
Programming: Introduction, Creating Threads, Extending the Thread Class, Slopping and
Blocking a Thread, Life Cycle of a Thread. Using Thread Methods, Thread [Exceptions,
Thread Priority, Synchronization, Implementing the 'Run able' Interface.
UNIT-V
Managing Input/Output Files in Java: Introduction, Concept of Streams, Stream Classes,
Bye Stream Classes, Character Stream Classes, Using Streams, Other Useful 1Classes,
Using the File Class. Input / Output Exceptions, Creation of Files, Reading / Writing
Characters. Reading / Writing Bytes, Handling Primitive Data Types, Concatenating and
Buffering File;-., Random Access Files, Interactive Input and Output, Other Stream Classes.
Paper - III
Computer Graphics and Multimedia
UNIT-I
Introduction :Computer graphics, definition, classification & applications, development of
hardware & software for computer graphics.
Graphics System:Refresh Cathode ray tubes, Random and raster scan devices, DVST,
plasma panel displays, LED and LCD monitors, laser devices, printers, plotters, display
processors, raster and random scan system.
UNIT-II
Output primitives : DDA along with, Bresenhan's line drawing algorithm, antialiasing, circle
generation: Midpoint algorithms, ellipse, other curves, character generation, area filling scan
line algorithm, boundary fill flood fill algorithm, attributes of output primitives line attributes,
area fill attributes, character attributes.
Two-dimensional Transformations : Translation, scaling rotation reflection sheer, matrix
representation and homogeneous coordinates, composite transformations, transformation
commands.
UNIT-III
Windowing and Clipping : Viewing coordinates window, view port, clipping, and window to
view transformation line clipping Cohen Sutherland algorithm polygon clipping:
sutherland-hodgeman algorithm.
UNIT-IV
Three-dimensional concepts: Three dimensional viewing, three dimensional object
representation: polygons, cured line & surfaces quadrate (sphere, ellipsoid), surfaces,
design of curves & surfaces, bezier's methods, Bspling methods; three dimensional
transformations: translating, scaling composite transformation, rotation about arbitrary axis,
projection: parallel, perspective.
UNIT-II
Visible surface detection: Classification of visible-surface, detection algorithms, back face
detection, depth buffer method, A-buffer method, scans line method, depth-sorting method.
Interactive input Device: Logical classification, Keyboards, touch panels, light pens,
joysticks, mouse, trackball digitizers, tablets.
Illumination and shading:Light sources, diffuse reflection, secular reflection, reflected
light, texture, shadows, light intensity, intensity levels, surface shading, constant intensity,
gouraud shading, phong shading.
Paper - IV
Management Information System
UNIT-I
Introduction : What is Management Information Systems?, Importance of MIS, Evolution of
MIS, Computers and MIS, Organizational Structure, Logical Foundations of MIS, Typical
Management Information Systems, Future of MIS.
Organizational Systems : Introduction, Nature and Characteristics of Organizations.
UNIT-II
Information Systems of Organizations : Introduction, Organizational and Information
System Structure, Information-A Vital Corporate Resource, Data and Information,
Management and Decision Making, Classification of Information Systems, Information
Support for Functional Areas of Management, Impact of Business of Information Systems,
Organizing Information Systems, Absorption of MIS in Organization.
Computers and Information Systems : Introduction, Evolution of Computer, Hardware,
Evolution of Computer Software.
UNIT-III
Communications Technology : Introduction, Telecommunications, Computer Networking.
Database Technology : Introduction, Database and Enterprise Management, File Processing
Systems and Database Systems, Why Use Database Approach, Data Independence, Database
Approach, Database Architecture, What is a DBMS, Data Models, What is RDBMS,
Structured Query Language (SQL), How Does RDBMS Work, Fourth Generation Languages
(4GL) Data Administration, Current Developments in Database.
UNIT-IV
Decision Support Systems (DDS) : Introduction, Definition, Evolution of DSS,
Characteristics, Model Management, DSS, Generators, Multicriteria Modelling, Group
Decisions.
Expert Systems and Artificial Intelligence : Introduction, AI : Definition, Evolution of AI,
Components of AI, Expert Systems.
UNIT-V
Systems Analysis and Design : Introduction, Organizational Context of Systems Analysis,
Role of Systems Analyst, Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Requirement Analysis,
Requirement Specifications, Diagramming Techniques, Feasibility Analysis, Feasibility
Report, Design and Development Phase, Case Study : Basic Library Information System
(BLIS).