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Spiral Model What is SDLC Spiral Model?


Spiral model is a combination of sequential and prototype model. This model is
best used for large projects which involves continuous enhancements. There are
specific activities which are done in one iteration (spiral) where the output is a
small prototype of the large software. The same activities are then repeated for
all the spirals till the entire software is build.

To explain in simpler terms, the steps involved in spiral model are:

A spiral model has 4 phases described below:

1. Planning phase
2. Risk analysis phase
3. Engineering phase
4. Evaluation phase.
Activities which are performed in the spiral model phases are shown below:

Phase Deliverables /
Activities performed
Name Output

Planning -Requirements are Requirements

studied and gathered. understanding
- Feasibility study document
- Reviews and
walkthroughs to Finalized list of
streamline the requirements.

Risk Requirements are Document which

Analysis studied and brain highlights all the
storming sessions are risks and its
done to identify the mitigation plans.
potential risks

Once the risks are

identified , risk
mitigation strategy is
planned and finalized

Engineering Actual development and Code

testing if the software Test cases and test
takes place in this phase results
Test summary report
and defect report.

Evaluation Customers evaluate the Features

software and provide implemented
their feedback and document
Pictorial representation of SDLC Spiral model
Different colors represent different spiral or iteration. For first iteration,
represented in brown color , all the 4 activities (Planning, risk analysis,
engineering and evaluation) are performed. After the evaluation phase is over for
the first iteration (spiral), second iteration (spiral) starts The second iteration,
which is represented in orange color, here again all the 4 activities (Planning, risk
analysis, engineering and evaluation) are performed. In a similar way, third
iteration is done shown in blue color and so on the process continues.


When to Use Spiral model?

Spiral model is used in the following scenarios:
When the project is large.
Where the software needs continuous risk evaluation.
Requirements are a bit complicated and require continuous clarification.
Software requires significant changes.
Where enough time frame is their to get end user feedback.
Where releases are required to be frequent.
Advantages of using Spiral Model:
Advantages of using Spiral model are as follows:

Development is fast
Larger projects / software are created and handled in a strategic way
Risk evaluation is proper.
Control towards all the phases of development.
More and more features are added in a systematic way.
Software is produced early.
Has room for customer feedback and the changes are implemented faster.
Disadvantages of using Spiral model:
Disadvantages of Spiral model are as follows:

Risk analysis is important phase so requires expert people.

Is not beneficial for smaller projects.
Spiral may go infinitely.
Documentation is more as it has intermediate phases.
It is costly for smaller projects.
Each spiral can be termed as a loop and each loop is a separate development
process in a spiral model. The four activities (Planning, Risk analysis, engineering
and evaluation) form the intermediary phases of a spiral model and is repeated
again for each loop.

This model is very good to use for larger projects where you can develop and
deliver smaller prototypes and can enhance it to make the larger software. The
implementation of this model requires experienced resources as risk analysis is a
very integral part of this model and risk analysis requires expertise and as a result
this model becomes costly.